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THE . P5 








(Successors to WILLIAMS & NORGATE) 


All rights reserved 


When I several years ago commenced to write this 
book, voices were not wanting advising me to abandon 
the idea, chiefly on account of the vast area from which 
the material had to be gathered and the almost total want 
of preparatory inquiry into this particular branch of 
Scottish History. 

When I nevertheless persevered in my task, though 
experiencing to the full the truth of those Cassandra 
voices, it was owing not only to an interest which warmed 
with the increasing difficulties, but to the very kind and 
active help that friends of historical research both in 
Scotland and in Germany have afforded me in supplying 
copies of records or other sources of information, or in 
reading proofs, or in acting as guides through the 
labyrinths of their libraries. It would be too long to 
mention their names ; my thanks are due to them all, in 
particular to the librarians and keepers of records in 
Edinburgh, Glasgow, Aberdeen, St Andrews, Fort 
Augustus, Dundee, and in half a hundred places in 
Sweden, Germany and Austria. 

That notwithstanding this kind co-operation the 
present book is still far from complete, I am only too 
painfully aware. 

There is more than enough of material to be found 
among the Records of Konigsberg and Danzig alone for a 
contemplated second volume, to be devoted to the Scottish 
settlements in Prussia only, of which we have given a 
sketch in the First Part of the present work. Such a 
volume ought to be written. 

Perhaps some Society like the Scottish History Society 
or the Society of Antiquaries would think it worth its while 
to originate and stimulate research in this direction. So 


many old barrows have been ransacked, so many old 
Ogham stones been read, so many old Charter Chests 
been examined at their expense and instigation. Here 
then is a new field; quite as interesting to the Scottish 
historian, a field altogether neglected hitherto, but full 
of the promise of the most interesting and surprising 
results ! 

It must be left to the future with more or less con- 
fidence 10 point out and smooth the way towards the 
happy consummation of a task, towards which the present 
volume only forms a contribution. 

I regret very much that my search for the portraits of 
Alesius and Durie has hitherto proved fruitless. 

To the courtesy of Baron Johnston in Silesia, of the 
" Historische Verein " at Hanau, and of the Rev. King 
Hewison at Rothesay I am indebted for the three portraits 

In conclusion, let me say that I am still collecting the 
likenesses of famous Scots in Germany and that I shall be 
grateful for the direct communication of any criticisms or 
alterations concerning the form or the substance of the 
present, as well as for any suggestion or help towards the 
writing of the contemplated second volume. 


20 South Frederick Street, 
Edinburgh, February 1902. 


Commerce and Trade 




The Army . 



The Church 




Statesman and Scholar 


Appendix to Part I. 

• 237 

Appendix to Part II. 

. 275 

Appendix to Part III. 


Appendix to Part IV. 

- 3°9 

Supplement .... 

• 3i5 

Index .... 

- 3*9 





The commercial intercourse of Scotland with Germany 
dates almost, if not quite, as far back as that with 
Flanders, where already in the commencement of the 
XHIth Century a Scotch Settlement at Bruges was 
known under the name of " Scottendyk." 1 The oldest 
document relative to Scotch-German trade is the famous 
letter of William Wallace, the national Hero and champion 
of his country's liberty, which was discovered in 1829 
by the German Scholar and Antiquarian Dr. Lappenberg 
among the archives of the Free City of Llibeck, the 
renowned chief of the Hanseatic league. It bears the 
date of 1297 and runs as follows : 2 " Andrew Moray and 
William Wallace, leaders of the Scotch army, and the 
commonwealth of the same kingdom send to the prudent 
and discreet men, our good friends, the Senate and the 
commoners of Llibeck and of Hamburg greeting and a 
continuous increase of sincere affection. We have been 
informed by trustworthy merchants of the said kingdom 
of Scotland, that you on your own behalf have been 
friendly and helpful in counsel and deed in all things and 
enterprises concerning us and our merchants, though our 
own merits did not occasion this. We are therefore the 
more beholden to you, and wishing to prove our gratitude 
in a worthy manner we ask you to make it known among 
your merchants that they can now have a safe access with 
their merchandize to all harbours of the Kingdom of 

1 A House called " Scotland " existed at Bruges in 1367; a street 
■"Scotland" since 1291. 

2 See the Latin original in the Appendix. 


Scotland, because the Kingdom of Scotland has, thanks 
be to God, by war been recovered from the power of the 
English. Farewell. Given at Hadsington (Haddington) 
in Scotland on the eleventh day of October in the Year 
of Grace one thousand two hundred and ninety seven." 

" We also pray you to be good enough to further the 
business of John Burnet and John Frere, our merchants, 
just as you might wish that we should further the business 
of your merchants. Farewell. Given as above." 

As will be seen, the letter was written immediately 
after the victorious battle of the Scots near Stirling and 
the advance of the army into Northumberland. 1 

Previous to this date we can scarcely speak of a 
regular trade between the two countries ; and even up 
to a much later date the development of commercial 
intercommunication is slow. This is but natural, when we 
consider that piracy and the almost ceaseless wars between 
England and Scotland, and later between the Hanseatic 
League and the Kingdoms of the North, must be added 
to the already universal want of safety of the traffic on 
land and sea. 

England had during theXIVth and XVth Centuries issued 
repeatedly strict orders against providing the "rebellious 
Scots " with arms, flour or victuals of any kind by way 
of the sea. King Henry IV had even tried to persuade 
the Master 2 of the Teutonic Order at Marienburg 
Konrad von Jungingen, to cease from trading with the 
Scots altogether, but had only received the dignified 
answer, that the Order lived in peace with all Christians 
and could not forbid the King of Scotland to trade 
with its territories. 3 Thereupon the English out of 
revenge burn a ship from Stralsund " because it had 
sided with the enemy," 4 and repeatedly raise complaints 

1 See Hansisches Urkundenbuch, i. 422, and the Wallace Papers. 

2 Called in German " Hochmeister." Originally a religious Institution 
for the Suppression of the heathens in Prussia, the Order was in the early 
Middle Ages engaged in extensive trading operations with England, 
Sweden, Scotland, etc. 

3 Cp. Hanserecesse, v. pp. 64, 65. ^Hans. Urk. Buch, ii. 84. 


on account of the alleged contravening of their trade- 
prohibitions. 1 

As to the piracy of those days, almost all seafaring 
nations were guilty of it The Frisians however and the 
Scots seem to have enjoyed the worst reputation. The 
complaints of the suffering shipowners are very frequent. 
In Scotland as in other countries men of the highest rank 
took part not only in trading beyond the seas, 2 but also 
in the more fascinating enterprise of procuring booty at 
sea by force, an enterprise, which they considered, as 
their forefathers did before them, a legitimate field of 
knightly prowess and adventure. Prominent in this respect 
is the Earl of Mar in the beginning of the XVth Century. 
Once he had with his companion Davidson taken a 
Prussian " Kraier " (small ship) on her voyage to 
Flanders and later on tried to sell the goods at Harfleur, 
where, however, they had been arrested by Hanseatic 
merchants. The Parliament of Paris refused the hand- 
ing over of these goods to the proper owners on account 
of letters of safe-conduct granted to the Scotsman. More- 
over, the Earl of Mar, Alexander Stuart, excuses himself 
in a letter written at Aberdeen and addressed to Danzig, 
saying that not he, but Dutch fishermen had committed 
the deed (14 10). He even threatened a feud and did 
not hesitate in the following year to put his threats into 
execution. Again the inhabitants of Danzig, or Danskin 
as it is invariably written, had to suffer most. One of 
their skippers, named Claus Belleken, who was about to 
carry a load of salt, flour and beer from Rostock to 
Scotland, was attacked by the people of the Pirate-Earl 
on the 6th of June 1412 near Cape Lindesnaes. They 

1 In 13 15, for instance, a merchant of Liibeck called Witte is accused 
of having carried provision to the Scots. See Hans. Urk. Buch, ii. 110. 

2 Even royalty did not disdain trading, and in the Hanserecesse, v. 
21, we read: "Item Adam Balon, eyme Schotten, wart syn schiff 
genommen do hatte ynne eyn ritter, her Johan von Abernethyn ioo 
nobeles und William Fawkonere ioo gulden und 60 nobeles." Anno 
1 391. (Likewise the ship of Adam Balon, a Scot, was taken, in which 
a knight Sir John Abernethy [had a share to the extent ~] of 100 
nobles, William Faulconer 100 guldens and 60 nobels.") 


threatened to throw him overboard, but relented and 
finally permitted him to escape in a boat with three of 
his men. The rest of the crew were taken prisoners 
and carried to Scotland, where they were employed in 
carrying stones for the building of a castle in the interior 
of the country. Two men, Tideman v. d. Osten and 
Hanneke Schole made good their flight and arrived home 
safely by way of Flanders. 1 

On the other hand the captain of a sloop from 
Hamburgh sells the cargo of a plundered ship consisting 
of wax and other goods in Scotland (1309). In the year 
1316 a citizen of Berwick complains, that on a "Tuesday 
before Easter " a ship of his destined for Berwick, with a 
cargo of victuals had been seized by vessels from Liibeck, 
Rostock and Stralsund. He himself had been taken 
prisoner, his men killed ; only by paying the sum of 
50 marks as a ransom had he been able to procure his 
liberty. He now prays the King for power to bring the 
miscreants to justice. 2 

In the month of December 1462 a citizen of Danzig 
called Kilekanne is accused of piracy before the Scotch 
Admiral Sir Alexander Napier. Thereupon the Danzig 
Magistrates address a long Latin letter to Edinburgh and 
send a certain Letzke to assist the accused in his trial. 3 
Examples of this kind could easily be adduced in great 
number for centuries afterwards. In the public accounts 
of the city of Aberdeen in the year 1596 we find an 
accurate statement of the expense of executing four 
pirates who had plundered a ship from Danzig. 4 

If one adds to this a great many taxes and heavy duties 
of export, especially on wool and skins, the bad con- 
struction of ships, etc., all of which tended to cripple and 
delay a satisfactory development of trade : it is not to 
be wondered at, that the best and most liberal intentions 

1 See Theodor Hirsch, Handelsgesch'ichte Danzigs unter der Herrschaft 
des deutschen Ordens. Leipzig, 1858, p. 117 ff. 

2 Calendar of Documents re/, to Scot/and, ed. by Bain, iii. 104. 

3 Hans. Urk. Buch, viii. 672. 

4 See TurrefF, Antiquarian Gleanings from Aberdeen Records, 1859. 


of the Scotch rulers as to the commercial intercourse of 
Scotland with other countries were only partially realised. 
And no doubt some of the best Kings of Scotland had 
the trade and the shipping of their country very near at 
heart. William the Lion (1 165-12 14) granted "liberum 
ansum " to the northern towns of his kingdom and Robert 
Bruce, the great patron of shipping and ship-building, 
towering high above the men of his time by his far- 
reaching intelligence and his practical genius as he ex- 
celled them in martial accomplishments, in a letter to the 
Magistrates of Lubeck, dated April 22nd, 1321, promises 
all merchants of this or any other city of " Alemannia," 
who " wish to visit Scotland on account of trade, favour, 
assistance and protection of the customs and liberties 
granted to them by former Kings of Scotland. 1 

The Earl of March desires the Magistrates of Danzig 
to make efforts for the revival of the trade between 
Prussia and Scotland, which had been interrupted by 
the emprisonment of a certain Caspar Lange. The letter 
is undated but belongs very probably to the end of the 
XIV th Century. 2 

King James II, so well known by his own energy and 
public spirit, takes the merchants of Bremen with their 
servants and ships under his protection and asks his 
friends and allies to treat them well. 3 (Feb. 14, 1453). 
This letter secured for Bremen a direct trade with 
Scotland and was particularly useful because France was 
one of the allies spoken of in the recommendation. 

Queen Mary commanded several Scottish men-of-war 
to put an end to the nuisance of piracy in Scottish 
waters and to look after the safety of the vessels from 
Danzig, Emden and Hamburg as well as those from 
France and Sweden (1550). 

But these good intentions and efforts of single in- 

1 See the original in the Appendix. Cp. Lubecker Urk. Buch, iii. 68. 

2 This was very likely not the well known warrior Patrick, Earl of 
March, in the commencement of the XlVth Cent. ; but probably a later 
Earl of the same name. See Hirsch, I.e., note i. and Appendix. 

3 See Hans. Urk. Buch, viii. 167, and Appendix. 


dividuals were not able to cope with the general in- 
security of the law and trade of which we have spoken. 

After these premises we shall now examine what 
German and Scottish documents tell us concerning the 
commercial intercourse of both countries. Of the greatest 
importance in Germany are the Baltic cities, above all 
Danzig, then Konigsberg, Stralsund, Elbing, Liibeck and 
Greifswald; 1 but Hamburg, Bremen, Rostock and Wismar 
are also mentioned. In Scotland, Aberdeen and Leith 
take the first place, followed by Perth, Dundee, St, 
Andrews and — up to 1333 — Berwick-on-Tweed. 

Beginning with the XlVth Century we have a short, 
French letter of the year 1302, announcing the arrest- 
ment of a certain Gregoire de Gorton (Gordon), a 
merchant : " en une nief de Lubyk Dalemeygne, frette 
d'aler (aller) vers Aberdeen en Escoce." 2 A little later 
a ship of Liibeck brings iron for the King's castles to 
Scotland. 3 A ship from Stralsund to Scotland is burned 
at Berwick by the English Admiral John Butetort in the 
reign of Edward I. The money contained in it is taken 
as a lawful prize, because the crew had joined the Scotch 
enemies. King Edward II writes with regard to these 
facts more than five years later (March 13th, 13 12) to 
the Magistrates of Stralsund, demanding the release of 
English goods which had been arrested to the amount 
of 1 100 marks. 4 In the year 13 16 we read of the 
capture of a ship from Berwick by the Lubeckers ; 5 
1319 the goods belonging to merchants of Stralsund and 
Liibeck are restored by the King's command after having 
been seized unlawfully. The cities of " Hildernesse " 
(Inverness), Edinburgh, St Andries (Andrews) and Cupar, 

1 Konigsberg is often called Keenesburgh or Queenisburgh, and has for 
this reason been confused with Quedlinburg, which is an inland town 
at the foot of the Harz mountains. Stralsund becomes Trailsound, 
Trallesund, etc., in Scotch documents, Greifswald Grippiswold, Liibeck 
Lupky, etc. 

2 Documents resp. Scotland, printed for the Maitland Club, 1842, p. 82. 

3 Calendar of Documents relating to Scotland, Bain, vol. ii. 

4 Hans. Urk. Buch, ii. 84. 

5 Calendar of Documents relating to Scotland, Bain, vol. iii. 


after much bickering and reproachful correspondence 
declare themselves ready for a compromise with the 
German merchants (1348) at Bruges. 1 In the year 1382 
a vessel from Rostock to Scotland is mentioned and the 
skippers Snidewindt, Marquart Vrese and others of 
Liibeck are freighting a ship with "mail armour, ropes, 
anchors and victuals " to the same country. 2 Frequent 
mention is made in this and the next century of Danzig, 
which was then rapidly growing in prosperity, and of 
Konigsberg, the chief trading centre of the Teutonic 
Order. A ship from Danzig to Scotland is seized by 
the French (1382); and the " Groszsch'affer " of the 
Teutonic Knights, who occupied much the same position 
in the commercial branch of the Order as the Hochmeister 
did in its military and religious enterprises, towards the 
end of the century employed Factors or " Lieger " at 
Glasgow (Lettecowe) and Edinburgh, whose business it 
was to sell the goods forwarded to them for their 
employers. The only other Liegers employed by the 
Order were those of Flanders. The factor's name at 
Edinburgh was Hermann Gral, where he is mentioned 
till 1406. 3 

About the same time we are told in the accounts of 
the Exchequer of Scotland anent certain expenditures at 
Perth, that he paid the sum of 194 pounds 6 shillings 
and 8 pence to Prussian merchants for : " miremio 
(timber) emto, pro machinis construendis et pro instru- 
ments pro castris" (1 382-3).* How much we should 
like now to hear more about these war-engines and 
instruments for the king's castles, even at the expense 
of a diffuse accuracy ! Equally interesting is the notice 
in the same Exchequer Rolls that Prussian sailors " in 

1 Hans. Urk. Buch, iii. 62, 64, where also the names of the two 
accredited messengers are given, viz. Adam Thor from Edinburgh, and 
William Feth from Dundee. 

2 Ibid. iv. 

3 Handelsrechnungen des deutschen Or dens, von C. Sattler. The name 
of the Factor of Danzig was Nicolaus Rodau ; he died at Edinburgh in 

4 Exchequer Rolls, iii. 659. 


their ignorance " carried away skins from Leith without 
paying the necessary duty. 1 

In the year 1386 Telchten, a skipper from Danzig, is 
attacked by French pirates on his voyage to Scotland, 
whilst another citizen of the same town obtains letters of 
safe-conduct to Glasgow, where he goes on account of 
some property left by his father. 2 

The next centuries offer us more abundant information. 
The towns of Danzig and Aberdeen still maintain their 
prominent position. In 1402 one Gercke Veusan sends 
a cargo of flour from Konigsberg to Scotland, but his 
ship was lost, being taken by the English. 3 The same 
account-books of the Teutonic Order also tell us that 
two years later several ships containing wheat, flour, 
rye, malt and wainscot to the value of 2800 marks 
were sent to Edinburgh. 4 Aberdeen in a letter dated 
Dec. 1, 14 10, reminds the magistrates of Danzig of 
the old friendship existing between Prussia and Scotland 
and puts her seal, as being sufficiently well known at 
Danzig, to a letter of neighbouring noblemen, whilst the 
magistrates of the latter place point to the privileges of 
their citizens at Edinburgh "juxta ritum ab evo" 6 (1452). 

In the Rotuli Scotiae a letter of safe-conduct is printed 
in 1406 for two skippers and the servants of the Bishop 
of St Andrews, who were to fetch wood from Prussia 
(Spruce) for the building of their church ; a similar letter 
is granted at about the same time to one "John de 
Camford of Danskin " for ship and passengers. It is in 
this century that we hear first of Scotch merchants settled 

1 Exchequer Rolls, iii. 1 68. 2 Hans. Urk. Bucb, v. 

3 Cp. Sattler, Handelsrechnungen, p. 269. "Item Gercke Veusan, 
wiser dyner, verlos uns 100 nobilen an mel, das namen im die Engelschen 
in der see als er gegen Schottland segilte " = Likewise G. V. our servant 
lost us 100 nobels in flour, which the English took from him on the 
sea, when he sailed towards Scotland. 

* Sattler, p. 20. 

5 See Hirsch, I.e., p. 118, notes 5 and 6. According to the Annals 
of Aberdeen (18 1 8), the citizens there had to pay 5 marks for the 
right of trading with Danzig. 


at Danzig. The trade between this port and Scotland 
assumes considerable proportions. The cargo of the 
vessels is either addressed to German Factors in Scotland 
or accompanied by a special Factor. Here also the 
nobility of the country take part in trading operations. 
The names of John and George von Baysen are mentioned 
as such, and above all the Family of the "von dem 
Walde " or "van dem Wolde." A certain Henry of this 
ilk, so Hirsch tells us, together with two other merchants 
of Danzig, sends a ship loaded with a variety of goods 
to Scotland, commissioning his relative Reinhold to sell 
them ; but his trouble is great, when this factor commits 
suicide at Edinburgh. Hans von dem Walde employs 
two other factors called Zegebad and Resen, in this city. 1 
We also read of a certain Nicolaus or Claus Jerre 
(i 421-1444), who took part in extensive commercial 
enterprises and had dealings with King James I of 
Scotland and his favourite Lord William Crichton at 
Edinburgh. At one time he furnishes the King with 
a splendid beaver-hat, ornamented with pearls to the 
value of seven Pounds, and the Queen with an inlaid table 
valued at five Pounds. 2 But he received no payment. 
The King was murdered in 1437, and, his son and 
successor James II (1437-1460) refusing to pay his 
father's debts, the Diet of Hansetowns at Danzig takes 
the matter in hand and threatens to arrest all Scotch goods 
in Prussia 3 (1443). 

In the year 1428 a Prussian merchant delivers iron 
"ad usum regis" to Edinburgh; 4 l 43& Beer from 
Hamburg is sent to Lord Crichton for the coronation- 
festivities ; 1435 a payment occurs for wood and beams 
for the castle of Stirling ; 1 444 a ship of Aberdeen 

1 Cp. Letter of Danzig to Edinburgh (21st and 24th April 1444). 
Danz. Miss. iii. 77. Hennig van ye Walde occurs in the list of six 
Prussian merchants to whom certain payments were made (1430). 
Exchequer Rolls of Scot. iv. 5 1 4. 

2 See Hirsch, I.e., p. 119 fF. 

3 Ibid., note 17. Letter of Danzig to the King of Scotland, 8th 
of July 1 444. Hanserecesse, neue Folge, iii. 72. 

4 Exchequer Rolls of Scot. iv. 437. 


brings rye from Stralsund. During the years 1449- 1456 
other payments for wood, beer and timber for Edinburgh 
Castle are made. The demand for German beer, especially 
that of Wismar, Rostock and Danzig, is on the increase, 
though chiefly used by the rich. It was called 
"cerevisia Almannias " or "beer" to distinguish it from 
the homebrewed article "ale." 

Now and afterwards a long time is often taken up 
to settle between the merchants of the different towns 
those quarrels that had their rise in piracy. Take for 
instance the case of James Lauder (Jacobus de Lawdre), 
who writes to the Hochmeister von Erlichhausen in the 
month of August 1452 on account of the arrestment 
of Scotch goods. The greater part of them had been 
released, but a certain Schonau of Danzig still held 
his part. In the autumn of the same year he writes 
again complaining that hitherto his efforts to obtain his 
property from Schonau had been fruitless. He had no 
other way but to apply to Erlichhausen because his 
predecessor in office, the late Hochmeister, had ordered the 
arrestment. Finally on March 27th, 1453, tne following 
judgment is given: "The public notary Armeknecht 
testifies, that the members of the council, assembled by 
the Hochmeister to settle the quarrel between the 
Scotch merchant Lauder, from Edinburgh, representative 
of the Scotch merchants Robert Ross, John Tuke, Patrick 
Ramsan (!) and others on the one side and Schonau, a citizen 
of Danzig on the other, concerning certain merchandise, 
have decided that the documents of the parties are 
unreliable and have to be sent to a higher court." In 
the meantime Schonau was to pay Lauder 140 merks, 
"that is 20 Merks down and 20 Merks every following 
Whitsunside till the amount be reached." The report 
adds : " Presentibus ibidem honorabilibus viris Willielmus 
Kant de Dondy (Dundee) et Thomas Wilhelmsson 
(Williamson) mercatoribus de prefato regno Scotie. 1 )" 
About this time mention is made for the first time of the 
city of Thorn as trading with Scotland. A ship loaded 

1 Cp. Hans. Urk. Buch, viii. 173. 


J 3 

there with goods of various description to the value of 
500 merks and destined for certain Scotch ports, is 
plundered at Newcastle by the English. 1 In Leith we find 
the name of Jan Law, a skipper, who sailed to and from 
the " Eastlands," and in Edinburgh those of the merchants 
William Halyburton of Haddington and John Collen ; 2 
whilst the skippers Herman Bar and John Pape seem to 
have sailed with fair regularity from Danzig to Scotland. 
These voyages were however not always successful. 
Twice, in 1463 and 1490, 3 their cargo, consisting of wool 
and rabbit-skins, is taken. Sometimes losses like these are 
voluntarily made good : Aberdeen, for instance, in a letter 
to Danzig (1487) declares her willingness to repair any 
losses caused and proved to be caused by the Scots, 4 
and Edinburgh pays sixty-six pounds to the merchants 
of Danzig for damage done to their ships. 5 (1459). Not 
long after this we read of a vessel from Rostock, which on 
her way to Scotland is driven by adverse winds to Bergen. 
In the year 1462 Danzig sends, as we have seen, a long 
letter to the Scotch Admiral " Napare " (Napier) in 
support of her citizen Kilekanne, who had been accused 
of piracy. 6 Another citizen named Lentzke will attend 
the trial on behalf of the accused. 

Thus again we perceive the paralysing effect and the 
grave consequences of piracy throughout this century. 
Indeed so frequent were the complaints of the merchants 
particularly against the Scots 7 that the Hanse Towns were 
at last driven to extreme measures. 

The dreaded Earl of Mar did, as we have seen, threaten 
war, when taken to account for his many outrages upon 
German vessels. The Diet of the Hanse Towns at 
Luneburg therefore proposed to interdict all commerce 
of the Baltic cities with Scotland (14 12). The cities 

1 Hans. Urk. Buch, viii. 60. 2 Lub. Urk. Buck, ix. 197. 

3 Extracts from the Burgh Records of Aberdeen, p. 235. 

4 Ibid. p. 235. 

5 Hans. Urk. Buch, viii. 512. 6 Ibid. viii. 672. 

7 Complaints against the English were raised in 1482 and afterwards, 
but they had the pretext of being at war with Scotland. 


of Danzig and Stralsund, however, refuse to support a 
measure of so sweeping a character. Finally, it was 
agreed to prohibit for a time the importation of Scotch 
wool and woollen cloths. But even this prohibition failed 
to have the desired effect. It was the German staple at 
Brugge (Bruges), where the cloths of Scotch wool were 
manufactured, that suffered most severely under it. After 
continued exhortations not to remain satisfied with half- 
hearted measures such as these, and after renewed acts 
of piracy on the part of the Scots, Danzig at last consents, 
and on the 31st of August 1415 at the Hanseatic Diet 
at Elbing the resolution is passed to interdict all trade 
with Scotland especially in woollens in the Prussian 
cities also. Then the Scots gave in. Already in the 
following year a truce was entered upon between Flanders 
and the Regent (King James being a prisoner in England), 
during which further deliberations were to take place. 
But the Scotch ambassadors never arrived. The Hanse 
Diets of 1418 and 142 1 renewed the prohibition ; again 
Flanders acts as mediator, and finally a treaty with Scotland 
is concluded according to which Flanders undertakes to 
compensate the Hanse merchants. Tacitly the law was 
allowed to become a dead letter and trade was formally 
restored in 1436. 1 During this period protests from 
Scotland had not been wanting. Thus Robert, the 
Regent, in the early twenties writes from Falkirk to 
the Hochmeister of the Teutonic Order complaining 
bitterly of the restrictions on Scotch exportation of wool, 
and expressing astonishment that the merchants of the 
Order should be prohibited from sailing to Scotland. At 
the same time the Scots and English settled in Prussia 
likewise complained of oppression. It appears that the 
Prussian cities had not accepted the terms of the treaty 
of 1437 which promised to the Scots and English the 
same privileges as those enjoyed by the Hanse merchants 
or Easterlings in England ; on the contrary, Scotch and 
English merchants at Stralsund and Danzig were treated 
worse than other nations. "No Scotsman nor any other 

1 Cp. Hanserecesse, new issue, i. n. 542. 


man outside the Hansa shall keep an open shop " says 
an old law of Stralsund (1442), 1 whilst at Danzig they 
were refused a separate house and the liberty of trading 
and bartering among one another. Burdensome taxes were 
imposed on them. 2 On account of these and similar 
" great wickedness " of the Magistrates they address 
long letters of complaint to the King of Scotland (e.g. 
in the year 1423), but matters do not seem to have 
improved much. 

It was with an ill-concealed jealousy that the Baltic 
cities observed the merchant-vessels of the West spread 
their sails on Baltic waters. They were sure to put 
obstacles in the way of trade and did not even shrink 
from open acts of violence. 3 Fair commercial rivalry was 
unknown, undesired and a thing to be suppressed with 
the utmost rigour of the law. Envy and jealousy filled 
the citizen at the success of the immigrant stranger. 
This commercial polity, which found an early expression 
with regard to the pedlar's trade in Scotch cloth in the 
following prohibition of Danzig : " henceforward shall 
no Scotchman nor Englishman trade in country-districts, 
be he who he may be" 4 — ruled all trade for centuries 
afterwards and was sanctioned in a more or less narrow 
manner by all trading nations. Only now and then, when 
the spirit of oppression became too palpably mischievous, 
a warning voice was raised. 

An instance of this occurs at the Hanse Diet of 
Liibeck on the 28th of May 1498, when the Burgo- 
master of Danzig replied to his colleague of Hamburg, 
who had recommended the refusal of citizenship to 
strangers, more especially to the Scotch and English, 
in the following terms : " Dear Sirs, if we were to 
expel all our citizens that are not born within the 
hanse, our city would well nigh become a desert," 5 

1 Hans. Rec, new issue, ii. 51 4. 

2 Hans. Rec, new issue, iii. 72. 3 Hans. Rec, 2nd div. xi. 

4 Hans. Urk. Buch, iv. 137. Or, " vortmer zo schal nen (no) 
Schotte edder (or) Engelsman varen zu de lant he zy (be) we he zy." 

5 Hans. Rec, 3rd div. iv. 134. 


indicating not only a more liberal frame of mind but 
also the great number of Scots that must have been 
settled at Danzig about this time. Similarly the Scots, 
compelled by the famine of their country, issue a decree 
according to which all strangers bringing victuals to 
their shore should have free access and be certain of a 
friendly reception. 1 But these were exceptions, passing 
moods so to speak, which in no way affected the general 
tendency of the times. 

Next to the dangers on sea, bad debts proved a very 
grave obstacle in the way of trade-development. It was 
bad debts among other reasons that caused the trade of 
the Teutonic Order with Scotland to languish. Following 
the example of their King many Scots in the beginning of 
the XlVth Century do not seem to have troubled themselves 
much about the payment of their debts. In 1417 we find 
in the account-books of the Order a long list of " bad 
debts," 2 that is those that could not be recovered. The 
city of Glasgow and the ' Customers of Edinburgh ' 
are high up in the list with fifteen pounds and twenty 
pounds respectively ; and there are other high-sounding 
names like that of the Earl of Agues (Angus), Lord 
Dalkeith, Archibald Stuart, Sir John Seaton, and the 
Earl Duclos (Douglas), 3 the latter owing the large sum 
of 2 1 6 pounds. 

Now and then we find in the documents amidst dry 
or seemingly dry details, traces of unintentional humour ; 
for example, when in the year 1489 Heinrich Polseyne, 
a merchant of Stralsund, sends the request to the 
Magistrates of Aberdeen to inquire into the state and the 
habits of the so-called St Cuthbert's geese of the Orkney 
Islands. 4 The matter is entered into with laudable and 
most obliging thoroughness. Witnesses are called and 
they relate the most wonderful stories. The birds, it 
appears, build their nests under the altar of the church 
in the island of Fame, walk forth when mass is being 

1 Sc. Acts of Parliament, ii. 36, 41, 119, 144. 

2 See Sattler, I.e., and Appendix. 3 Sattler, I.e., p. 75 f. 
4 Spalding Club Publications, vol. iv., Miscellanies. 


read and pluck the officiating priest by his gown. They 
seek their food in the sea and are quite unfit for 
cooking or roasting. A stone-weight of feathers is valued 
at a gold "rosenoble." Among the witnesses are Hans 
Skele (Scheele) and Heinrich Worbosse, citizens of 
Greifswald and probably seafaring men. 

Very likely Polseyne was a man of a far-reaching 
mind. He wanted to make the geese better known in 
Aberdeen, or, in modern phraseology, to create a market 
for the feathers. The odour of sanctity once being 
established, a thriving trade was sure to follow. Or 
did Polseyne wish to palm off the feathers of his 
native Pommeranian geese for those of the famous 
Eiderduck ? 

But we must pass on to the sketch of the Scottish- 
German trade during the XVIth Century, premising, as 
we did before, a few general remarks relative to the 
political aspects of the time. 

For James IV, King of Scotland, the war of the 
Hanseatic League against Denmark was fraught with 
dangers and difficulties. He was applied to and urged 
on from two sides, by his uncle, the Danish King, who 
repeatedly and most pressingly demanded men and ships, 
advising him at the same time to imprison all Hanseatic 
traders in Scotland, especially those of Lubeck; and by 
the German Emperor Maximilian, who had written to 
him and to the King of France in favour of his cities, 
requesting that no help should be given to Denmark. 
Under these harassing circumstances James did what 
a wise man would have done : he contented himself with 
the resources of diplomacy. In 1508 he sent an 
ambassador to the Cities of Lubeck, Hamburg and 
Danzig advising them not to support the Swedes against 
his uncle. Danzig replied that her relations with both 
Kingdoms were of a friendly nature ; if the King wanted to 
assist the Danes, he might leave the ships of Danzig un- 
molested and above all try to abolish those commercial re- 
strictions that were still in use at Edinburgh. 1 In another 

1 Epist. Regum. Scot. i. 1 1 2 f. 


letter addressed to the Emperor, James complains of the 
boldness of the Liibeckers and of the unjustified attacks 
and cruelties his merchants had to suffer from them on 
the high seas. Fond of moralising, as he always is, he 
adds, that the blood of Christians should much rather be 
spilt in fighting against the common enemies of Christ. 1 
Again in 15 12 he exhorts the cities to keep the peace, 2 
or rather to conclude it ; which was done in the same 
year at Malmo. 

Important for the development of Scottish trade during 
this period was the order of Margaret of Parma, prohibit- 
ing under the pretext of danger from the plague the 
importation of wool *rom Scotland into Flanders (1564). 
The staple for cloth was consequently transferred from 
Bruges to Emden, a small but rising port in Friesland. 

Equally important was the foundation of the " Fellow- 
ship of Eastland Merchants " by Queen Elizabeth, who 
were to control and manage the whole trade with the 
Baltic cities by means of factors or "liegers," and to 
compete with the still powerful association of the 
Hanseatic League. In almost all cities on the coast of 
Prussia settlements of English and Scottish merchants 
were now established. 3 Trade with England and Scot- 
land flourished, all the more since the direct communica- 
tion between one port and the other without the inter- 
mediate stage of a " staple," became more and more usual. 

On the other hand great obstructions to trade were still 
experienced in the insecurity of the water-ways, most of 
all, however, in the terrible scourge of the Middle Ages, 
the Plague. In the very year 1500 we find a ship of 
Danzig, suspected of the plague at Aberdeen. The 
cargo is burned ; the sailors are for fifteen days confined 
in certain houses. 4 Edinburgh also adopts strict measures 

1 Ep. Reg. Scot. i. 66. 2 Hanserecesse, 3rd ser. iv. 476. 

3 There is an English-Scotch Trading Company in Elbing since 1578 ; 
a brotherhood of Scotch traders is founded at Greifswald in 1590 by 
citizens of that town, who were of Scotch origin. A street called 
Schottenstrasse in Elbing ; two suburbs in Danzig named Alt- and Neu- 
Schottland bear witness of these old settlements. 

4 Extracts from Burgh Records of Aberdeen, p. 428. 


with regard to ships coming from the plague-stricken 
Danzig (1564). Their crews are being isolated on a 
small island in the Firth of Forth, ship and cargo are 
disinfected. 1 The landing of either crew or goods is for- 
bidden on pain of death in 1 569.2 Two brothers, Robert 
and Nicolaus Liclos, Scotsmen, died of the plague at 
Danzig in 1564 and two of their friends are commissioned 
from Edinburgh to look after their property. In 1566, 
Queen Mary writes to the magistrates of the same city in 
favour of a certain David Melville who goes to Danzig 
on a similar errand. 3 This danger from the plague is 
threatening till far into the XVIIth and XVIIIth Century. 
As late as 1653 a vess el from Konigsberg is stopped at 
Dundee as suspected. 4 

Complaints concerning piracy are still frequent and 
somewhat monotonous. They are, however, important 
as affording an idea of the extent of the trade between 
Germany and Scotland. In the year 151 2, a Scotsman 
accuses natives of Liibeck before the King of Denmark 
for having seized his ship and its freight of timber on the 
voyage to Scotland; Liibeck, on the other hand, complains 
of the capture of two of her ships 5 and demands — " mind- 
ful of the old friendship between the two peoples" — restitu- 
tion. She also asks that her vessels be not molested on the 
voyage to Bergen, the great emporium of the northern 
trade in those days ; she even uses threats and announces 
her fleet ready to protect her trade in the northern regions 
against all comers, French or Scotch alike. 6 A similar 
case happened in the year 1591, when the good ship 
" Noah's Ark " of Danzig was shipwrecked on the coast 
of Unst in the stormy month of October. The owners 
sent one Conrad von Bobbert to lay their claims before 
the Scotch authorities. 7 Better and more effective was 

1 Reg. of Privy Council of Sc. i. 280, ii. 279, vi. 289, 44 1. 

2 Edinburgh Burgh Records, iii. 182 ff., 263. 

3 Reg. of Privy Council of Sc. xiv. 219, 254. 

4 Maxwell, History of Dundee, p. 509. 

5 Hanse Rec. 3rd ser. vi. 436 ff. 6 Ibid. vi. 624. 
7 Original in the Gen. Reg. House, Edinburgh. 


the resolution of Lubeck and Rostock henceforward 
to arm their boats to Bergen and only to sail in 

Whilst a tolerable security of trade was thus being 
enforced in these regions by the energetic action of the 
Hanse Cities, the trouble broke out in another quarter. 
The Scots complain of the Eastland captains for disturb- 
ing the fishing off the Orkney and Shetland islands, 
and the Hanse merchants of cruelty and atrocities 
committed against their skippers on the part of the 
natives. Many letters are exchanged on this subject. 
King James V writes to Bremen in 1540 1 and the 
Magistrates of Bremen address a long Latin letter, 
written in strong terms, to Queen Mary, in which the 
pirates are called "Harpyas." 2 A certain Earl of 
Orkney seems to have taken a prominent part in these 
acts of piracy. 

Nor are the "deditissimi consules et senatus Imperialis 
civitatis Lubece " behindhand. A letter of theirs to the 
Regent of Scotland (1557) tells the woeful tale of a ship 
taken by French " classionarii " (pirates) and brought into 
the port of "Monrosse" (Montrose). The writers urge 
the release of the vessel (Oct. 8) since there was no war 
between Her Majesty and the Hanse Towns. Another 
letter, dated Oct. 23rd, follows, praying for expedition of 
the matter as well as for compensation. 3 At last, in the 
year 1559 the aggrieved merchants of the said cities and the 
owners of the plundered vessel, the " Saint Martin," resolve 
to send Joachim Halspag as their delegate to Scotland 
with full powers to demand final satisfaction. 4 

In August 1564 Danzig writes to Edinburgh in favour 
of a certain H. Biers, who had travelled to Scotland on a 

1 Epist. Regum Scot., ii. 81. 

2 Privy Council Rec. xiv. 270 ff. It seems as if the Scots had often 
to suffer for the transgressions of the English. The Germans were 
inclined to consider them one nation as they spoke one language. English 
pirates attack ships of Bremen and Hamburg off the Shetlands, see Rec. 
of Privy C. of Sc. ii. 653. 

3 Cal. of State Papers rel. to Scotland, Bain, p. 202 ff. 

4 Original in the Gen. Reg. House, Edinburgh. 


like errand. He succeeds in obtaining a decree for com- 
pensation, the goods having been taken unjustly. 1 

Nor are other causes for complaints wanting. Thus 
Queen Mary's Regent in 1545 writes to the Magistrates of 
Liibeck anent the conduct of a certain Bockard Cloch, 
who, whilst a law-suit was pending, had absconded with his 
ship causing great loss to the city of Edinburgh, but more 
especially to a citizen of Malmo, who claimed the fourth 
part of the cargo. 2 Worse still is the case of John 
Knape, a skipper from Wismar in Mecklenburg, on 
whose account the Duke Ulrich writes a long Latin letter 
to Edinburgh in 1566. It appears that this Knape had 
sailed to Scotland three years ago in a vessel belonging 
to two merchants of Wismar. Since then no news had 
been received from him. His wife and family were living 
in poverty in his native place. 3 In the meantime it 
transpired that he had sold the cargo on his own account 
and had taken service under the Queen of a foreign 
country. In February of the same year the Magistrates 
of Wismar likewise addressed the Queen praying that 
their agent might be permitted to bring ship and cargo to 
Danzig, or to load coal in case of its being empty. 4 

There is quite a modern flavour in the account of some 
sailors from Hamburg who are tried and fined at 
Aberdeen in 1549 for fighting and assault. 5 

Of greater importance is the prolongation of a treaty 
between Countess Anna of Oldenburg and Delmenhorst 
and the Scottish Crown, which had been concluded 
one hundred years previous in 1447. 

As to the regular shipping trade during this century 
the names of the same cities occur again that we met 
with in the preceding century. But Liibeck and Hamburg 
have lost somewhat of their proud position compared 

1 Gal. of State Documents, i. 2 Epist. Reg. Sc. ii. 254. 

3 Legitissima sua, hohestissima et pudicissima conjux et liberi aliquot." 
Reg. of Privy C. of Sc. xiv. 242 ff. 

4 One of the earliest instances of the export of coal (" carbo lapideus ") 
from Scotland. 

5 Extracts from the Rec. of Aberdeen, p. 300. 


with the growing importance of the Baltic cities of Prussia 
and Poland. 

In 1508 we find the importation of salt from Stralsund 
(Trailsound) recorded; x in 15 10 that of masts for King's 
ships from Danzig. Macpherson in his Annals of 
Commerce talks of " many Scotch ships in the East- 
Seas." In 1522-Z3 several vessels from Konigsberg and 
Danzig to Dundee are mentioned, one from Greifswald 
(Grippiswold) in 15 13. During the years 1539- 1542 a 
great danger threatened the commercial relations between 
Scotland and Pommerania. Two skippers, Hans Knake 
and Hans Steffen from Anclam, which in the documents 
is called Tanglunen, complain that the cargo of their ship 
after having been brought into the port of Aberdeen by 
French pirates had been arrested there. The King of 
Scotland refers the matter to his highest court of justice 
and the plaintiffs appear in person. But although they 
return home after due decision, " multo locupletiores," as 
the report has it, yet they are not satisfied, but succeed by 
turning and twisting of their case to persuade the magis- 
trates and the Duke of Pommerania that they have suffered 
grievous wrong. Letters are consequently issued by these 
authorities commanding the arrestments of the goods of 
the Scottish merchants in Stralsund. It needed the 
dignified, clear and convincing epistles of King James V, 
who encloses a copy of the court's sentence to the Duke 
to set matters right. 2 

About the same time the King writes to the Magistrates 
of Hamburg recommending his messenger Murray, who 
was to buy horses trained for tournaments (1538). 3 

In 1524 a citizen of Edinburgh, Edward Crawford, 
who is about to travel to Danzig for the purpose of 
buying grain, obtains a letter of safe-conduct from the 
Scottish Regent, 4 whilst Lord Douglas, on the 16th of 

1 Edinb. Burgh Rec. i. 1 1 5. 

2 Letters to Duke Bogislaus (March 6th, 1539) ; to Duke Philipp 
and the Magistrates of Anclam (May 24th, 1542) and to Duke George 
and Stettin (1542). See Epis. Reg. Scot. ii. 322 ff. 

3 Epist. Reg. Scot. ii. 37 4 Ep'tst. Reg. Scot. ii. 


March 1542, writes to the English Admiral Lisle asking 
him to extend his protection to a certain William Fehn, 
the master of a ship of 40 tons, about to sail for Danzig, 
thence to return with victuals so that he "might remain 
unmolested by English ships." 1 In a deed of purchase 
dated May 5, 1533, mention is made of the trade between 
Edinburgh and Danzig. A ship from the latter port lies 
in the harbour of Leith in 1544. It is the same which is 
afterwards wrongfully taken by Patrick Bothwell, who has 
to compensate the Danzig owner and his factor Fanholf 
in Edinburgh by making over to them certain properties 
in land. 2 

About this time there seems also to have been some 
commerce between Glasgow and Danzig or Poland. 
It was chiefly in the hands of the rich house of Archibald 
Lyon. After his death, his son-in-law George Morison 
became the head of the firm. He and his ship perished 
on a voyage to Danzig. 3 

In 1546 a vessel from Dundee sails to the same city ; 4 
three years later a ship from Hamburg brings soap to 
Edinburgh. 5 Beer is imported from Stralsund and wood 
for the repair of a church from Rostock to Dundee, the 
beams to be sixteen yards in length. 6 

It is in this century that we find the first indications of 
a gradually increasing emigration from Scotland to the 
Baltic cities and to Poland. 7 The captain of a ship from 
Edinburgh named Dawson receives permission to carry 
five merchants to Danskin, and James Foular six, hailing 
from Peebles, Glasgow, Edinburgh and Dumfries 8 (1555)- 
In 1589 two citizens of Edinburgh become security for 
six "Polish Cramers," that is Scotsmen who were going 

1 Fraser, Douglas Book iv. 148. 

2 Reg. Magni Sig. Sc, sub dato 1533 and 1549. 

3 See Macure, Hist, of Glasgow, p. 103, 115. 

4 Extracts from Burgh Rec. of Aberdeen, p. 300. 

5 Edinb. Burgh Rec. ii. 145. Only in the XVIIth Century attempts 
were made to manufacture soap in Scotland. 

6 Maxwell, History of Dundee, p. 140. 
"' Edinb. Burgh Records, ii. 217 f. 

8 Ibid. iv. 543. 


to Poland as pedlars. 1 Their names are : John Knox, 
James Hunter, Macmillan, Carwood, Gilchrist and Muir. 
They sail for Konigsberg. 

James Gowan and Robert Jack, Scotch merchants, 
dwelt in Trailsound (Stralsund) ; the brothers Ancroft 
in Greifswald (Grippiswold). 

The chief share in the trade with the East-lands is 
still claimed by Aberdeen. Gilbert Menzies, a native of 
this town, imports grain from Danzig in 1563, and in the 
following year several ships are freighted with victuals 
from the Baltic port to the same place. 2 One of the 
ships is called the "Andrew"; another one boasts of the 
curious name of "Ly-by-the-fire " 8 (1556). Indeed the 
commerce between the two cities had by this time 
become so profitable, that a special duty was imposed 
on all goods imported from Danzig to Aberdeen, a duty 
which was large enough to pay for the expense of the 
great light in the gable of the church of St Ninians on 
the Castle Hill. 4 

Of the last quarter of the century and the first thirty 
years of the next we are particularly well informed 
through the invaluable entries of Wedderburne of the 
" Compt Buik " fame. 5 The list of ships sailing from 
Dundee extends from the year 1580 to 1618. We 
reproduce the latter in tabular form as far as it refers to 
Baltic Ports, omitting only those vessels, the destination 
of which — though apparently German — could not with 
certainty be deciphered. 6 It must also be borne in mind 
that the entries from 1584- 158 8 as well as those from 
1589-1612 are wanting. 

1 The beginnings of this emigration date back to the commencement of 
the XVth Century. 

2 Reg. of Privy Council of Sc. xiv. 191, 198. 

3 Extracts from the Burgh Rec. of Aberdeen, ii. 

4 W. Watt, History of Aberdeen, p. 312 f. 

5 The Compt Buik of David Wedderburne, ed. by Millar, 1898. See 
also The Ledger of Andr. Haly burton in the Rec. Public, 1867. 

6 For instance : Troseck, Ludholm, Wairdberye. 




Name of Ship 


Cargo taken home 



Overdansk (?) 
















Iron, Pitch, Tar 


Little Pink 

Lupke (Lubeck) 



Grace of God 


Wood, Boards 




Iron, Hemp, Wood 




2000 Boards 




Wood, Spars 


Mary Gallant 





Iron, Hemp, Copper kettles 








Iron, Hemp, Soap, etc. 


Grace of God 





Salt, Boards 













Hemp, Lint, etc. 




Pitch, Tar, Iron, Lint 











Beer, etc. 




Soap, Wood 








Wood, Iron 




Iron, Lint, Ropes, etc. 


Gift of God 





Hemp, Iron, Wood, 
Lint, etc. 




"Danzig Ware" 




Rye, Wax, Rigging 


Mary Jahne 


Lint, Wax 






Good Fortune 


Wood, Iron nails, etc. 




Wood, Wax, Pitch 




Grain, Boards 


Grace of God 





Iron, Pitch, Glass, Lint, 
Flour, etc. 




Pitch, Tar 


Gift of God 


Iron, Lint, Lead 




Name of Ship 


Cargo taken home 



Poill (Poland) 1 

Iron, Pitch 




Powder, Window glass, etc. 


Good Fortune 













Hope of Grace 


Lint, Pitch 




We have therefore in the years 1 581-1584 eighteen 
ships of Dundee, fifteen of which sail to Danzig, one to 
Konigsberg, two to Liibeck. In 1588 four ships sail to 
Danzig, two to Stralsund, and during the period 161 2- 
16 1 8 twelve to Danzig, six to Konigsberg, three to 
Stralsund, one to Greifswald and one to Liibeck. 
Altogether Dundee kept a fleet of about twenty to 
thirty ships 2 to trade with the Baltic ports. If we 
remember that Dundee with regard to shipping, only 
takes the second place, 3 we can form an adequate idea of 
the extent of the Scottish trade with the Baltic cities. 

Nor are the two books of Wedderburne and Halyburton 
less interesting concerning the manner of trade in bygone 
days. The skipper, it appears, was at the same time the 
salesman of his goods, unless a special personage was sent 
along with him for this purpose. Sometimes the merchant 
would himself travel with the ship that contained his 
merchandise. Thus Wedderburne sends one Patrick 
Gordon in William Fyfe's ship to Danzig in 1597, and 
entrusts him among other things with two old rose 
nobles, 4 one new one, and two double ducats "to be warit 

1 Poill = Poland, here for Danzig. 

2 The number cannot be given exactly as many ships in the above 
list are unnamed and might be identical with ships already mentioned. 

3 In 1692 Leith possessed twenty-four ships, Dundee twenty-one, 
Montrose eighteen, Glasgow fifteen. 

4 A gold coin, first issued by Edward III. It bears its name from 
the five-leaved English rose on the reverse. 


on rye gif it be within 48 gudlenis * and falzeing thereof 
on lynt, a part thereof to be shippit in any ship that 
hapins to be frauchtit." Or he sends fifty reals "in 
a pocket " " to wair on wax and if it be extraordiner deir 
forby the waunted prices at his discretioune to wair on 
coper." And when he goes himself to Konigsberg in 
1596 he takes with him amongst a multitude of foreign 
coins, a gold chain weighing fourteen crowns. Thus we 
still see the remnants of primitive barter in the XVIth 

During the last quarter of it Scotland is visited by 
famine of a particularly aggravated character. We hear 
complaints of it in 1572 and in 1595. 2 King James VI 
writes to his ambassador at the court of Denmark, Sir 
P. Waus, and Peter Young to try and get the duties 
remitted at Elsinore for the numerous Scotch vessels 
ready to sail for Danzig for the purpose of buying 
victuals; and this not only on account of the "great 
scarcitie and famine at home" but also in order to 
prevent them selling their freight elsewhere, and falling 
an easy prey to English ships. 3 

To the many cases of piracy already mentioned we 
add the following : a merchant of Emden accuses the Earl 
of Orkney of having plundered his ship laden with rye 
from Danzig, off the coast of Norway. 4 A skipper named 
Ogilvie of Dundee is sentenced to pay damages to a 
Danzig merchant. 5 Three years later in 1594 the same 
man stands his trial against Thomas Stalker, a Scotsman 
settled at Danzig, who accuses him of having plundered 
the ship "Grite Jonas." Part of the cargo, strange 
to say, belonged to the Grand Duke of Toscana. When 
driven by the stress of weather to the Orkney islands the 
governor and two citizens of Dundee arrested the goods 

1 Probably " gulden." There was no silver gulden till the middle of 
the XVIIth Century. 

2 Reg. of Privy Council of Sc. ii. 148, and Birrell's Diary. 

3 Correspondence of Sir P. Waus, p. 401. 

4 Reg. of Privy Council of Scot. iv. 331. 

5 Ibid. iv. 627. 


as " papistical." x Ogilvie is sentenced to pay compensation 
to the Grand Duke. 

Finally we may mention as interesting that in 1572 
cannons and ammunition for the castle of Edinburgh are 
imported from Hamburg ; 2 and that a certain captain 
William Rentoun receives permission to levy and transport 
one hundred and fifty men for the service of the city of 
Danzig which had just then entered upon a disastrous war 
against the King of Poland, Stephan Bathory 3 (1577). 

The XVIIth Century, of which we had a glimpse 
already in the Dundee ship-list, commences with a trial 
for fighting and manslaughter in broad daylight among 
the Scottish settlers of Danzig. 4 Then again we hear 
of precautionary measures against the introduction of the 
plague through German ships. 5 

In the year 1603 David Smart claims before the 
magistrates of Dundee the inheritance of his brother, 
who died at Danzig and left about 600 pounds. The 
authorities in Germany acknowledge his claim and send 
the money. 6 

In the same year the following new ships occur : the 
"Fortune" and "Neptune" from Emden, "Mary" and 
" Pelican " from Stralsund to Scotland. 7 One ship from 
Flemisberry, very probably Flensburg, is mentioned in 
1 61 6. 

About this time (1606) the ruinous state of their 
church causes much anxiety to the City Fathers of 
Aberdeen. They resolve therefore to send a trust- 
worthy person in "William Meason's ship" to Danzig 

1 Reg. of Privy Council of Scot. v. 214. Thirty-nine books formed a 
part of the cargo, one of them bears the title : Description of the History 
of Poland. 

2 Cal. of State Papers rel. to Scot., Thorpe, vol. i. 330. 

3 See above. There is a discrepancy in the statement of the Reg. 
of Privy Council of Scotland and Hartknoch, the German historian. The 
latter mentions 700 men. Probably the Scottish source only refers to 
the first draught of soldiers, as the difficulties of levying were great. 

4 Reg. of Privy Council of Scot. vi. 856 f. 

5 Ibid. vi. 289, 441, and often. 

G Maxwell, Hist, of Old Dundee, p. 344 f. 
7 See Ledger of Andr. Halyburton. 


in order to buy lead to the value of 105 Pound Scots 
for the repair of the sacred building. In 1619 the 
Castle of Edinburgh again runs short of ammunition, 
and a vessel is despatched to Danzig to bring over 
" 200 stane " of gunpowder. 1 

To the common articles of import from Germany, such 
as wood and timber, wainscot, lint, wax, flour, grain, iron, 
etc. is now added glass (1610-12). 2 But no sooner has 
notice been taken of this fact than an order against its 
importation is issued (162 1). Salt is being imported in 
1656-1658 to the value of 1100 Pounds. The trade 
in skins seems to have been particularly brisk. Two 
small boats from Aberdeen carry 8 coo lamb-skins in 
16 1 7 and in 1650 no less than 30,000 lamb-fells are 
exported to Danzig. The old articles of export are 
increased by knitted wool-wares, especially stockings. 3 

Seven ships sail from Leith to Konigsberg in 1622 and 
mention is made of one ship from Bremen and one from 
Konigsberg in 1625-26; the former had to seek shelter 
in Tynemouth. Two vessels from Leith are lying in 
the harbour of Danzig towards the end of July 1626. 4 

A dangerous voyage was that of Henry DinklafF with 
his ship the " Pruss Mayden " from Kneiphovia (a part of 
Konigsberg). It was attacked by the rebellious Scottish 
Clan Jan and would have been plundered but for the assist- 
ance of a royal vessel. 5 Finally Montrose and Kirkcaldy 
send a ship each to Konigsberg and Danzig in 1688 and 

A great obstacle in the way of trade was the 
war between Great Britain, Spain and France during 
this century. A long story is told of a certain Captain 
Robertson, who, fortified by letters of marque from 
the King of Scotland, had attacked ships from Llibeck, 

1 Reg. of Privy Council of Scot. xi. 563. 2 Halyburton, I.e. 

3 Kennedy, Annals of Aberdeen, p. 258 ff. Scotch wool was famous 
all through the Middle Ages. In early centuries (about 1250) it wa 
manufactured in the monasteries of the Cistercian monks at Culross, Maros 
(Melrose), Cupar and Glenluce. 

4 Reg. of Privy Council of Scot, second ser. i. 47, 199, 669. 

5 Ibid. p. 119. 


because of their carrying ammunition and other pro- 
hibited freight. His own vessel, however, had suffered 
so much in the fight, that it had to seek refuge in a 
Norwegian port to get repaired. But no sooner had it 
arrived there, than German sailors, mostly hailing from 
Hamburg, board the ship, ill-treat the crew and abuse 
the Scottish flag. Afterwards the Court at Hamburg 
refuses to acknowledge the statements of the witnesses 
made before the Scottish Admiral, and the King sees 
himself compelled to renew the letters of reprisal to 
Robertson. 1 

Another time a ship of Danzig sailing to Spain is 
driven by stress of weather to the coast of the Shetland 
isles, and there saved by Scottish sailors, only to be 
carried as a lawful prize into the harbour of Leith, where 
it has to lie six weeks until the captain, one Edward 
Jansen, complains before the authorities at Edinburgh, 
that he had no longer any means to feed his crew. An 
order is then given to sell part of the cargo, consisting 
of wax. Finally the Danzig skipper gets his rights, and 
ship and cargo are restored. 2 

Again Danzig complains in 1672 with regard to the 
unlawful seizure of three vessels, two of which, the " Sun " 
and the " Crown," had been brought into Scottish ports 
suspected of carrying contraband-goods. 3 

With the XVIIIth Century Scotland lost the last 
remnant of independence. Her trade became the trade of 
Great Britain. After the last fierce death struggle of a 
lost cause the neighbour south of the Tweed gradually 
learned, if not to love his neighbour in the north, at 
least not to slay him. Gradually the pirates hide in story- 
books, and the grim spectre of the plague keeps at a 
respectful distance ; gradually a more enlightened com- 
mercial policy gains the day, and the full profit of a 
rational working of the resources of the country is earned 
by the people. The export also changes in kind. Coal, 

1 Acts of Parliament of Scot., 1641, c. 65, v. 386, 430 a. 

2 Reg. of Privy Council of Scot., second ser. I. lxxii. 

3 See originals in the possession of the Marquis of Bath. 


the black jewel of the land, and the herring the silvery- 
treasure of the sea, take the place of rabbit-skins and 
coarse wool. 

But our sketch of the commercial relations between Ger- 
many and Scotland during the period of the independence 
of the latter would be incomplete without considering that 
curious German and Polish inland traffic — a pedlar-trade 
— carried on by Scotsmen during the XVth, XVIth and 
XVIIth Centuries. The origin of this remarkable historical 
fact is to be found in a very large Scotch emigration to 
Danzig, Konigsberg and Poland from the end of the XVth 
Century and earlier, gradually increasing until the end of 
the XVIIth, an emigration which makes Poland the America 
of those days. Some writers have tried to explain this 
fact from one cause only. They have tried in vain. It 
was not religious persecution alone, not the well-known 
roaming disposition of the Scotch alone, which drove 
them across the sea in thousands. It was the result of 
many causes working together. First and chiefly : the 
hunger and the distress of their country. We have 
already mentioned the letter of King James VI dated 
1587 in which the great "scarcitie " and famine is spoken 
of and the hope of alleviating it by a speedy importation 
of "viveris" from Germany. But already in the year 
1572 famine had been so severe that the King saw him- 
self compelled to take the extraordinary step of command- 
ing emigration by solemn proclamation at Leith. 1 Birrell 
notices a great famine in 1595 in his diary, and the 
chronicles of the Scotch towns are full of the distressful 
state of the country. 2 Further reasons we find in the never- 
ending religious and political wars at home, the hardships 
of the law of primogeniture, in the love of martial adventure 
and in the pronounced clannishness of the people. The 
first thing a Scotsman did who had emigrated to Danzig or 
Konigsberg or had settled at Krakaw was, to invite other 
members of his family, who perhaps found it difficult to 

1 Reg. of Privy Council of Scot. ii. 148. 

2 " Distress and wars drove us out of Scotland," say the Scots in a trial 
held at Breslau towards the end of the XVth Century. See Appendix. 


make their way at home, owing to the disturbed and 
poverty-stricken condition of their native land. 

But why — one might ask — was distant Poland chosen 
of all other countries as the goal of emigration? The 
answer is not far to seek. The English were the 
enemies of Scotland : all trade with them partly 
restricted, partly prohibited altogether. Holland was 
already full of the Scotch ; x and France, eldorado as it 
proved to be to the Scottish soldier and scholar, did not 
offer the same facilities for trade as a country did, where 
the middle and trading class between the noble and the 
serf was actually non-existing. All trading in Poland on 
the other hand was done by Jews and foreigners ; 2 here 
then was a field for the enterprising Scot : a wide country 
with plenty of room to travel about, an excellent seaport, 
Danzig, visited since the days of old by many a Scotch 
trading vessel ; a luxurious and magnificent royal court 
and little competition in business. In a book of the time 
Poland is called the heaven for the nobility, the paradise 
for the Jews, the hell for the peasant, and the gold mine 
for the stranger ; and a famous Scotch traveller, named 
Lithgow, who on his journeyings over Europe had also 
visited Krakaw and Lublin and found many of his country- 
men there, calls Poland the "mother and nurse of the 
youths and younglings of Scotland, clothing, feeding and 
enriching them with the fatness of her best things, besides 
30,000 Scots families that live incorporate in her bowels. 
And certainlie Poland may be termed in this kind the 
mother of our commerce and the first commencement of 
all our best merchants' wealth, or at least most part of 
them." 3 

This statement has been doubted. But it agrees with 
other contemporaneous information. Sir James Cochrane, 
the Scotch Ambassador at the Court of Poland, " tells of 

1 Steevens, Hist, of the Scotch Church at Rotterdam. 

2 Stanislas Tomkowicz : Przyczyneh do historyi Skotoiv iv Krakoivie i 
iv Polsce. 

3 William Lithgow, The tot all Discourse of the rare adventures and 
painfull peregrinations of long nineteen yeares travailes. London, 1640. 



many thousand Scots in the country besides women, children 
and servants " ; *' and in a letter of the English Statesman 
Chamberlain to his friend Carlton (162 1) 2 we read: 
' The Polish Ambassador had an audience of the King 
. . . there are about 30,000 Scots in Poland.' 

Sir John Skene, the celebrated Scotch lawyer, who 
had travelled far and wide on the continent, confirms in 
his book, " De verborum significatione " sub verbo 
" pedlar " that he had met a vast multitude of them, 
his countrymen, in Krakau (1569). 

To this may be added long lists of names of Scotch 
settlers in Poland and Prussia, which have been handed 
down to us in the archives of these countries. 

Scotch emigration then, having been proved to be 
extremely large and to affect all classes of society and 
all ages, it is not to be wondered at, that many went, 
who were utterly unable and unfit to make their own 
living, or who finally turned out a disgrace to their 
country. It is quite surprising how many young Scotch 
boys not older than fifteen or seventeen years sought 
their fortune at that time in Danzig. 3 Naturally enough 
complaints of rowdyism were frequent. Patrick Gordon, 
then Scotch Consul at Danzig, a man who will engage 
our notice again, draws the attention of King James 
VI to the miserable and disorderly state of many of the 
emigrants, and adds that the Scotch settlers themselves 
wished to get rid of them. It is in consequence of this 
letter that the King in 1625 issues the following 
proclamation ; — 

" Whereas the grite number of young boyes uncapable 
of service and destitute of meanis of liveing yearlie 
transported out of that our kingdome to the East-seas 
and specially to the town of Dantzik and there manie 
tymes miserablie in grite numbers dyeing in the streets 

1 See Thurloe's State Papers. 

2 Calendar of State Papers, Dom. Ser., 38. 

3 The hardships of such a youth in a foreign country are well depicted 
in the four letters of young Francis Craw, dating 1671-1681, given in 
the Appendix. 



have given quite scandall to the people of those countries 
and laid one foull imputation on that our kingdome, to 
the grite hinderance and detriment of those our subjects 
of the better, who traffique in the saidis countreyis : it 
is our pleasour, that by oppin proclamatioun ye cause 
prohibite all maisters of shippis to transport anie youthes 
of either sex to the said easterne countreyis bot such as 
either salbe sent for by their friendis dwelling there, or 
then, sail carrie with them sufficient meanis of meanten- 
ance at least for ane yeare under the pane of fyfe 
hundreth markis monie of that our kingdome, toties 
quoties they sail offend in that kind." 1 

After this edict the emigration, though it did not 
cease, took a different channel ; the people emigrating 
often having some means of their own, or intending, if 
they were cadets of a lord or laird of the country, to enter 
the military service of Poland or, finally, wishing to visit 
their many friends in Germany. 2 

Most of the Scotsmen settled in Poland were 
pedlars. 3 They sold tin utensils, a kind of woollen stuff 
called "Scotch," and linen kerchiefs, often decorated with 
pictures of the Turkish wars. Those that lived in towns 
had small shops (' institutae Scotorum'), where one could 
buy iron goods and scissors and knives and cloths of 
every description, or they kept booths at the large fairs 
all over the country. 

In many respects the great expectations of these 
Scotch emigrants were not realised. It is true, there 
was religious tolerance in Poland since 1573, and we 
never hear of any religious persecution; but Poland 
as well as Germany was always ready to invent new 
obstacles and burdens in the way of the free exercise of 
their trade. Of two trading restrictions of Stralsund and 
Danzig in the first half of the XVth Century we have 
already spoken. 4 Later on, in the year 1564, a tax was 

1 Reg. of Privy Council of Scot. xiii. 702 f. 2 Tomkowicz, I.e. 

3 The expression "A Scotch Pedlar's Pack in Poland" became 
proverbial. Cp. Howel, Epist. Ho-Elianae, p. 316 (1633). 

4 See page 14 f. 


imposed on the Scots of Poland, a poll-tax, in common 
with the Jews and Gipsies. If a pedlar went on foot, he 
had to pay one florin ; if he kept a horse, he had to pay for 
it in addition. 1578 one florin for the man, two florins for 
the horse were raised; 16 13 two florins for the man and 
fifteen groschens for the horse. But this was only an 
apparent relaxation : for now a tax is imposed on the goods 
also. At last the influential Scotsmen by their united 
efforts succeeded in mitigating these hardships. First of all 
they appealed to the King of Scotland, complaining at the 
same time of the inactivity of the Scotch Consul Gordon 
at Danzig. 1 The King wrote in strong words to his 
representative in return and possibly also to his friend the 
King of Poland. Anyhow the terms of the law by which 
they were placed on a level with the Jews, terms that had 
chiefly caused the irritation, were expunged, and an edict 
of 1629 promised them the same treatment as other 
" foreign merchants." 2 

Other restrictions for other Polish towns followed, 
chiefly caused and called forth by the jealousy of the native 
merchants. King Sigismund II Augustus issued an edict 
on the 17th of Sept. 1568, which was to check the influx 
of Scotsmen into Bromberg. It was chiefly directed 
against the pedlars or small shopkeepers ('revenditores'). 
Merchants, who sell, not by the ell and the pound, but in 
whole pieces or by stone-weight, are exempt, and special 
mention is made of four Scottish merchants already 
members of the guild. It is therefore to be assumed that 
the Scots tried to evade the restrictions of the law by 
becoming citizens and members of the merchant fraternity. 
In 1673 one Gasparus Wolson (Wilson) is the president 
of the guild; town councillors, aldermen, even burgo- 
masters of Scottish birth or parentage, occur in old Brom- 

1 About Gordon and Stercovius, the Pole, see Appendix. 

2 Stan. Tomkowicz, I.e. Still we read that an edict against the Scots 
of 1 552 was renewed, 1636, in Western-Prussia, then belonging to Poland. 
" Vagrant Scots " was a term often used in those days in official 
documents. See S. Sembritzki, Die Schotten und Engldnder in Ostpreussen, 
Altpreuss. Monatsschrift, Bd. xxix. Heft 3, p. 232. 


berg documents. Especially frequent are the names of 
Watson, Wilson, Wallace, Hutton, Herin (Heron) and 
M'Kean. In 1733, a Joseph Wilson is provost, in 1823 
one Makkien " Archivarius." 1 

Nor were the laws against the Scots in other countries 
less strict. The town of Breslau issued an edict on the 
2nd of July 1533 against pedlars, Scots, gipsies, beggars, 
etc. In 1558 Markgraf Albrecht of Brandenburg, Duke 
of Prussia, gave an order not to allow Scotch " vaga- 
bonds," to roam about in the country, "because they are the 
ruin of our own poor subjects, taking away their living and 
reducing them to beggary." He also accuses them of 
using false weights and measures and strictly limits their 
trade to the annual fairs appointed by law. 2 Thirty-one 
years later his son Georg Friedrich repeats his father's 
prohibition in much the same words. 3 

Greater still was the hostility shown to the strangers 
by the native tradespeople. The cutler-guild at Krakau 
accuses the "cunning" Scots before the court, "that they 
did not content themselves with one shop but had several 
at each end of the town, and would moreover send a boy 
to sell their wares from house to house." 4 Similarly the 
united guild of "Kramer" of Prussia, in the year 1569, 
Nov. 1 ith, present a supplication to the Markgraf, in which 
they state that their business is spoiled by the travelling 
Scots, that nobody cared to come into the town to buy, if he 
could get the goods brought to his own house ; that the 
orders issued as far back as 1 545 were disobeyed; that there 
was a Scotsman, - called Ventour, who said he was a citizen 
of Zinten, but he did not live up to it, but kept boys, 
who in his name travelled all over Samlandt, doing 
great harm to the whole country; they (i.e. the Scots) 

1 Jahrbuch des Bromberger his tor. Vereins, 1888, p. 31 f. and 

2 Original in the Archives of Konigsberg. 

3 Original likewise in Konigsberg. Date Sept. 22, 1589. 

4 Abraham Grabowski Altertiimliche Nachrichten von Krakau (1852). 
A proverb of Lithuania says : "su Szotu bey Kunningu ne bylinek," i.e. 
" with a Scotsman and a priest don't begin a law-suit." See Chr. 
Gottlieb Mielke's Dictionary, Konigsberg, 1800, p. 423. 


probably ' bought beaver and marten skins and amber in 
Prussia and sold them in Lublin (Poland) ' ; not content 
with that they brought " false (adulterated) ware " into 
the country, such as pepper, saffron, silk spoiled by water, 
('versoffene Seide'). "Let alone that they are cheats," 
continues the indictment, " bribing the custom officers and, 
it is to be feared, acting as spies to betray the conntry (!) 
which may God prevent." The petitioners finally express 
the charitable wish that His Serene Highness would 
deliver the Scots and their goods into their hands, and 
that then they would make over the value of the goods 
taken from them to some hospital. 1 

Now, we will not for a moment deny that among the 
30,000 Scottish pedlars there were some that did not 
always act up to the dictates of conscience, and that many 
of them lived a life of misery and privation, 2 but this 
document of the " gantze Kramerzunft von Preussen " 
bears on the face of it only too clearly the ill-concealed 
inability to withstand a sudden, keen competition of 

Against these insinuations the Scots defend themselves 
in many supplications addressed to the Duke of Prussia 
In 1599 tne y s ^g n as " tne honorable Company of the 
honorable Scottish Nation," at other times as the "elders 
of the Scots in the districts of Holland, 3 Riesenburg and 
the Prussian Mark" or as the "Scots of the district 
Rastenburg and Barten" (1628). 

They state first of all that they " the poor foreigners 
have been ' very exceedingly ' grieved (' mit fast hoch- 
betriibtem gemuthe') at the order of the Duke 
commanding them to cease their journeyings as pedlars 
in the country except to the duly ordained public fairs, 
"as if we, the poor strangers, were the worst of all." 
Then they explain that they were not newly-arrived 

1 Original in the Archives of Konigsberg. 

2 This seems to have been the case particularly with the Scots pilgrims, 
who returned from Rome across Germany to Danzig and thence home. 
See Appendix. 

3 Town and district about 60 miles to S.W. of Konigsberg. 


"juvenales" but mostly "fellows well up in years" 
(' ziemlich betagte gesellen "), who had been travelling 
about for many years in this country and against whom 
there never was any complaint raised as to " false 
measure," etc. "Why is it," they continue, "that we 
Scots alone should be singled out for such excessively 
severe measures, seeing there are so many other stranger- 
merchants in the land? We are the most humble and 
faithful subjects of the Duke and have at all times paid 
'duty and contribution.' We shall continue to do so, nay 
to serve Y.R.H. ' to the risk of our body and blood ' (' mit 
Aufsetzung Leibes und Bludts '). 

"That we have not been made use of hitherto, is 
not our fault ; but it may yet come to pass, and though 
we are at the present time not domiciled or owners of 
houses ('heuszlich angesessen '), the good God can 
in his own gracious time bring it about that we settle in 
the dominions of Y.R.H. as the rightful owners of 
property." 1 

Finally, they offer to pay an annual tax of two Thaler, 
and urgently requesting again a withdrawal of the order 
and measures to prevent the violent seizure (' Auffgreiffer') 
of their persons, they sign in dutiful submission as subjects 
of H.R.H. 

The Scots of the districts of Barten and Rastenburg 
complain moreover, that there was no distinction made in 
the imposing of their ' contributions,' though their trade- 
earnings were very different. They also, very properly, 
request that a central comptroller should be appointed of 
the whole province, who would make a list of their 
names and receive their taxes at stated times ; instead of 
having this tax gathered, as now, by magistrates, collectors 
of the duty on grain, burgomasters and town-clerks. 2 

It strikes one as very curious in these hostile trade- 

1 Original Supplication, 4th of Oct. 1 599, in the Royal Archives at 
Konigsberg. Another specimen is given in the Appendix. 

2 Supplication of the year 1628. A similar census had already been 
made in 161 5 by a Scotsman named Jacob Koch (Cook). See 
further on. 


manifestations against the Scots that the Jews are 
constantly coupled with them ; and yet the fact is easily 
explained by the consideration that previous to the 
arrival of the Scots the whole retail traffick in Poland lay 
almost exclusively in the hands of the Jews. The Scottish 
strangers stepped into the Jewish inheritance with all its 
advantages and burdens. Remembering this, and also 
bearing in mind that large money transactions were 
carried on by the Scots, we need no longer be astonished 
at the prejudices and groundless reproaches of injured 
competitors : they were gratuitously transferred from 
the Jewish to the Scottish pedlar. 

For the Scots, however, these and similar manifesta- 
tions of ill-will served the good end of accelerating their 
acquiring the rights of citizenship in the towns of Prussia 
and Poland, and of making them band themselves together 
for mutual protection in a large union (Briiderschaft) with 
laws regulating their traffick, such as their own King 
James had recommended and the German and Polish 
authorities acquiesced in. This they did, and we possess 
very interesting accounts of their constitution. One 
comes from Krakau. In the year 1603 the Polish 
Government had commissioned Abraham Young (Jung), 
a captain in the Scotch regiment of the King, with full 
judicial power to make inquiries into the organisation 
of his countrymen in Poland. The depositions of a 
witness named Richard Tamson, a merchant of Posen, 
have been preserved, and from them it appears that the 
Scottish Brotherhood in Poland had twelve branches with 
their own elders and judges. The latter had power not 
only to impose fines, but also, with the consent of the 
elders, to pronounce the sentence of banishment. On 
each fair-day they held their meetings and a general 
court of appeal met at Thorn on the Feast of Epiphany, 
when each Scotsman could produce his grievances. 
There was no appeal to the King. The "decreta" 
or decrees were entered into a special book. The duty 
of the elders was to do everything necessary for the 
protection of the guild and its privileges, and to receive 


every newly arrived Scotsman into the brotherhood. 
The clergymen, who collected a tax every year for the 
building of their own Presbyterian churches, belonged 
to the number of the elders ex officio. Each guild had 
its own books, some of which showed a hostile feeling 
towards the Roman Catholics. 1 Guilelmus Forbes, 
Gilbert King, Peter Orem, Guilelmus Henderson and 
John Forbes, rich Scotch merchants in Krakau, were 
for many years judges. The new member of the guild 
had to swear an oath, to observe the laws and regulations 
and to submit to the decisions of the court. He wrote 
his name with his own hand into a book. 2 

Other witnesses add, that the Scots in Poland elected 
four judges every year, who issued decrees and were at 
once accusers and judges. Very often the punishment 
inflicted was a kind of proscription, so that nobody was 
allowed to speak, eat or drink with the person in question. 
Criminal cases however did not come under the jurisdiction 
of this court. 3 Fines paid were again lent out at a high 
rate of interest. As their highest judge the Scots 
acknowledged, according to a privilege granted them by 
King Stephen Bathory, the Royal Marshall only. They 
even disputed Captain Young's right to meddle in their 
affairs until King Sigismund III made him the chief of all 
Scotch merchants living in Poland (March 20th, 1604). 4 
Now they had to obey him and to enter their names into 
his books "in order that they might be found easier if 
required for the defence of the country " ; as the order 
significantly adds. From this blow, and a necessary blow it 
seems to have been, the Scotch autonomy never recovered. 

We are still more accurately informed of the constitu- 
tion of the Scotch Brotherhood in Brandenburg and 

1 Some of the decrees were directed against the Roman Catholics. It 
is related of one John Ramsay in Posen, that he escaped the sentence of 
banishment by his flight. 

2 Tomkowicz, I.e., p. 164. 3 Tomkowicz, I.e., p. 165. 

4 As a reason for this appointment is adduced : " cum inter alias Scoticae 
nationis hominum magnum hie esse numerum nobis constet et plerosque 
licentiose vivere ut neque judices neque jurisdictionem neque leges neque 
superiorem ullum agnoscant." Tomkowicz, I.e., 166. 


Preussen. There in 161 5 a certain Jacob Koch (Kock or 
Cook), a Scotsman, made at the command of the Kurfiirst 
(Elector) a complete list of the Scotch Kramers in the 
dominions of His Serene Highness. This list contains 410 
names. 1 Prefixed are certain recommendations of Koch's 
as to taxation, and his own travelling expenses. At the 
end he adds the twenty articles which constituted the 
Scotch Guild or Nation or Brotherhood. This curious 
and important document, literally translated from the 
German, runs as follows : — 

" In the name of the holy and inseparable Trinity. As 
a great number of the Scottish nation in this Dukedom of 
Prussia, scattered here and there, seek their living, and 
many of them not capable of a fixed abode or a certain 
jurisdiction, and since on that account frequent disorders 
have taken place, the Oberburggraf of this country many 
years ago did graciously permit them, to establish certain 
rules and articles amongst themselves, so as to prevent 
much bothering of the magistrates, cheating and other 
excesses and irregularities for the maintenance of good 
order, lest they might be considered, as has been done 
most unjustly and untruly, mere fugitives and vaga- 
bonds. They have therefore constituted ' unanimo 
et successivo consensu ' a certain brotherhood amongst 
themselves, and ordered that their meetings should 
take place four times in the year: at Martinmas, 
Candlemas, Whitsuntide and Bartholomew's Day (Aug. 
24th), when it is the duty of the youngest brother 
to invite the others to be present without fail. After 
prayer all their names are called by the secretary, 
and he who is not there before prayer, must pay five 
groschen into the poor-fund. But those who stay away 
altogether without sufficient excuse, shall incur the penalty 
the elders may deem proper to inflict." 

Besides this there are contributions and collections for 
the poor, sick and needy according to the means of each 
one ; there is also something given to the hospital out of 
the collected fines. The other articles are as follows : — 

] Original in the Archives of Konigsberg. 


i. "Of the Sabbath. 

Nobody shall without grave reasons miss the service and 
the sermon in this Duchy of Prussia in whatever place 
it may be. This is the will of all and the duty of a 
Christian. Neither shall he profane the Sabbath by 
gluttony, drinking and gambling and such like misdeeds, 
but keep it holy with love towards God and his neighbour 
according to the rule of God's Word. He shall also par- 
take four times a year as a token of his Christianity, of 
the supper of the Lord, in which He offers us His true 
body and His true blood spilt on the cross, and shall not 
withdraw himself from the table of the Lord. He who 
purposely offends this order shall after due warning, if it 
occur again, be expelled from the Brotherhood. 

i. Of duty towards those in authority. 

In the next place everyone shall pray for those in 
authority, show himself obedient and reverent, and in case 
of necessity be ready to serve it even unto death. He 
shall also pay the due rent for his stall in the fairs and as 
the Brethren have settled before, contribute an annual 
tax to the rulers for their gracious protection and the 
hoped-for confirmation of our articles. Neither shall any 
of us refuse to pay if a tax should eventually be imposed 
upon us. 

3. Of our elders. 

Those that the Brotherhood esteems most worthy shall 
be chosen for elders by a majority of votes, and they 
shall then be reminded of their duties out of God's Word. 

4. Oath of the elders. 

We the elders do swear with hands uplifted before 
God and the whole Brotherhood, that we will not, accord- 
ing to our best knowledge and that power which God 
has given us, do ought or allow it to be done against 
any body, that goes against justice and is the outcome 
of mere partiality for the preservation of the Brotherhood. 
So help us God and His holy Word. 

5. Of the appeal from the decision of the elders to that of 
the whole Brotherhood and from it again to the German 
municipal Court. 


If anyone should feel himself aggrieved by the sentence 
of the elders, he is free to appeal to the united Brother- 
hood. But if the united Brotherhood confirm the sentence 
of the elders and the appellant be not content yet, he 
may go to the judges in the cities. Two of our elders 
however shall be in duty bound to defend their decision 
before the German Court. If the sentence be approved 
of as just by the presiding judge, the appellant must 
pay, if otherwise, the elders ought to pay damages to the 

If it should so happen, that clearly one or the other 
of the elders from envy or favour should try to obtain 
an unjust decree, he shall, if convicted, be fined and 
dismissed from office. 

6. Of those that withstand the elders. 

They shall without delay and with one accord be 

7. Of false measure, weight and wares. 

Concerning this point, it has been resolved by common 
consent of the Brotherhood, that nobody, be he rich or 
poor, shall use false measure, weight or goods against 
God's written law: Thou shalt not steal. He who does 
not desist shall be handed over to the presiding judge, 
that he may be sentenced as a thief or be expelled the 
country, or punished with imprisonment as the occasion 
requires, if he should not be able to pay. Or if a 
brother sell to the other brother or to anybody else 
adulterated goods, the seller shall not only have no price, 
but also refund the damages that may have accrued to 
the buyer hereby, and submit to the decree of the elders. 
But this is to be done only upon condition, that the 
buyer can prove his case, for otherwise many might come 
and use this subterfuge adducing unheard of things, even 
those that never entered a man's mind. And he who 
tries to dispose of false goods knowingly shall be punished 
without delay, and the value of the goods be paid into 
the poor-fund. 

8. Of those who are consulted concerning a sale and give 
false account. 


They shall be punished according to the verdict of the 
elders, and in case of the offence being repeated twice or 
three times be considered untrustworthy witnesses and 
expelled the Brotherhood. 

9. Of those who outside the fairs sell their goods to the 
detriment of the towns. 

They shall be severely punished according to the 
verdict of the elders. Likewise nobody shall be permitted 
to keep more than one shop in the country. Offenders 
to be duly punished. 

10. Of those who know something of others that is against 
our rule, and yet do not reveal it. 

Everyone shall at our regular meeting according to his 
conscience tell everything that he can prove of anybody, 
wherein an excess or crime has been committed. If he 
conceal it and it should come out afterwards through 
others, both shall be duly punished. 

1 1 . Of moving into decent lodgings. 

It has been ordered that all Brethren of our guild 
shall take up their lodgings in honest houses. He 
who stays in suspected places shall not go unpunished. 
He shall also dress decently and suitably to his station, 
and shall invariably be present at the funeral of a deceased 
brother at the time appointed to assist in burying him 

12. Those who abstract anything in peasants' houses or 
farms, or from other people, be it ever so trifling, shall first 

settle with the party and afterwards be punished by the 

13. Of those who at meetings draw daggers, knives or 
the like. 

They shall be punished severely and be handed over to 
the municipal Court. 

14. Of those who use nicknames instead of Christian 

Let them be punished without delay. 

15. Of Brethren, who have been murdered by evil-doers. 
We pledge ourselves to seek and pursue the evil-doer, 

who without provocation murdered one of our Brethren 


or did him any other wrong, until he has been seized, and 
after he has been put in prison to proceed against him 
until he has either been executed or liberated by the 
judge. But if one of our Brethren be killed secretly 
or injured, we will pursue the evil-doer at his expense, if 
he has means ; if not, we will raise money according to 
our power so that we may carry out our purpose. As 
to the property of him that was murdered or robbed, 
we shall only use it 'pendente lite.' Whatever may be 
left after the execution of justice, our elders shall hand 
it over to the murdered man's relations when claimed, 
on condition, however, that the fourth Pfennig go to 
the prince. And in case the late man had relations 
in the country, if they be spendthrifts, the money shall 
not be handed over to them, but be retained for his other 
friends in Scotland for a year. If the right heirs do not 
claim the property within the space of a year, the assets 
shall be distributed among the poor. 

1 6. Of those who have for some time stayed abroad. 

We have resolved, that those of our Brethren, who 
hire a servant-man from elsewhere or make an agreement 
with him in the country .... shall be punished, especially 
if the said man or boy did not complete his time, but 
ran away from his master or was mixed up with other 
crimes. . % . 1 

17. Of stiff-necked and wilful servants. 

They shall be expelled and lose their wages unless 
they improve. 

18. Because every year some of our nation are brought 
here by skippers and others, who turn out badly and 
refuse to do well, having already before they arrived 
here, as experience has taught us, misbehaved, which 
tends to the disgrace of the whole Scottish nation, and 
more especially causes unmerited disrespect, contempt 
and injury to our Brotherhood in this place: we have 
resolved, that if a skipper or other person do bring or 
procure such servants, he should place them with friends, 
if such there are, giving sufficient proof of their honesty 

1 The whole of this paragraph is anything but clear. 


and find security of well-known people ; but if the new- 
comer cannot be lodged in this way, he shall take him 
home again. He who trespasses any of these rules shall 
be punished by the Brotherhood. 

Item, if anyone hire a servant who has been living here 
for some time, yet owes his former master still something, 
the new master shall pay this debt. Nobody is to keep 
more than one servant for four years. 

If the master wrong the servant, he shall be punished 
after due consideration of the case. . . 

19. Not to hire any strange man, unless he can give 
honest proof of having served his master faithfully for 
four years. 

20. If any one of our Brethren, be he free man or 
serving, be found squandering his own or goods entrusted 
to him by card-playing, dice, laziness or other evil and 
useless doings by which the Brotherhood suffer inj ury : 
if this should happen in the country he shall have power 
to hold the offender till help arrives or bring him to the 
magistrate, lest he do squander the remaining property 
also, and from this remaining money shall he be satisfied 
who found him out and perhaps spent some money in 
doing so, though he be only a serving man. But if he 
be a free man but carries other people's wares, and is 
admittedly in debt : he shall fare likewise. 

All the Brethren have solemnly sworn to observe the 
above articles in all particulars as far as possible, so help 
them God ! 1 " 

After this most excellent constitution had been ratified 
by the authorities, though with many alterations, com- 
plaints against the lawlessness of the Scotch cease. 

But then trouble arose from political causes. 

In Scotland in the meantime the thundercloud had 
burst over the heads of the unfortunate Stuarts. 
Charles I having been found guilty of treason had 
been beheaded in front of his own palace, and Charles II 
as a fugitive in France needed money for the main- 
tenance of his semi-royal state, money again for his 

1 Original in the Stadt Archiv at Konigsberg 


far-reaching political intrigues. In his necessity he 
wrote to a number of foreign princes, nay he even 
recollected his beloved subjects settled in Poland, 
of whose thriving state, rumour — ever increasing in 
wonder with the increasing distance — had perhaps 
reached his ears. As a proof of their loyalty these Scots 
were now to pay a tax amounting to no less than the 
tenth part of their possessions. This was the meaning 
and the message of the King's ambassador, Sir J. Cochrane, 
to Hamburg, Danzig and Poland. The fourth paragraph 
of his instructions ran : "If you finde it to be true that 
our said good brother, the King of Poland, hath en- 
deavoured to bring all our Scotch subjects in that 
kingdome to a just acknowledgment of us and of our 
power and authority as their lawfull king, you shall from 
us thankfully acknowledge his friendship and justice 
therein and intreate him to continue and improve his 
kindness to us in that particular so farr, that none of 
them be permitted to enjoy the libertie they have in that 
kingdome, but such as shall approve their loyaltie and 
good affection to us by some supply of money or other 
assistance according to their abilitie in this time of our 
great necessitie. To which end you shall intreat our said 
good brother to authorize and encourage our loane of 
money or other assistance that our said subjects can be 
induced to give us." 1 

A further duty of the ambassador was to assemble the 
most prominent Scotsmen in Poland, to acquaint them 
with all the circumstances of the " abominable " murder 
of his father and to persuade them to assist their lawful 
monarch with a sum of money collected among them- 

The consequence of this embassy and this request was 
a decree of the "good royal brother," the King of 
Poland, dated 1650, which, in recognition of the friend- 
ship of the King of England's grandfather " tempore 
necessitatis belli Turcici," and in order to assist him in 
his present distress, commanded all the Scotch settled in 

1 Hist. MSS. Commission Report, xiii. 2, 26. 


Poland to assess personally their fortunes and to deposit 
within two months ten per cent of it with the local 
magistrates. This edict was approved of by the parlia- 
ment in December of the same year. It was, however, 
but slowly and almost unwillingly, it appears, carried into 
effect. Poland herself was about this time implicated in 
a frightful war against the Cossacks and her means were 
straitened. Finally, towards the end of January 1651, 
John Cazimir commanded Henry Drioss, secretary to the 
Royal Exchequer, to enforce this tribute to the King of 
England " ratione subsidii " with all energy. 1 

On the 28 th of February four of the wealthiest and 
most influential Scotsmen of the city of Krakau, Carmichael, 
Fraser, Blackhal and George Cruikshank, are cited before 
the Burgomaster. There they had on oath to tell the amount 
of their property and to bind themselves to inform their 
countrymen of the decree of the Polish parliament. But 
the payment of the tax took place only on the 3rd of 
March. The four mentioned above paid down large 
amounts varying from two to six hundred dollars ; others 
less. Andrew Dixon, a Scotch merchant of Krakau, re- 
fused altogether to pay on the plea that he, having lived 
in Poland for the last fifty-seven years, ought to be 
exempt from being taxed. His case was postponed for 
a closer examination of the circumstances. A like plea is 
brought forward by James Cramer of Brady, Richard 
Gordon of Leopol, and others. The loyalty does not seem 
to have been quite as great as King Charles II pre- 
sumed or was led to presume. Nevertheless a sum of 
.£10,000 was collected, of which sum, however, only 
£600 or £800 reached the King. 2 

Nor were the political troubles on the Continent less 
disastrous to the Scotch settlers. In the year 1656 
Danzig had declared war against Sweden and the greatest 
possible efforts were made for the defence of the town. 
Men and money were urgently needed, and, knowing that 

1 Tomkowicz, I.e. Krakau, Volumina legum. Johnson's Lives of 
the Poets, ed. Napier, 1890, Appendix. 

2 Clarendon, Hist, of the Rebellion, v. 255. 


Oliver Cromwell favoured the Swedes, the magistrates 
resolved to compel the Scotch and English settlers either 
to submit — 

(1) To the administration of the oath of fidelity; 

(2) To military service ; 

(3) To a war-tax ; 
or to quit the country. 

The Scots unanimously refused these three points ; 
whereupon the expulsion of them, not even the asked-for 
delay of a few months being granted, finally took effect 
on the 1 2th July 1656. 1 The banishment, however, cannot 
have lasted long, for we find Scotch merchants in Danzig 
mentioned very soon afterwards. 

In the meantime, thanks to their industry and their 
superior intelligence, many of the Scotch merchants in 
Poland had earned great riches and obtained influential 
positions at court. If they did not return to Scotland, 
they acquired landed property in the country of their 
adoption. Eight of the richest were made " mercatores 
aulici" or " curiales," purveyors to the Court. 2 As such they 
enjoyed very great trading privileges. They were also 
bankers. Many of them were ennobled. The names of 
Scott, who lived in the castle, Orem, Dixon and Fergusson 
are mentioned as such. How important their position was, 
is evident from an edict issued by King Stephan in the 
year 1585. "Beloved subjects," it runs, "the Scots 
who always follow our court and who are at liberty in 
all places, where We and our Royal Council stay, to ex- 
hibit their wares and to sell them, complain that they are 
prevented by our faithful subjects from exercising their 
privileges granted by us, in Krakau likewise. Now we 
command you to put nothing in their way in this business, 
especially not to hinder those to whom we have given 
liberty of trading and assigned a certain district. For if 
they on account of the failure of their trade should leave 

1 Thurloe's State Papers, v. 88, 107, 176, 195. 

2 They were appointed for life ; the last time by King Augustus II in 
1697. Since that time nothing more is heard of the Scots as a " nation " 
or " corporation " in Poland proper. 



our court, none of you indeed will follow us into Lithuania 
and other places. Our court cannot be without them, 
that supply us with all that is necessary. It is just, there- 
fore, that they should enjoy the same privileges in Krakau 
as elsewhere. They have also supplied us well in former 
times of war. Let a certain district be assigned to them. 
This we command our faithful subjects. 1 — Niplomice, the 
7th of May 1585." 

From this document it would appear that the trading- 
liberty of the Scots was bound by certain local limits. 
However this may be, taken as a whole, their situation in 
the country was tolerable. It was nothing extraordinary 
that they should be taxed as pedlars : the pedlars in 
England at that time paid a similar tax; it was nothing 
extraordinary that they should meet with trade opposition : 
the times were not ripe yet for the blessings of an un- 
fettered competition. On the other hand we read of no 
religious persecution ; they enjoyed many privileges ; they 
occupied high positions at various times in the town 
council, and the luxurious Royal Court, not being willing 
to miss those who had furnished supplies in money and 
otherwise in times of war and peace, plainly preferred 
them to its own trading subjects. 

It is, however, not in Warsaw and Krakau and 
surrounding districts only that we meet with the trading 
Scot. He spreads over the whole of Eastern and 
Western Prussia, Brandenburg, Pommern and Mecklen- 
burg. Andrew Spalding emigrates in the beginning of 
the XVIIth Century from Scotland and settles in the small 
town of Plau in Mecklenburg, which had at that time a 
considerable cloth-manufacture and trade with England. 
In time he becomes a senator of the place. A branch of 
the family was ennobled in Prussia in 1834. 2 In Wismar 
the Scots appear about the middle of the XVIth Century ; 
they were small traders. The names of William and Th. 

1 Acta Hist. Polon. viii. lib. i. i . See Johnson's Lives of the Poets, 
ed. Napier, in the Appendix referring to Denham. 

2 Der Deutsche Herold, " The German Herald," vol. xxx. p. 120 f. 
Cp. also Birth-Brieves of Dundee in the Appendix and Supplement. 


Donatzen (Donaldson) 1571 ; Jacob Mackay (1579- 
1592); Andreas Jack (about 1600), who married 
Mackay's widow; Thomas Dumasson (Tompson ? 1577); 
and Hans (John) Selby (1 597-1602) are preserved in the 
records. The name of Watson also occurs, though it is not 
expressly stated that its bearer was of Scottish origin. 1 A 
Scotsman, John Grinlis (Greenlees ?), buys a shop "under 
the town-hall " at Strasburg in Western Prussia for the 
high price of no Marks. 2 (1 573-) Burgomaster and 
Councillors of Mewe in the same province are commanded 
by a rescript of Sigismund III, dated 1588, to admit the 
Scotsman Andrew Herve, who had been settled in the 
place for the last ten years, without delay to the freedom 
of the city. 3 In Tilsit Scotch merchants are first mentioned 
in 1592, in Memel about 1607, 4 in Stuhm 1594. 5 In 
Barten (Eastern Prussia) an old epitaph may be seen in 
the church erected by Thomas Gordon for one Alexander 
Schant (?) from Aberdeen, who died in 1637, fifty-five years 
old. In Marggrabowa lived about 1670 a Scotch merchant 
called John Birrell ; in Angerburg occur the names of 
Daniel Wilson, Thomas Hamilton, George Wilson and 
William Anderson as owners of breweries. 6 The last- 
named became a town councillor. His son and grandson 
obtained the dignity of burgomaster. Other names of Scotch 
people occur in Chris tburg and Strasburg. 7 Even as far 
as Lithuania and Masuren, in Ragnit, Stalluponen, Goldap 
and Lyck and Insterburg did they settle and find a home. 8 
Of the Scots that settled in Memel since the com- 
mencement of the XVIIth Century, the Ogilvies, Muttrays 
and Simpsons were most successful and rose to high dis- 
tinctions. Thomas and John Ogilvie founded a potash 

1 Communicated. 

2 Plehn, Geschichte des Kreises Strasburg, Leipzig, 1900, p. 178. 

3 Joh. Sembritzki in Altpreuss. Monats Schrift, Band xxx. Heft 3 and 4. 

4 Sembritzki, Geschichte Memels, 1900. 

5 The names, David Trumb and Steinson (?). 

6 Sembritzki, die Schotten und Engldnder, p. 228. 

7 The names given for Christburg and Strasburg : Donalson and 
Donellson, are probably identical. 

8 Sembritzki, I.e., p. 351 f. 


factory there in 1771. John Simpson (f 1774) as well 
as W. Muttray obtained the dignity of " Biirgermeister," 
the latter in 181 3. Thomas Ogilvie became a member of 
the Town Council. All three distinguished themselves 
by their truly noble liberality and their constant efforts 
for the benefit of their fellow-citizens. John Simpson 
and his cousin Ludwig became the chief founders of the 
Lodge Memphis (1776) and left many valuable gifts and 
donations especially to the Reformed, i.e. Calvinistic, 
Church, of which they were members. When Muttray 
resigned his official dignity as Mayor in 18 15, he ex- 
pended almost the whole of the salary that had been 
attached to it, on charitable purposes, giving to the 
Elementary Schools a donation of 1000 Thaler, 1 to the 
Institute for the education of the Poor 600 Thaler, and 
for the purchase of books, instruments, etc., 250. He 
also deserves the chief credit for considerable sums 
collected in 18 15 and sent to the King of Prussia at 
Paris, who expended them for the comfort of the 
wounded during the great war against Napoleon. 
Thomas Ogilvie at his death in 181 1 left a consider- 
able legacy to the poor of Memel. 

Other names of Scotsmen residing in this town 
are: Littlejohn (16 16), Pesaller (16 16), G. Wolssel (?) 
(1620), A. Smith, the three last named from Aberdeen. 
Also Arrot, Adam, Barclay, Durham, Irwing, Marschall, 
Minorgam (?), Mitchel, Mitchelhill, Murray, Palmer, 
Ramsay, Ritchie, Scrumseour (Scrimgeour) : all of the 
XVIIth Century. Later on we find a rope-maker James 
Duncan mentioned; indeed the emigration to Memel 
seems never to have ceased, since as late as the begin- 
ning of the XlXth Century Scotsmen were enrolled as 
citizens, notably one Robert Pitcairn from Perth in 1807. 2 

In the town of Elbing — the seat of the Swedish 
Governor-General for the Baltic coast from Memel to 

1 Six Thaler = One Pound. 

2 Johannes Sembritzki, Geschkhte Memels [History of Memel), Memel, 
1900, pp. no, 152, 210, 231, 241, 246 f., 295. About Scottish 
Officers at this town and the affairs of the Church see in its proper place. 


Elbing during the Thirty Years' War, and strongly- 
garrisoned by Scotch troops — the following names are 
rescued out of many : 1. Thomas Achenwall (Auchinvale) 
(born 1 58 1, died 1653). 1 His birthbrief is still pre- 
served and is issued by the " Praefectus et consules et 
senatores civitatis Sterlinensis " on the 24th of February 
1 6 14. 2. William Lamb de Aberton, whose son William 
is born at Elbing on the 7th of December 1586. 3. 
Alexander Nisbet from Edinburgh, who died in 1617. 
4. Charles Ramsay, born 1576 at Dundee, died at Elbing 
in February 1650. His birthbrief (161 1) tells us that he 
was the son of Charles Ramsay at Deidonum " urbis 
nostrae olim consiliarius," and of Janeta Duncan. His 
family existed at Elbing up to 1863. 2 

The earliest settlement of the Scots took place in 
Danzig, as we have seen; but the exact date of the 
foundation of the suburb, called ' Alt-Schottland ' (Old 
Scotland), so called after a colony of Scottish weavers, is 
difficult to ascertain. We shall not go wrong, however, 
if we fix the year of the first arrival of the colonists at 
about 1380. With this the historian Goldbeck agrees, 
and adds, that the place must have been tolerably well 
cultivated in the XlVth Century, for it was burnt to 
the ground in 1520, when the Poles had engaged upon 
a war of two years' duration with Albrecht, the head 
or ' Hochmeister ' of the Teutonic Order and afterwards 
first Duke of Prussia. The Carthusian Prior Schwengel 
(ca. 1720) relates, that Alt-Schottland was inhabited 
originally by so-called " gardiners," i.e. small peasant- 
proprietors, and that not till later on tradespeople, 
especially Scottish linen-weavers and tanners, had settled 
there. According to him the place was already known 
as "Alt-Schottland" in 1433, when it was burned by 
the Hussites. He further tells us, that on account of 
the growing prosperity of the place, the people of Danzig 
procured the privilege, that within a radius of five miles 
no town was to be built and no trade to be established 

1 Cp. Part iv. 

2 Kindly communicated by Prof. Dr Neubaur at Elbing. 


that was commonly carried on in townships only. But 
already in 1526 the Bishop takes the part of the linen- 
weavers. This is to be explained from the fact, that 
' Schottland ' and other small places in the neighbourhood 
of Danzig belonged to the so-called 'liberties of the 
Church,' that is to say, to the property of the Bishop 
of Leslau and the Monastery of Pelplin. These ' liberties ' 
became Prussian possessions at the first division of Poland 
in 1772, whilst the town of Danzig itself obtained the 
dignity of a 'free City.' 

Here as elsewhere the Scottish settlers held together 
very closely ; a Scottish factor, or ' resident ' as he was 
called afterwards, looked after their interests. Numerous 
Scottish names, such as Murray, Muttray, Simpson, 
Nesbit, Maclean (Macklin), still current in or about 
Danzig, testify to the extent of the former colony. 
Some rich Scottish merchants there we shall have to 
mention in due course. 

In the town of Posen, then belonging to Poland, the 
records of a number of Scotch families date back to the 
middle of the XVIth Century. They were mostly engaged 
in trade ; some of them, however, were handicraftsmen. 
King Stephan Bathory tried to make them permanent 
citizens by directing the Magistrate of Posen in 1567 
to remove those Scotsmen out of the town, who had no 
house-property. The strangers now endeavoured to fulfil 
the necessary conditions. They were an active, intelligent 
and cautious race, some of them well-to-do. Their 
number, however, decreased in the following century, 
chiefly on account of heavy taxation. The Forbeses and 
Watsons are especially named as very rich. The then 
(XVIth Century) famous merchant and shipowner Ryd 
( = Reid) in Danzig and Posen, is very probably also 
of Scotch origin. He was a banker too and supplied 
large sums to the needy Polish aristocracy. 1 Here as 
elsewhere, the hostility of the native trade-unions was 

1 In 1605 there are twenty Scotch merchants and about as many 
craftsmen in Posen; in 1651 only eleven, the richest of them Al. Smart, 
who had to assess his income on the occasion of the subsidy for the King 



great. Thus there is a passage in the Statutes of the 
Purse-maker guild saying: "It shall not be permitted 
to merchants, be they Scotch or Jews, to sell purses 
singly, but only by the dozen. Offenders to lose their 
goods" (1675). And the shoemakers received a con- 
stitution from the magistrates, in which the nineteenth 
paragraph runs : " No master or any other person shall 
make so bold as to bring boots and shoes from elsewhere 
for sale in Posen, least of all the Jews, Scots, Armenians, 
Lithuanians and others that are not members of the 
guild." A similar rule obtained with the tinsmiths. 1 

Whilst this trade-opposition was common enough all 
over Poland and Prussia, in Posen an event happened, 
which in the midst of religious intolerance could not 
fail to render the Scotch settlers hated. It was in the 
year 1652 that a drunk Scot, in a public-house and in 
the presence of several people, uttered some blasphemous 
remarks against the Virgin Mary. A great uproar and 
tumult arose and he barely escaped with his life. But 
not content with that, the offender had to stand his trial, 
the three classes of the representatives of the inhabitants 
assembled in the town-house, and resolved to petition the 
King, "feria tertia in crastino festi natalis Sancti Joannis 
Baptistae," to defend the honour of the most holy Virgin, 
and to have the culprit punished most severely. 2 

Thus it came to pass that in the XVIIIth Century 
only a few Scotch families, such as the Watsons, Fergussons 
and Forbeses were settled in Posen. 

In the town of Deutsch-Krone (Polish = Walcz) 
a Scotchman with the name of Wolson (Wilson or 
Watson?) is made a sort of honorary member of the 
guild of cloth-makers (16 17). It must have been an 
exceptional act, since, in general, * Jews, Scots and 
Heretics, i.e. Protestants,' were refused admission. 

It was here that a curious action, for sumptuous 
apparel, in contravention of the laws against luxury 

of England, possessed only 6000 gulden. S. Lukaszewicz, Historisch 
statistisches B'tld der Stadt Posen, i. 79 f. 

1 S. Lukaszewicz, I.e., p. 80. 2 Hid., I.e., p. 80. 


frequently promulgated in Poland during the first quarter 
of the XVIIth Century, was preferred against the strangers. 
They were said to have dressed in robes of blue silk, 
richly trimmed with costly fur and that they had even 
assumed the distinctive sign of the nobility, the shoes 
of yellow morocco leather. The plaintiff was a Polish 
nobleman, named Ostrowski, and amongst the accused 
were the two richest merchants of Krone, Wolson and 
Lawson. Now the Scots being proverbially known to 
be inclined to thrift and parsimony rather than to 
sumptuousness in the way of silk and morocco leather, 
the complaint seems on the face of it absurd ; there were 
other reasons, probably, which induced the plaintiff to 
prefer this charge. Wolson as well as Lawson had 
both acquired a large fortune ; both were money-lenders, 
and the Polish nobility of the surrounding district seem 
to have been pretty well at their mercy by reason of 
their debts. Thus we read, that in 1617 the nobleman 
John v. der Golz and Barbara v. Walda mortgaged their 
share of the estate of Klausdorf to Wolson, the Scot, 
for 1000 Guldens, and some years later (1630) another 
member of the Golz family, not finding the magistrates 
of Krone inclined to assist him in his law-suit against 
Wolson, attacked him at night ' and maltreated him.' 
But he is himself brought to book in 1635 and 1639 
for a debt to the Scotchman amounting to 736 Guldens. 

In a similar manner Sophia Lawson, the widow of the 
above-named Lawson, and her son Christoph hold a bond 
of one Bernhard von Blankenburg ; and when Christoph 
dies in 1641 and his property comes to be divided, we 
are told that five noblemen, whose names are given, owe 
him a debt of nearly 6000 Gulden. May not also a case 
like this have been the reason of Ostrowski's charges ? 
Be this as it may, the important position of the Scottish 
settlers as money-lenders and bankers receives additional 
and interesting confirmation by these events in the history 
of Deutsch-Krone. 

Another settlement of the Scots was at Putzig, not 
far from Danzig. In the records of this town we read 


of several actions for insult preferred by them, against 
the inhabitants for calling them "Scottish rogues." A 
long law-suit of this description against one called George 
Ratzke in 1620 ends with his being sentenced to pay a 
fine and costs, and when he is unable to do this, he is 
banished out of the town " for a year and a day." 1 

Most of these immigrants were, as we have seen, of 
the reformed faith; yet the Roman Catholics were not 
wanting. They showed a predilection for the Catholic 
province of Ermeland or visited, as far as they did not 
belong to the trading fraternity, the school of the 
Jesuits at Braunsberg. Speaking of the foundation of 
St Rochus' Chapel at Arnsdorf the author 2 relates : 
" Once upon a time when a merchant from abroad, a 
Scot, drove from Guttstedt to Wormditt, where in those 
days much trade was done, he heard near Arnsdorf a 
ploughman ploughing near the road sing a Scotch tune. 
He wondered and stopped, called the ploughman and 
being questioned as to what brought him to this country 
the latter told his countryman, that his name was Maier 
(probably Mayor), that he had been forced to leave 
his native place during the religious persecutions of 
Queen Elizabeth, and that he and many others had at last 
arrived in Ermeland, where he, owing to his poverty, had 
to hire himself out as a farm-labourer. The merchant, 
who from the manner in which the tale was told, 
recognised Maiers' great capacities, took him with him 
and left him with the Jesuits at Braunsberg for further 
education. Later on the former ploughman became a 
rich merchant. Out of gratitude towards God for the 
fortunate turn of his life he in the year 1 6 1 7 built a chapel 
dedicated to St Rochus at Arnsdorf with eight windows, 
a small steeple and a bell. On a slab of black marble on 
the eastern wall we read the following inscription : 

1 Similar charges are brought forward in 1624 and 1641. Sometimes 
the Scottish took the law into their own hands and retaliated with 

2 Prof. Dittrich in Zeitschrift fur d. Gescb. und Altertumskunde 
Erm/arids, ix. 432 fF. 


I. M. I. 

Famatus Joann Maier, natione 
scotus, clvis brunob ; in pueris 
Ahrensdorfii et Lauterwaldii serviens 

ex voti causa hoc sacellum 

ad Dei Omnipotentis gloriam 


Salutis humanae i 617. 

i.e. the famous John Mayor, a Scot, citizen of Braunsberg 
in his youth serving at Ahrensdorf and Lauterwald, 
founded and built this chapel according to a vow, in 
honour of the Almighty God. In the year of grace 

Finally it deserves mention, that many of the im- 
migrated Scotch merchants, who in not a few cases 
belonged to the class of " lairds " at home, became 
founders of noble families in the land of their adoption. 
There is a close connection between the Austrian Barons 
von Skene, 2 who own large cloth-manufactories and sugar- 
refineries in Prerau and Briinn, and David Skene, a native 
of Aberdeen, who was made a citizen of Posen in 1586 
and whose second son married the daughter of a Scotch 
merchant in Danzig, named Chalmers. 

Nathaniel Gordon left Scotland, fourteen years old, in 
1 70 1, and went to Krakau to seek his fortune. He 
succeeded so well that he became the ancestor of the 
Polish noble family of Gordon now living at Ycon, their 
family seat to the north of Krakau. Two brothers 
Gibson, who came to Danzig in or about 1600, amassed 
a great fortune. A descendant of theirs received the 
title of "Baron" from Frederick the Great. 3 Many of 
the Ogilvies, who are met with throughout Poland, 
obtained high military titles and dignities. 4 The Bonars, 
of an ancient and very numerous Scotch clan, emigrated 
to Poland as early as the XVth Century. Upon them 
also were conferred the highest honours. One John 

1 Cp. Sembritzki, I.e., p. 230 ff. 

2 Now represented by A. von Skene, Freiherr and Member of the 
Austrian Parliament. As to the Edle von Ramsays see Supplement. 

3 See Appendix. 4 See Part ii., The Army. 


de Bonar, became Burggraf Krakau, and Baron of the 
German Empire ; a second one Theobald was made 
Franciscan-General ; whilst a third St John Isaiah de 
Bonar was even canonised by the church in 1483. 

Especially numerous among Scotch emigrants were the 
Fergussons and Frasers. In the year 1662 there died in 
Poland the merchant John Fergusson. He had encouraged 
two nephews George and William to emigrate also (1703). 
One of these, the eldest, married Catharina Concordia 
Tepper of Posen, a sister of a rich Banker Tepper in 
Warsaw. Their son Peter became the successor and heir 
of his uncle, was chosen a member of the legislative 
assembly and was granted permission to add the name 
Tepper to his own. He died in 1794. His son again 
Philipp Bernhard von Fergusson-Tepper, called the 
" second banker of Europe," was made honorary citizen 
of Edinburgh. He possessed a splendid house in Warsaw 
and built a Protestant Church next to it ; besides being a 
large land-owner in the Kingdom of Prussia. 1 In spite of 
his Protestant faith he was a Knight of the Order of 
Malta. His children intermarried with noble Russian and 
Prussian families. 2 

As to the noble family of Johnston of Craigieburn near 
Moffat, now of Rathen in Silesia, the reader will find the 
necessary information in Parts II. and IV. 

In Krakau we find mention made incidentally to some 
money-transaction, of one Jacob Drummond who is 
further styled : " ex familia magnifici baronis de Borlandt 
oriundus " ; and in the beginning of the XVIIth Century 
of one William Lindsay, whose son Jacob wrote for a 
certificate of his noble birth. 3 

1 He bought estates to the value of ^85,000 and received a letter from 
the King of Prussia, expressing pleasure at his becoming a Prussian subject. 

2 The Scotch have always shown special aptitude for banking. In 
Paris there lived a Scotch merchant Mercer in the reign of Charles II, 
who was a kind of Fugger in his days ; in Stockholm another Scotsman, 
Seton, acted the same part, providing the always needy Gustav III with 
the necessary moneys. 

3 He belonged to the Lindsays of Fesdo. See Lives of the Lindsays, 
i. 444- 


It often happened, that these young Scots, who were 
at first perhaps only known by their Christian names, 
afterwards when success smiled on them or when they 
claimed an inheritance or applied for a situation, wrote 
home for their birth-certificates or birth-briefs, elaborate 
genealogical statements most of them according to Scotch 
predilections in that special branch of domestic history. 
A large collection of these is to be found in the so-called 
Propinquity Books at Aberdeen. 

Of the rich Scotch merchants abroad, many made a 
noble use of their prosperity. Besides the founder of the 
Chapel of St Rochus, let another Roman Catholic be 
mentioned, who in the documents is erroneously called 
Portius instead of Porteous. 1 He lived at Krosna in 
Poland and was engaged in a very flourishing trade in 
Hungarian wines. He rebuilt the church of his adopted 
home, which had been destroyed by fire, endowed it with 
rich vestments, altar-vessels, a baptismal font and beautiful 
bells. At his death he left legacies to the King and to 
the place of his birth, besides a large amount of money 
to his heirs. In the writing on a picture of him in Krosna 
he is called "generosus." 

Another Scotsman, better known than Porteous, Robert 
Gordon of Aberdeen, spent the wealth which he had 
accumulated at Danzig in founding Gordon's Hospital in 
Aberdeen. John Turner, also a Scotch merchant of Danzig 
left at his death in 1680 four hundred Marks annually 
for the maintenance of four poor students, and legacies 
for the Scotch school, the Elisabeth Hospital and the 
" Pockenhaus " at Danzig. Patrick Forbes and William 
Lumsden witness the will. 2 

Among the Scots who emigrated to Danzig during the 
first half of the XVIIth Century was a certain Cockburn, 
whose name, according to the dialect of the district, 
became Kabrun. Orginally no doubt a merchant, he soon 
succeeded in buying a small landed property near the city 

1 He is called of "Lanxeth," a name which I could not identify with any 
Scotch place, and signs " H. M. Factor." Cp.Tomkowicz, I.e., p. t 54, note. 

2 Records of Marischal College oj Aberdeen. 


and in obtaining the rights of a citzen. A grandson of 
this first Kabrun acquired great wealth, owing chiefly to 
his superior and uncommon technical abilities. He started 
the first sugar-refining works at Danzig, had an extensive 
trade with Poland and was engaged in other factory-enter- 
prise. His son James born on the ninth of January 1759, 
became one of the most philanthropic and public spirited 
merchants Danzig ever possessed. His youth was passed 
in a time full of political oppression and suffering. The 
hard measures of Frederick the Great against the town, 
which after three centuries of thriving growth and 
privileges under the sovereignty of Poland, resisted his 
desires of incorporation and especially the heavy duties 
levied in all the suburbs and surrounding districts occupied 
by the Prussians on all goods imported into Danzig from 
the side of the sea or that of Poland, completely paralysed 
the trade. But Kabrun's business suffered besides that 
for private reasons. His partner had incautiously become 
surety for a strange firm, and a great flood occurring in 
1775 had destroyed a considerable part of his goods and 
stores. Thus it came to pass, that the father failed, and 
the youth, then scarcely seventeen, was thrown back on 
his own energy and resources. Matters mended, however, 
soon. An uncle took him into his business, where he 
in a short time completely gained the confidence of his 
employer by his untiring application, and his commercial 
ability. He undertook successful travels in Holland and 
England and was fortunate also in some small commercial 
undertakings of his own. After acting for a time as 
partner of the firm, he in 1800 after his uncle's death 
became the sole representative of it and rapidly acquired 
the envied and enviable position as one of the wealthiest 
and most generous merchants of Danzig. Not satisfied 
with the great revival of trade after the final incorporation 
into Prussia, he tried to start new branches of industry 
by settling in his native town a colony of silk- weavers from 
the South of Germany, granting them dwellings and 
guaranteeing them fair wages. He also extended his 
shipping trade, by sending one of his vessels to the distant 


port of Buenos Ayres. Fond of travelling his large 
collection of paintings and prints was constantly added to, 
whilst in his leisure hours he composed essays on the 
science of Financing or wrote other books, notably his 
" Life of a Merchant," an autobiography, which after the 
great model of Goethe, he called: "Wahrheit ohne 
Dichtung" (Truth without Fiction). It was through him 
also that the plan of erecting an Opera-House was success- 
fully carried out at the cost of about ^4000. In short, 
Kabrun proved besides being an enterprising merchant, a 
munificent patron of all that contributed to the mental 
development of his fellow-citizens. Unfortunately he had 
to abandon his favourite scheme of establishing a com- 
mercial academy at Danzig owing to the indolence of the 
inhabitants and the threatening aspect of the times. The 
sufferings of the town during the reign of Napoleon are 
well known. It was twice besieged, once by the French 
in 1807 from the 24th of April to the 24th of May and 
again by the Russians and Germans in 18 14 before the 
final retreat of the French. Kabrun's energy found ample 
scope for work. He acted as a true helper in distress 
and a father of the poor and suffering; displaying 
everywhere a total disregard of his own health and 
comfort in his desire to ameliorate the terrible conse- 
quences of war and privation. Not only did he collect a 
large sum of money from his friends in Germany, which 
he conscientiously distributed chiefly amongst working 
men, who wanted to purchase new tools or buy material 
to rebuild their houses, but he also wrote to his business- 
connections in London, and originated a collection in 
the City in aid of the sufferers of Danzig, which amounted 
to the large sum of £5000. Not being a man of a strong 
physical constitution it was not to be wondered at, that 
this ceaseless strain accelerated his death. Occupied with 
the plans for his new country house, and with the erection 
of dwellings for the families of poor artizans on an estate 
lately purchased by him and partly intended for mercantile 
and technical purposes, he was struck by paralysis on 
October 24th, 18 14. By his will he left his whole 


library, his pictures, drawings and prints and the sum of 
100,000 Gulden for the foundation of a Commercial 
Academy at Danzig. 1 The two sons of Kabrun, both 
dying without male heirs, increased this bequest of their 
father by rich legacies and the gift of further art-treasures. 

Owing to adverse circumstances the Commercial 
Establishment was not opened till July 2nd, 1832; but since 
then it has exercised a very beneficent and widespread 
influence over the youths of the town and district, and the 
name of Kabrun, who although of Scottish origin, had 
become the prototype of a public-spirited, far-seeing 
German patriot, will be unforgotten. 

Finally mention must be made of William Brown of 
Angus in Scotland, who went to Danzig about 1693, an< ^ 
returned to England in 1699 after having acquired great 
wealth. He was made a Baronet. 2 

Very various indeed were the claims that were made 
upon the liberality of these Scotch merchants abroad. It 
will be remembered, how thoroughly Charles II took 
advantage of his faithful subjects in Poland in the year 
1 65 1. Towards the end of that century it happened 
that the buildings of Marischal College became dilapidated, 
and again the Scot abroad, especially at Konigsberg and 
Danzig, must come to the rescue. The Rector and the 
Professors of Aberdeen, after having received contribu- 
tions some sixteen years ago, address a new letter to their 
distant countrymen with the prayer to assist them still 
further in procuring the necessary building funds. Nor 
was this appeal in vain. Very considerable sums were 
contributed by fifty-four members of the Scotch Brother- 
hood in Konigsberg, by twenty-one at Warsaw, and many 
others at Danzig, Elbing and other places. John Turner 
above named had already in 1685 subscribed over 600 
pounds; Postmaster Low in Danzig 290, Patrick Forbes 
at Danzig 280 pounds. The latter wrote on the 6th of 
September 1684 to the Rector and the Professors of 
Aberdeen as follows : — 

1 Volkel, Life of Kabrun and Appendix. 

2 Memorials of the Browns of Fordell, by R. R. Stodart, p. 19 f., 202 f. 


"Right honorabell Sirs, 

Through this bearer Baylie Alexander Gordone, 
your acceptabell letter I reseawed and heawing respect to 
such worthie persones, your good desinges and rasonabell 
demands, I wold not be refractive bot heaw (for hes 
discharg) delyvred to the forsaid Baylie Gordone ane 
hundred Crossdollers in specie which I intreat yee will 
accept and registrat in yor books for the building of the 
Marischall Colleg. I wish it be onlly imployed to that 
use, and it shall be allwayes my earnest wish to heyr, gif 
not to see, Learneing may increas in my native, which is 
the speciall mean to uphold both church and stait, which 
God allmightie mantin in hes fear, love and unyformetie 
to the end. 

Commiteing you and your desing to the directyone of 
the allmighty and myselfF to your favor, I subscrybe 
Sir, yours in observaunc 

Patrick Forbes." 

Low and Miller write in a similar strain in 1 700 and 
1 70 1 ; the latter holding out no hope of collecting more, 
for " times are so very hard in this country and so little 
trade." 1 

Another Scotch merchant established a bursary for a 
Polish student at Edinburgh and Patrick Aikenhead, who 
died at Danzig in 1693, left a legacy of 3500 pounds to 
the same city, "ad pios usus." 2 

Of the contributions towards the building of a new 
Church at Danzig for the united "British Nation" as 
well as of the Davidson Bequest in the same town, we 
have already spoken. 

In short, the saying " blood is thicker than water " 
may be applied to these Scotch merchants abroad with 
the same propriety as it applies to the emigrants in 
Australia : their blood remains their blood, their home 
their home. 

1 Records of the Marischall College of Aberdeen, i. 356-360. See 

2 Robert Chambers, Edinburgh Merchants, p. 24. 


But in the land of their adoption also the Scots have 
left, though in the times when drums of war did not 
cease beating, hundreds of them perished and left no 
trace behind, the grateful recollections of a new race. 
They have founded families which flourish to this day in 
Germany, Russia, Sweden, Holland, Austria and France ; 
they have proved their industry and their intelligence, 
their bravery and their strength of religious conviction 
amidst many dangers and calumnies, and by sacrificing 
the results of their labour, nay their lives, shown their 
gratitude towards a country, which had in times of dearth 
and persecution become a refuge for them. 



Scottish bravery and Scottish loyalty have been rendered 
immortal by the historian and the poet not only in their 
motherland. Kings and Emperors of the Continent have 
acknowledged these sterling qualities from time im- 
memorial. In France, — a country led by the common 
hatred of England into an alliance, which for centuries 
formed the central fact of English history, — there existed a 
Royal Bodyguard composed of Scotsmen since very early 
times. Its duty was to accompany the sovereign wherever 
he went and to answer for his safety. In the hands of 
its officers were the keys of the royal bedchamber and 
private chapel ; they protected the royal barge, when the 
King had to cross a river or lake, and the sedan chair in 
which he was being carried. On state occasions three of 
this Bodyguard stood on each side of His Majesty, their 
halberds decorated with silk of the royal colour, white. 
As a military regiment the guard appears since 1425, in 
order to fight henceforth in all the great battles at the 
head of the French army. 

In Poland, where king and nobles alike used to sur- 
round their persons with a bodyguard, it was the Scots 
again of whom by preference it was composed. In 
Denmark and Holland, Scotch regiments have for centuries 
acquired honour and glory on many a battlefield. More 
than once Scottish officers have held the fate of colossal 
Russia in their hands, and Gustavus Adolf us, "the Lion and 
the Bulwark of the North," would without his Scotch 
regiments and leaders hardly have gained his victories and 
saved the cause of Protestantism in Germany. 

It is not our task here to follow the glorious career of the 
Scottish Guard in France. He who desires information 

on this interesting chapter of French history, will find in 



English as well as in French literature works full of 
diligent research and fascinating detail. 1 We have to do 
with the deeds of Scotch warriors and officers in Germany 
and for a German cause. 

It is commonly taken for granted that Scotch officers 
and mercenaries did not appear on German soil before 
the Thirty Years' War (i 6 18-1648). This is however 
erroneous. Already three centuries earlier, at the time 
when the Order of the Teutonic Knights proclaimed a 
crusade against the heathen in the far east of Prussia, the 
knights of Scotland also prepared for such a pious and 
warlike expedition. In England the powerful Earl of 
Derby, afterwards King Henry IV, and many other nobles 
of many Christian nations had set the example, during the 
years 138 9-1 391. Indeed so popular had these Prussian 
crusades become, that not only was the German word 
" reysa " — a journey, an expedition — adopted as the 
technical term for them in English, but they were made 
the final proof and seal of the perfection of a Christian 
knight. Thus Chaucer in the Prologue to the Canterbury 
Tales describes his knight — 

" Full often tyme he hadde the bord bygonne 
Above alle naciouns in Pruce : 
In Lettowe hadde he reysed and in Ruce 
Ne Christian man so ofte of his degree " ; 

and already in 1356 we find that the brothers Walther and 
Norman de Lesselyn obtain safe-conduct to Prussia. Six 
years later a certain David de Berclay — scutifer — applies 
for similar letters for himself, twelve knights and twelve 
horses, bound for Prussia. The same application is made 
in 1378 by Adam de Heburn who sails for Prussia with 
ten knights. 2 

But the most celebrated " reyse " of all, was that of 
Lord William Douglas of Nithisdale, called Black 

1 Michel, Francisque : Les Ecossais en France et les Francais en 
Ecosse. London, Triibner & Co., 2 vols. 1862. 

Burton, J. H., The Scot Abroad. Edinburgh 1898. The first 
volume contains the History of the Scottish Guard in France. 

2 Rotuli Scotiae, 37 Ecliv. ///and /, 797. 


Douglas. It is mentioned by German, French, English 
and Scotch writers ; by the last named not without a 
touch of the legendary. 

William Douglas was the natural son of Archibald 
Douglas. He was as famous for his knightly virtues as 
for his prodigious bodily strength. King Robert II of 
Scotland had given him his daughter Egidia in marriage 
in acknowledgment of his many deeds of valour, and the 
united knights of England and Scotland, who after the 
battle of Otterburne in August 1388 agreed to terminate 
their incessant feuds by an armistice of three years 
duration, had, according to Scotch sources, made him 
commander of a fleet of 240 ships. Shortly after his 
arrival at Danzig (Danskin) he excited the jealousy of 
some English warriors of rank, who as friends of his 
mortal enemy Clifford did not scruple to assassinate him. 
It appears that this Clifford had in Scotland challenged 
Douglas to fight him in single combat and, when Douglas 
went to Paris to procure armour, spread the slanderous 
rumour, that fear had prompted him to flight. 1 But when 
his opponent returned in due time for the duel, it was 
Clifford himself who had absconded. We are not told 
that he went to Prussia also, but his friends acted for 
him, hired assassins, waylaid Douglas on his way home 
from church and killed him and one of his servants near 
the end of a bridge after a most stubborn resistance. 2 
Most probably this was the bridge, or more correctly the 
quay, of the Mottlau river, called then as now the "long 
bridge." One of its gates, the Frauenthor, was near the 
High Altar of the Church of St Mary. 

A crime so atrocious could not fail to produce the 
greatest indignation among the French and Scottish 
knights. The table of honour at Konigsberg at 
which the Teutonic Knights desired to welcome their 
foreign guests, was deferred until the arrival in the 
enemy's country. Boucicault, the far-famed French 
warrior, who was present at an expedition into Prussia 

1 Hirsch, Scriptores Rerum Prussicarum, ii. 644. 

2 Douglas fell fighting "lyke ane lyon." 


for the fourth time, openly and vehemently blamed the 
English for their foul crime, and challenged every one 
of them to single combat that would call the deed by 
another name. But the English refused to give an 
account except to the Scottish knights. 1 

Two points remain unsettled in this affair, so well 
authenicated in its main features : the place and the time. 
The French author of the Adventures of Boucicault and 
one of the German chroniclers place the scene of the 
murder at Konigsberg, whilst the Scotch and English 
sources as well as the other German Chronicler mention 
Danzig as such. 2 The time is variously given as 1390 or 
139 1 ; but Douglas seems to have been alive as late 
as 1392. 3 

However this may be, the old writers are perfectly 
consistent in the relation of the fact itself; we know 
even the companions-in-arms of Douglas with tolerable 
certainty. Their names have curiously enough come to 
us in an old bill of obligation, written by James Douglas 
of Dalkeith at Danzig for Sir Robert Stuart of 
Durisdeer, who lived at the end of the XlVth 
Century. 4 

After this time we hear almost nothing of Scottish 
mercenaries in Germany for two centuries ; nor is this to 
be wondered at considering the great draining of warlike 
youths to France and Holland. 

It is not till 1577 that the City of Danzig, then waging 
war against the King of Poland, Stephan Bathory, hired 
a regiment of 700 Scots. They were permitted to take 
their own clergymen with them. 

Some thirty or forty years later during an armistice in 
the Netherlands several Scottish regiments of the Dutch 
Brigade under Sir E. Cecil were sent to assist the Protest- 

1 Le livre des faicts du Mareschal Boucicault, in Michaud and 
Pougoulat's Nowvelle Collection des Memoires, Paris, 1836, Tome ii. 
See also Appendix. 

2 Hirsch in his edition of Prussian Chroniclers rightly inclines to 

3 Dictionary of Nat. Biography, vol. 1 5. 

4 See Report of the Historical MSS. Commission, xi. and Appendix. 


ant Elector of Brandenburg in his war against the Emperor 
Leopold and Wolfgang William of the Bavarian Palatinate 
for the possession of the principality of Jiilich. 1 A colonel 
Henderson is mentioned particularly as having shown great 
bravery in the capture of the strong fortress of that name. 

But only when the bloody torch of the Thirty Years' War 
(16 1 8-1 648) shed its lurid light over the whole of Europe 
and when Gustavus Adolfus' fame, not only as that of 
a saviour of the cause of Protestantism, but also as that 
of an unusually brilliant general and strategist, rapidly 
spread over the civilised world, a great number of Scottish 
officers, many of them of noble rank, enlisted in the 
Swedish Army, to go, as it were, through the high school 
of military training, and Scotland became the country in 
which by far the most numerous levies of soldiers for the 
" Lion of the North," were raised. Between twenty and 
thirty thousand men made the cause of the Swedes and 
of German Protestantism their own. 

How deeply this fact, denuding whole tracts of country 
of its young men, was felt in the domestic life of Scotland, 
may be read in the dusty records of history. It has 
found a more eloquent and a more touching expression in 
the songs of the people. 

He's brave as brave can be ; 
He wad rather fa' than flee ; 
But his life is dear to me, 
Send him hame, send him hame. 

Your love ne'er learnt to flee 
But he fell in Germanie ; 
Fighting brave for loyaltie : 
Mournfu' dame, mournfu' dame ! 

Or in another place : 

Oh, woe unto these cruell wars 
That ever they began ! 
For they have reft my native isle 
Of many a pretty man. 

1 This was the so-called War of Succession of Jiilich. Duke 
William had died in 1609 without leaving a direct heir. It ended by a 
division which gave the Brandenburger the lion's share (1614). 


First they took my brothers twain 
Then wiled my love frae me : 
Oh, woe unto these cruell wars 
In low Germanie ! 

Even in the language of the Gaels the fact stands 
recorded. There we have a proverb referring to the 
levies by Colonel Mackay for the Swedes — 

Na h-uile fear a theid a dhollaidh 
Gheibh a dolar bho Mhac Aoidh. 

' He who is down in luck, can still get a dollar (recruiting 
money) from Mackay.' 

On the whole the report of these Scottish mercenaries 
is a good one. R. Cannon, the well-known military author, 
says of them : " No troops could be better fitted, morally 
as well as physically, for desperate undertakings, than these 
Scots. They proved hardy, frugal and sober soldiers." 
The same praise is bestowed upon them by an old wood- 
engraving preserved in the British Museum. It represents 
four Highlanders, three in kilts, the fourth in a sort of 
trunk-hose. Above it are the German words : "In 
solchem Habit gehen die 800 in Stettin angekommenen 
Irr lander oder Irren " ; x i.e., " In such dress the 800 
Highlanders (lately) arrived at Stettin walk (about)." 
Under it we read : " Es ist ein starkes, dauerhafftiges 
Volk, behilft sich mit geringer Speis, hat es nicht Brod, so 
essen sie Wurzeln, wenn's auch die Nothdurfft erfordert, 
konnen des Tags iiber die 20 teutsche men" lauffen, haben 
neben Muskeden ihre Bogen und Kocher und lange 
Messer"; i.e., "They are a strong, hardy race, con- 
tenting themselves with little food, if they have no 
bread, they eat roots and carrots ; in case of necessity 
they are able to walk twenty German miles in a day ; 2 
they have besides muskets, their bows and quivers and 
long knives." 

What raised the position of the Scottish soldier in the 

1 Erse (Highlanders). 

2 This would be a prodigious feat indeed calculating the distance as 
between 80 and 100 English miles. 


Thirty Years' War above that of the common mercenary, 
was the feeling of loyalty towards the unfortunate King 
of Bohemia, whose wife was a daughter of their own 
King James VI. They saw in the cause of the Scottish 
princess their own. 

Moreover they mostly descended from decent, if poor, 
families, and were led by the sons of the lower and higher 
nobility, often chiefs of the clans. These officers excelled 
in bravery, pride and a certain "perfervidum ingenium," 
which is ascribed to the Scots from times immemorial. 
When the King of Denmark at first refused to let them 
retain their silk flag with the cross of St Andrew on it, 
they all threatened instant departure, and when Gustavus 
Adolfus quizzed brave Colonel Hepburn on account of 
the splendour of his armour and of his being a Roman 
Catholic, he at once sheathed his sword and left the 
Swedish service. The Emperor Charles V of Germany 
had already recognized the sensitive pride of these high- 
minded men and wisely recommended : " qu'on n'irritast 
les Ecossois, sachant bien que les Ecossois estaient 
pauvres mais gens vaillants"; 1 and it would have been 
better if the Swedish king had followed his advice. 2 

To say, however, that these mercenaries of Scotland 
had all been animated by a religious or even a political 
motive, would mean to ignore the spirit of the time. 
Granted that these motives played a conspicuous and noble 
part in many of the officers, yet with the bulk of them 
the military training under so famous a King was the first 
consideration, and with the rank and file of the men — 
pay and hope of booty. 

Walter Scott has in his Legend of Montrose added the 
sketch of the Scottish soldier of fortune in the Thirty 
Years' War to his long and magnificent picture-gallery 
illustrative of the history of Scotland. For artistic 
reasons, however, he made our friend Dugald Dalgetty, 
who changes his masters, after some nice reasoning to 

1 Meteren, fol. 310. 

2 As a weapon the Scottish soldiers mostly used the pike, " la 
senora y reina de los armas " as it is called. 


comfort his conscience, almost with the same ease as one 
changes one's gloves ; who performs wonders of valour 
in their service and remains faithful to them for just as 
long as his own oath binds him, the representative of the 
extreme side rather of the Scottish trooper. 1 And when 
Sir James Turner, to whom we owe several quaintly- 
interesting works on the art of war, writes : " I had 
swallowed, without chewing, in Germanie, a very dangerous 
maxime, which militarie men there too much follow, which 
was, that soe we serve our master honestlie, it is no 
matter what master we serve " ; 2 we perceive at once 
that these lax principles were not inbred, but reluctantly 
adopted. Men could not help breathing the tainted moral 
atmosphere that surrounded them. 

In the principal source for this period of blood and 
war on the continent, the contemporary chronicle of the 
deeds of Mackay's Regiment by Colonel Robert Munro, 3 
we find instead of lax morals a firm trust in God's pro- 
vidence and remarks on the virtues and duties of a soldier, 
the duties of mercy towards the wounded for instance, 
which bear testimony to the humane and noble character 
of its author. Two other books, chiefly founded upon 
these memoirs, give us a very interesting account of those 
terrible times of religious warfare and the part played in it 
by the Scots : the Memoirs and Adventures of Sir J . 
Hepburn, and the Story of the Highlanders under Mackay, 
Lord Re ay. 4 

Guided by these authors and by such material as we 
have been able to gather from German sources, we will 
now proceed to sketch the history of the Scotch Brigades 
in Germany during the Thirty Years' War. 

Colonel Hepburn, General and Marechal of France in 
later years, was a young, well educated man, descended 
from a noble, Catholic family. Already before entering 

1 John Hill Burton, Scot Abroad, ii. 3 1 6. 

2 Memoirs of his oivn Life and Times , p. 1 4. 

3 The book has a very long title ; it is usually cited as Munro' 's 

4 Jas. Grant, Memoirs and Adventures of Sir J. Hepburn. 


the service of the King of Sweden, he had fought against 
Stanislas of Poland for the new elected King of Bohemia, 
Frederic, whose wife was, as we have seen, a Stuart 
Princess. Patriotic feelings had overcome his religious 
scruples. Many of his like-minded countrymen under 
the leadership of Sir Andrew Grey had gone with him 
and everywhere earned the greatest praise for their 
bravery. Whenever an enterprise of a particularly daring 
character was to be undertaken, it was mostly Hepburn, 
who was chosen for it ; and thanks to his eminent gifts 
of strategy and his equally great courage, he generally 
succeeded in bringing the matter to a victorious issue. 

There was in his regiment a certain Colonel Edmond, 
the son of a baker at Stirling. He once performed the 
feat of swimming, his sword between his teeth, across the 
Danube, stealthily passed the Imperial outposts and, 
favoured by the darkness of the night, penetrated into 
the Austrian camp, where by stratagem and his giant 
strength he managed to bind one of the most famous 
warriors of the day — the French Count and Imperial 
general Bucquoi. Then he swam back with his prisoner, 
and having arrived amongst his own, introduced him to 
his General, the Prince of Orange. Others equally 
daring were not wanting, notably three brothers Haig, 
Robert, George and James. Their mother had been 
nurse to the Queen of Bohemia. All three fell in the 
war fighting bravely for their fair foster-sister. 

In 1630, the Scots whom Colonel Lumsden had in the 
meantime brought to Germany, the corps of Hargate and 
Mackay's Highlanders, were united in one Brigade, bear- 
ing henceforward the name of the Green or Hepburn's 
Scottish Brigade. 1 Mackay's Highlanders had taken part 
in the unfortunate struggle of the King of Denmark, who 
was fighting on the side of the Protestants against the 
Imperialists. They had distinguished themselves in the 
siege of Stralsund, so long and so obstinately attacked by 

1 It was the second of the thirteen Regiments of Scotch soldiers in the 
army of Gustavus Adolfus. The name is not derived from the colour of 
the standard, but of the tartans. 


Wallenstein, by their energetic labours for the defence 
of the city, and had then by order of the King retired to 
Wolgast after the loss of five hundred men, leaving the 
defence of the great fortress in the hands of the Swedes 
and of their famous countryman, General Alexander 
Leslie. Finally, when a separate peace between the 
Emperor and the King of Denmark had been concluded, 
they were with ' abundant thanks and rich rewards ' 
dismissed by the latter (1629). I n tne same year their 
leader Mackay was made Colonel by Gustavus Adolfus. 1 
His newly levied Scottish regiment, however, suffered 
shipwreck off the coast of Riigen Island, on the way to 
the Swedish army, and Riigen was still held by the 
Imperialists. The soldiers had saved their lives and 
their muskets, but they possessed no ammunition. In 
this plight Colonel Munro succeeded in discovering an 
old castle, belonging to a Duke of Pommerania and a 
secret friend of the King of Sweden near the small town 
of Riigenwalde. For a present of powder and lead he 
promised him to clear the island of the enemy. A well 
prepared and executed midnight - attack put him in 
possession of the town. A panic spread among the 
Imperialists, who had never expected any danger in this 
direction, and it was not long before the whole island 
was in the hands of the Scots. They retained it for nine 
weeks, when Colonel Hepburn came to relieve them, who 
formed the lairds and peasants of the district into a small 
army and led it well-armed and well-drilled to the King 
of Sweden. In the meantime the Highlanders had 
marched to Schiefelbein, a small fortified place in 
Brandenburg, in order to obstruct the passage of the 
Austrians, who were advancing for the relief of Colberg. 
They were commanded to hold the town as long as 
possible and to defend the castle or fort to the last man. 
How well they fulfilled this task an eloquent Latin Ode 

1 Valuable documents of this time in possession of Lord Reay were 
thought lost for a century. They were discovered in 1885. Amongst 
them are original letters of the King of Denmark, Count Rantzau and 
Gustavus Adolfus. See Appendix. 


tells us, printed in front of Munro' s Memoirs and bear- 
ing the title : " Schiefelbeinum urbs et arx Marchiae 
Brandenburgicae a generoso Domino Roberto Munro 
bene defensae." 1 

The first exploit of the united Scottish Brigade was 
the taking of the two strong fortresses : Frankfurt-on-the- 
Oder and Landsberg. During the assault on the former, 
Hepburn himself was wounded in the leg. Gustavus 
Adolfus had inflamed the courage of his Scottish troops 
by reminding them of Tilly's pillage of New-Brandenburg, 
where so many of their countrymen, after a stubborn, 
nine-days' defence, had fallen victims to the enraged and 
cruel general. 2 

Hepburn then marched to Leipzig (1631). Sir James 
Ramsay was in command of the vanguard, and then it 
was on the 7th of September " after we had in the early 
morning, as the larke begunne to peep commended our- 
selbes and the event of the day to God," that the great 
battle commenced. 3 Whilst the Imperial cavalry scattered 
the Saxons on the left wing, the Scotch stood firm, firing 
for the first time in platoons. Hepburn formed a square 
and, when the Austrians had approached near enough, 
caused his victorious pikemen to advance. In the mean- 
time Lord Reay's Highlanders were equally successful. 
With terror did the Imperialists see them, the 'right 
hand of the King ' as they were called, and it was not 
long before they yielded to their impetuous onslaught. 
Soon the defeat became a rout. If it had not been for 
the dust favouring their flight, the loss of the enemy 
would have been much greater still. "We were not 
able," says Munro, "by the rising of the dust to see 
about us, much less discerning the way of our enemies 
or the rest of our brigades, whereupon, having a drummer 

1 The author is a certain M.D., also known as a Latin poet with the 
name of Narsius. Cp. Allgem. Deutsche Biographie, vol. 23. 

2 The records of New- Brandenburg (in Mecklenburg Strelitz) have 
unfortunately been destroyed by fire in the XVIIth Century. Boll in 
his History of Mecklenburg (ii. 99) mentions that Lieut.-Colonel Lintz 
(i.e. Lindsay), a Scottish Baron, held the post at the Gate of Treptow. 

3 Munro, His Expedition, ii. 63. 


by me, 1 caused him to beat the Scotch march, which 
recollected our friends unto us." 1 

Gustavus thanked the Green Brigade publicly before 
the whole army for their splendid services. An enormous 
booty fell into his hands ; but instead of making use of 
the opportunity of pursuing the wounded General Tilly, 
he victoriously marched on to Halle. Seeing Hepburn 
there at a great parade he dismounted and gave his 
officers a long address praising the courage and the 
discipline of the Scottish troops. The Swedish generals 
jumped from their horses and kissed the King's hand, 
whilst the soldiers amidst the deafening din of the drums 
and the lowering of the standards filled the air with 
shouts of " Vivat Gustavus." 

It was on the nth of September 1631 that Hepburn 
took possession of the town. On the evening of that 
day the King, accompanied by all his officers, went to 
the Ulric Church to thank God for the victory, and 
there "I heard," says Munro, "the sweetest melodious 
musicke that could be heard and I also did see the 
most beautiful women Dutchland could afford." 2 

On the following Monday the Elector of Saxony and 
other Protestant princes came on a visit. Hepburn was 
presented to them and received abundance of praise. To 
his friend Munro the King said jestingly, taking him by 
the hand : " Munro, I wish you could to-night be our 
field-marshal of the bottle and the glasses to entertain my 
guests, but you have not the head for it." 

From Halle the army proceeded in two distinct columns 
across the Thuringian Forest 3 into Franconia, to clear the 
country of the enemy. At Wurzburg the forces of Hep- 

1 This " March of the Scots " was the terror of the Spaniards in 
Holland and the Austrians in Germany. German and Swedish troops 
often used it to secure their positions from attacks. It was composed in 
1527 for the old guard of King James V. See Munro, Exped. 

2 Munro, His Expedition, ii. 74. 

3 " On September 28th the King marched from Ilmenau even into the 
thickest of the Duringer Forest. And for the soldiers better seeing their 
way in the night time, were there wisps and cresset-lights made in pans 
and hung upon the trees, with other such like provision." Swedish 
Intelligencer, ii. 6. 


burn and the King reunited. The town itself surrendered 
without striking a blow ; the keys having been presented 
to the King in the name of the bishop and the terrified 
citizens by another Scotsman named Ogilvie, who was a 
priest in the Scotch Benedictine Monastery. A more 
difficult task it proved to reduce the strongly fortified 
Marienberg on the other side of the Main-River. Situated 
on a rock, and one arch of the bridge over the river being 
broken, it almost seemed impregnable. Moreover the guns 
of the fortress swept every approach. But the rumour 
of the great treasure heaped up in the town, and of the 
famous cellars with the still more famous wines, excited 
the soldiers to dare their utmost. Only a single plank 
stretched from arch to arch some fifty feet above the 
rapid stream, and yet the Scots, under Sir James Ramsay 
and Sir John Hamilton, succeeded, partly in boats, partly 
filing across the bridge in swift succession, to carry the 
out-works, after which the success of the final attack by 
the Swedes was assured. Thirty-four cannons, rich 
treasure in money and in silver and gold vessels from 
the treasure-house of the Prince and the Churches, many 
wagon-loads of wine and stores great enough to feed 
them for many a year, fell into the hands of the Swedes. 
The nuns of the towns were brought back under military 
protection. The library of the Jesuits was sent to the 
Swedish University of Upsala, and rich rewards were 
given to the chief commanders. Sir James Ramsay 
received estates in Mecklenburg in acknowledgment of 
his excellent services and was made Governor of Hanau. 
In the meantime the King flushed with success knew 
no rest. Scarcely had the Imperial troops at Frankfurt- 
on-the-Maine surrendered and the Scots found out that 
the wine in that neighbourhood was sweet " and ripe and 
as abundant as water," 1 when the Spaniards in the 
Palatinate engaged his attention. The great difficulty 

1 Munro gives a very enthusiastic description of Frankfurt. " The 
towne is so pleasant for ay re, situation, buildings, traffique, commerce 
with all nations by water and by land that it is and may be thought the 
garden of Germany." Exped. ii. 89. 



was the crossing of the Rhine, especially as the enemy had 
destroyed and burned every craft they could lay hands on. 
Count Brahe, however, and Hepburn succeeded at last in 
finding some small boats, in which they crossed the river ; 
having entrenched themselves in all haste they drove away 
the Spanish Cuirassiers, who fled partly towards Mainz, 
partly towards Oppenheim, a strongly fortified place on 
the Rhine, well defended by a body of brave Italians and 
Burgundians, "such seasoned old blades as the King of 
Sweden had not met since the Battle of Leipzig." 

Colonel Hepburn received the command to capture the 
" sconce " that was lying opposite the town on the other 
side of the river. On the afternoon of the 4th of 
December, a bitterly cold day, when the country was 
covered far and wide with a sheet of snow and ice, he 
was sitting with his friend Munro behind the earth-works 
enjoying the contents of a jug of country-wine. 
Suddenly the garrison of Oppenheim, being roused by the 
light of the watch-fires reflected by the snow, fired a 
thirty-two pounder across the river, which buried itself 
quite close to the two friends in Hepburn's old travelling 
coach. All night the firing continued. A sortie of two 
hundred Burgundians was repulsed by the Scots. On 
the following day the u sconce " surrendered on favourable 

Then the King on one side and Hepburn, who had 
crossed the river on 107 boats sent by Gustavus, on the 
other, commenced the assault of the castle. But how 
great was their astonishment, when they met fugitives 
leaping the walls, throwing away their arms and crying 
for quarter. There was heard also musketry-fire within. 
The mystery was soon explained. Colonel Ramsay in his 
impulsive eagerness had on secret paths penetrated into 
the castle with only two hundred Scots before the King, 
and when the latter saw the little band drawn up at the 
gate to salute him, he addressed them with : " My brave 
Scots, why have you been too quick for me ? " x 

1 The Swedish Intelligencer, a contemporaneous newspaper of London, 
confirms these facts and adds, that two hundred Spaniards were cut 


Encouraged by this victory the King at once marched 
against Mainz, one of the strongest fortresses in the whole 
seat of the war. Here also Hepburn was given the most 
dangerous place in the besieging army. He threw up 
his parallels not far from the so-called Galgenthor, i.e. 
gallows gate, and before daybreak he had sufficiently 
screened himself from the fire of the enemy by gabions 
earth-works, etc. Munro gives us a very graphic account 
of these days. One night the Swedish Colonel Axel 
Lily had come on a visit. Hepburn and Munro had 
chosen a spot where the snow had been cleared away and 
sitting before a large fire, enjoyed what their cooks had 
been roasting on old ramrods. Every moment there was 
a flash of light on the dark ramparts of the citadel and 
the canon balls whizzed over their heads and were lost 
in the night or fell into the deep Rhine. Then Lily said 
jestingly, stooping after one of those flashes, " What 
would they think of me, if anything happened to me 
here? I have no business here and am exposed to their 
cannons." Immediately after these words the enemy fired 
another shot, which, after piercing the defective entrench- 
ment, tore away his leg. Hepburn's men carried him to 
a surgeon in a sheltered place and the King showed him 
every attention. Don Philipp, the commander of Mainz, 
surrendered unexpectedly on the following morning with- 
out waiting for the final assault. Gustavus entered the 
town in triumph. Eighty cannons and the rich library of 
the Elector were among his booty. He received more- 
over 200,000 florins as ransom and 180,000 from the 
Jews, who thereby purchased the safety of their 
Synagogue. Hepburn remained in Mainz until the 
month of March. 1 Later in the year he contributed 

-down in this action, and eight colours taken, the first the King ever 
took from Spain. S<w. Intelligencer, ii. 47. Jas. Grant, Memoirs, 
p. 144. _ 

To this day the so-called Schwedensaule = Swede's column, indicates 
the place where Gustavus crossed the river at Oppenheim. 

1 About the same time Kreuznach, Bingen and Bacharach were taken 
by the Scots under Sir James Ramsay. Another Colonel Ramsay, 
Alexander, was made Governor of Kreuznach. 


essentially to the success of the Swedish King before 
Donauworth, by occupying a strategically important point, 
and entering the town by a circuitous route whilst the 
King assailed it in front. After the capture and when 
some quiet had been restored, the King sent for the 
colonel, who had to work his way through streets crowded 
with fugitives, broken gun-carriages, dead horses and 
soldiers, till he came to the beautiful house, where 
Gustavus, Frederik, the King of Bohemia, and other 
princes were regaling themselves after the labours of the 
night. The King thanked Hepburn for his faithful 
services and ascribed the conquest of the town to his 
advice to circumvent it. After Donauworth Augsburg 
was occupied on the 8th of April ; x Munich on the 7th of 
May. Hepburn was made governor of it, and it was to 
his regiments that the King entrusted, much to the disgust 
of the Swedes, the protection of his person. Munro's 
description of the palace is full of interest. Round about 
it there were beautiful gardens with fish ponds and 
fountains. One of them represented Perseus with the 
head of Medusa. In the large park "plentie of hares 
could be seen " ; there were also Tennis Courts in which 
the kings sometimes "did recreat " themselves. 2 In con- 
nection with the palace there were magnificent galleries 
and a rare library with many precious books. It was 
here that the two friends Hepburn and Munro walked 
together recalling to their memories the old University 
days of Cambridge, or turning up the long neglected 
Classics. In the arsenal the King found an enormous 
booty ; the so-called " twelve apostles " and many other 
cannons were found hidden under the floor. In one of 
them there were discovered 150,000 ducats sewed up in 
cartridges. Hepburn remained in Munich whilst Gustavus 
Adolfus took up his quarters at Augsburg and General 

1 Munro is careful to give us the text of the sermon preached at the 
thanksgiving service in the Church of St Anne before the King of 
Sweden, the King of Bohemia, the Duke of Weimar and other poten- 
tates. It was contained in the fifth verse of the 12th Psalm. 

2 Exped. ii. 125. 


Ruthven was pursuing the enemy as far as the Lake of 

In the beginning of June the whole Protestant army 
was drawn together at Nlirnberg to oppose the progress 
of Wallenstein. With incredible exertions tjhe town was 
fortified by the King. But where open violence did not 
succeed, famine and sickness did their work. After a close 
siege of fifty-eight days on the day of St Bartholomew 
(Aug. 24th) Gustavus Adolfus, who had tried in vain 
to drive the Imperial leader out of his strong position 
by sorties or to starve him by intercepting his provisions, 
ventured to attack his almost impregnable camp. The 
fight lasted for ten hours. "Finally when the night 
came on," Schiller writes in his History of the Thirty Tears 1 
War, "the King anxiously looked for an officer to order 
a few Swedish regiments which had penetrated too far, 
to retreat. His eye caught Colonel Hebron, a brave 
Scotsman, whom his innate courage only had driven out of 
the camp, to share the dangers of the day. Angry at the 
King, who not long ago in a perilous military enterprise 
had preferred a junior officer to him, he had made a rash 
vow never to draw sword for the King again. To him 
Gustavus now turned and having praised his heroic courage, 
he requests him to order the retreat of the regiments. 
1 Sire,' replied the brave officer, ' that is the only service 
I cannot refuse Your Majesty, for there is danger in it,' 
and he immediately galloped off to deliver his message." 

Not long after this meeting the King withdrew in good 
order to Neustadt, and here Hepburn and Hamilton took 
their leave of him. The reason adduced by Schiller has 
not been the only one, that caused the proud Scot to take 
a step which must have been distasteful to an officer of 
his merit, but it contributed perhaps to make the cup of 
discontent flow over. As we have seen above, he could 
not brook the King's jest about his religion. He was 
proudly conscious to have drawn his sword for the Queen 
of Bohemia, a princess of his own native country. Added 
hereto was the opinion then common amongst the Scottish 
officers, that neither the Marquis of Hamilton nor Lieut.- 


Colonel Douglas had been treated by the King with due 
respect. 1 Be this as it may, a rupture ensued, and 
Hepburn and the Marquis, together with two other 
Scottish officers, left the Swedish service. Their remain- 
ing countrymen accompanied them about a mile from 
Neustadt, and when the moment came for these noble 
heroes to "bid a long good-night to all their loving 
comrades, the separation was like that which death makes 
betwixt friends and the soule of man, being sorry that 
those who had lived so long together in amitie and friend- 
ship, also in mutuall dangers should part ; fearing we 
should never meet againe, the splendour of our former 
mirth was overshadowed with a cloud of grief and sorrow, 
which dissolved in mutuall tears." x 

As to Hepburn this fear should not be realised. He 
* was to meet his old companions in arms again, if only for 
a short time. 

In the meantime the Scottish Brigade had been 
weakened by the terrible losses, especially before Niirn- 
berg, to such an extent, that the King resolved not to take 
it on his march to Saxony, but to leave it in quarters in 
Suabia to recruit their strength. Thus he took leave of 
his faithful Scots at Donauworth before the whole army. 
"The King in particular expressed his affection to me," 
says Munro, " showing he was so grieved to leave us 
behinde, yet in respect of the long march to Saxony and 
considering the weakness of both our regiments that were 
weakened by the toill of warre, and in consideration of 
that former good service he had ordered musterplaces for 
us, the best in Schwabland, against his returne, and then 
calling on Palsgraf Christian, to whom he had given 
command over us recommending us particularly unto him 
and desired him to give us contentment of the monies 
that were then resting unto us, the first money was to be 
received at Augsburg." 2 

1 The Marquis after his first little army had been decimated, expected 
to have another army to command, but the King "amused him with 
delay." As to Douglas he had by some breach of etiquette incurred the 
King's displeasure. 2 Munro, His Expedition, ii. 159. 


"As soone as His Majesty had dined," continues 
Munro, " with the Queene, going to his coach I took 
leave of His Majesty in presence of General Baner, 
Palsgraf Christian and Sir Patrick Ruthven; being the 
most dolefull parting I ever suffered having been both I 
and the Regiment with His Majesty on all services of 
importance since His Majesty's upbreaking from Stettin 
till his parting at Donauworth on the nth of October 
1632. x 

Hepburn paid a short visit to his native country, using 
the opportunity of levying another 2000 men for the 
King. Shortly afterwards he offered his services to the 
King of France at that time an ally of the Swedes. No 
sooner had he arrived in Paris than he was made a 
1 marechal de camp ' 2 and attached to the army of 
Turenne, who was waging war against the Imperial troops 
in Alsace. After he had distinguished himself in the 
siege of La Mothe, he crossed the Rhine in mid-winter 
and hastened towards Heidelberg in order to succour 
the small, hard pressed Swedish garrison there. The 
mountains were covered with snow. The castle, sur- 
rounded by wall and moat, had a special interest for him, 
as Princess Elizabeth Stuart, the wife of the sovereign of 
the land, had built there in imitation of her old palace at 
Linlithgow the so-called English Buildings. Scarcely had 
he reached the town, when he placed himself at the head 
of his troops and fighting bravely broke the encircling 
lines of the besiegers, drove them out of the Neckar- 
valley and made himself master of the famous castle. 

Not long afterwards Duke Bernhard of Weimar, then 
one of the first leaders of the Swedish army, effected a 
junction with the troops of Louis XIII, having himself 
about 4000 horsemen and about 2000 Scottish soldiers, 
all that had been left of the thirteen regiments in the 
service of the King of Sweden. With beating of drums, 

1 Munro, His Expedition, ii. 1 60 f. 

2 In the Scottish Guard of France, so intimately connected with the 
most glorious days of the French army and commanded by the Marquis 
of Huntly Gordon, he found many old companions of arms. 


music and loud cries did these Scots salute their old com- 
mander, and the last remaining piper of Mackay's 
Highlanders played a long, shrill note of welcome on his 
warlike instrument. Having been incorporated with the 
Franco-Scottish Guard they now formed the "Regiment 
d'Hebron," 1 as it was called, one of the best equipped as 
well as the bravest regiments of the whole of the French 

It is well known that the campaign of the French 
troops against the Imperial general Gallas and the Duke 
of Lorraine finally ended in disaster (1635). The army 
of La Valette, Bernhard of Weimar and Hepburn cover- 
ing the rear had to beat a retreat from the Rhine through 
the hills of Lorraine, closely pressed by the enemy. 

During this terrible time Hepburn proved the nobility of 
his character. He comforted and encouraged those whose 
energy was about to flag ; whilst he at the same time 
sternly opposed the mutinous. Many wounded soldiers 
had to be left behind on this terrible flight, falling a 
prey to the wolves and to the " hyenas of the battlefield." 

The end of Hepburn's career we can only touch upon 
shortly. It lies outside the scope of our immediate 
subject and may be read in full elsewhere. 2 

The King of France, Louis XIII, resolved in the spring 
of 1636, nothing daunted by the terrible legacy of 1635, 
to carry on the war with renewed vigour. He appointed 
La Valette again Commander-in-Chief and made Hepburn 
'Marechal de France.' But the days of the latter were 
numbered. The siege of Savernes or Zabern in Alsace 
was his last exploit. The guns of Duke Bernhard had 
at last succeeded in making a breach in the walls, and the 
French and Scottish troops advanced to the final assault. 
With flying colours over heaps of ruins and exposed to 
a murderous fire they reached the hilltop. But here 
the commander of the little fortress, Colonel Mulheim, 
confronted them with his heavily armed Germans. A 

1 This is the way the name of Hepburn is spelled in French, " le nom 
d'Hepburn etant difficile a prononcer." 

2 Cp. J. Grant, Memoirs of Hepburn. 


last, frightful struggle ensued, during which the plumes of 
Turenne and Hepburn were seen waving in the thickest 
melee. Then — after a carnage of three hours — the French 
had to retreat. Two other attempts to take the place 
were made, both equally fruitless. At last the three 
commanders resolved to redouble their efforts and make 
a last attempt. For this purpose Hepburn was inspecting 
a breech under the fire of the hostile batteries. His 
glittering armour gave the enemy a welcome aim; a 
bullet hit him in the neck, on a spot that his mail did 
not protect. He fell from his charger and his faithful 
Scots carried him away. With the thunder of the canons 
in his ear, his sword by his side and surrounded by his 
faithful comrades, his face turned towards the setting sun, 
the gallant warrior breathed his last at the early age of 
thirty-seven years and before the Marshall's staff, sent by 
King Louis, had reached him. His last words expressed 
a regret, that he was to be buried so far from the lonely 
church of his native place. 1 His death was the signal for 
the fourth assault, which led to victory. The dead body, 
helmet and sword were brought to Toul and deposited in 
the southern aisle of the magnificent cathedral. Louis 
XIV erected a monument in honour of the departed, 
bearing the terse incription : "To the best soldier in 

In the meantime those Scottish soldiers that had been 
levied in 1631, consisting of five battalions under 
Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Stuart, Sir Arthur Forbes, 
Sir Frederick Hamilton, Col. Munro of Obstell and 
Col. Robt. Leslie, had been doing good work in the 

1 When Cardinal Richelieu heard the sad news, he wrote to La Valette : 
" I cannot tell you, how deeply I am moved by the death of poor 
Hepburn, not only on account of the great esteem I personally have felt 
for him always, but because of the fidelity and zeal with which he always 
served His Majesty the King. I am, indeed, quite inconsolable and no 
doubt you will say the same of yourself. He was just the man needed 
in our position then as well as now. I have ordered that all honour 
should be shown to his memory, prayers said, etc. Savernes has been 
paid for dearly, but we must bear in submission what God has sent." — 
Richelieu to La Valette, July 20, 1636. 


North of Germany under the leadership of the Swedish 
general Todt. They helped to clear all Mecklenburg of 
the enemy and to storm many fortresses. But none of 
their own officers obtained the fame of Hepburn or 
Munro or Alexander Leslie. 

During the second half of the Thirty Years' War we 
do not hear so much of Scottish soldiers and their deeds 
as before. The death of Gustavus Adolfus had robbed it 
of its military lustre : none of the present leaders on the 
Protestant side could vie with him as to fame and 
generalship. Moreover, the Battle of Nordlingen, in 
which the Protestants were defeated (1634), had deci- 
mated, nay, well nigh annihilated the Scots, and their 
native land was not able continually to replace the lost 
forces. Finally, the political situation in Scotland most 
urgently required the presence of officers and soldiers at 
home where the thundercloud of civil war was threatening 
and at last broke forth in storm and lightning. 

Now and then, however, the report of new levies 
reaches us. Thus in 1637, when the Captains John 
Skene, John Kerr, John Finlayson and Lumsden raised 
several regiments for service in Germany. They were 
to be transported by sea to Wolgast, a small town and 
harbour in Pomerania on the Baltic. But fate was 
against them. From Leith, where part of the troops had 
taken shipping on board a Liibeck barque called : ' Falcon," 
— Captain Cockburn, — they sailed to Aberdeen there to 
take in provisions. On the fifth night, however, there 
arose such a tempest accompanied by a tremendous tidal 
wave, that the ship was torn from its anchorage, driven 
into the open sea, and thrown a complete wreck 1 on the 
neighbouring shore. Many recruits were drowned ; others, 
"that in the danger of death thought themselves released 
from their oath," deserted. The Magistrates of Aberdeen 
confirm the sad fact in a long letter to the Queen of 
Sweden and to the senate of Liibeck. 2 

1 " Fracta in minutissimas partes." 

2 Letter dated October ioth, 1637, in the Propinquity Books of 


We get a glimpse in this report of the growing dis- 
organisation of these troops. In time the material became 
worse and the misery caused by these long-continued 
forced levies greater. Already ten years earlier the 
King of Scotland and his Council, in order to meet the 
demand for Scottish mercenaries on the part of the 
King of Denmark, Count Mansfeldt and Lord Reay, had 
to have recourse to extreme measures. The order was 
given to seize upon all vagabonds of the high road, all 
incorrigible bankrupts and all vagrants of whatever de- 
scription. Moreover, the attention of the chiefs of the 
Highland Clans was drawn by a letter written by the 
King's own hand to the fact, that there were many 
young idlers on their vast estates, who could not do 
better than to don the uniform. In this remarkable 
way in the year 1626-27 alone, ten to twelve thousand 
Scotsmen were sent abroad, in other words, about the 
twentieth part of the whole male population. 1 

The question what became of all these men is not 
hard to answer : the majority of them rest unheeded and 
without stone or cross on the blood-drenched battlefields 
of Germany; some were fortunate enough to see their 
native country again and perhaps relate their adventures 
in foreign countries to a crowd of eager listeners, or 
possibly to again take up arms for Leslie on the side 
of the Covenanters or for Montrose and the King. No 
doubt those of them fared best — speaking relatively — 
who at once entered the service of Gustavus Adolfus. 
There they had at any rate a noble pattern, and discipline 
and regular pay were, if not always accomplished, at least 
aspired to. 

It now remains to us shortly to indicate the fate of 
some other Scottish officers during the Thirty Years' War. 

Donald Mackay, or Lord Reay as he is usually called, 

1 See Masson in the Introduction to the Register of Privy Council of 
Scotland, 2nd series, vol. i., Edinb. 1900. The levies had first been 
set afoot by a pressing letter of Gustavus Adolfus, dated Sept. 23rd, 
1623. In the same year Sir James Spence levied 1200 men for the war 
in Poland. 


the leader of the Highlanders, returned to Scotland as 
early as 1632. The premature death of his patron, the 
King of Sweden, was a terrible blow for him. Of the 
large sums of money he had spent to pay his recruits, 
he received nothing back ; being thus compelled to sell 
part of his estates for the payment of his debts. During 
the Civil Wars, fighting on the side of the King, he was 
made prisoner. His liberation, as being a Danish officer, 
was vainly demanded by the King of Denmark. Set free 
at last by Montrose he retired to Copenhagen and the 
court of his first sovereign. In Denmark he died, highly 
honoured, of grief for the execution of Charles I, in 
1649. A Danish frigate brought his body in state to 

Baron Foulis or Fowlis, Colonel Robt. Munro, one of 
the forty or fifty officers of that name in the army of 
Gustavus Adolfus, had been wounded in his right foot 
at the crossing of the Danube in 1632 and carried to 
Ulm, where Sir Patrick Ruthven was Governor. Here 
he lived in the house of a barber and surgeon called 
Michael Rietmiiller and died towards the end of April 
of the same year. By permission of the magistrates he 
was buried in the Franciscan or " Barfiisserkirche," 
where also his standard, armour and spurs were hung 
up. Magister Balthasar Kerner delivered his funeral 
sermon on the 29th of April. 1 

One of the most interesting men among the Scottish 
officers of the Thirty Years' War, a man who reminds 
one of Wallenstein in his tragical fate, is doubtlessly the 
above-mentioned General Sir James Ramsay. German 
poetry and prose have taken hold of him as of a great 
central figure in the fierce struggle, and the research of 
the German historian has left us a portrait of him more 
accurately sketched than that of other Scottish officers. 2 
Even the great German Biographical Dictionary has given 

1 See Appendix. 

2 In the famous seventeenth century novel Simplicissimus by Grimmel- 
shausen Ramsay is introduced as the hero's uncle and it is said of him, 
that he was " a brave and heroic soldier" (i., chapters 19-34, ii., 1-13). 


him a place among its German heroes, and whilst it relates 
his valorous deeds and sad end in words of praise and 
pity on the authority of historical documents, legend and 
tradition have been busy weaving a string of wonderful 
stories around his unknown grave. 

Born of noble race about the year 1589 Ramsay 
received a good education and university training in 
Scotland. He seems to have developed early a warlike 
as well as a poetical spirit. 1 When James VI became 
King, he accompanied him to England and for some time 
held some office at the court. In 1630 he entered the 
army of the King of Sweden under the Duke of Hamilton, 
known henceforth as the " black " Ramsay to distinguish 
him from a second Sir James Ramsay called the "fair." 
In the battle of Breitenfeld he commanded part of the 
reserve of the first line-of-battle, and during the attack 
on the Marienberg, the strong citadel of Wiirzburg, he 
received, as we have seen, a shot in his left arm, which 
disabled him from taking part in the campaign of the 
following year. After the disastrous battle at Nordlingen 
in 1634 annihilating, as it did, with one fell stroke all 
previous advantages gained by the Evangelical armies, 
he was chosen by Bernhard, the Duke of Weimar then 
in chief-command, as Governor of the important fortress 
of Hanau situated on the Main River, a short distance 
from Frankfurt ; and this appointment had been confirmed 
by Count Philip Moritz of Hanau-Munzenberg, who 
owned the town and the surrounding district. 2 On the 

His picture appeared first in the Theatrum Europaeum, iii. 910, with the 
following legend : Illustris Generosus Dominus Dominus Jacobus Ramsay, 
Scotus, Eques auratus, Gen. Mag. sc. Anno Aetatis 47, 1636. In 
English literature nothing is known of him but the meagre sketch of his 
life by Lord Hailes (Dalrymple). The chief German source is Colonel 
R. Wille's book : Hanau in the Thirty Tears' War, Hanau im Dreissig- 
iahrigen Kriege, Hanau 1886, a most fascinating and painstaking work. 

1 The German-Latin poet John Cressius says of him : " Scotia quern 
genuit, quem lactavere Camoenae." (Dalrymple, Life of Ramsay.) 

2 He was one of the many weak princes attached to the Protestant 
side. When misfortune overtook the Swedes, he fled before the 
approaching storm to the Hague in Holland; leaving the defence of his 
own capital and country to Ramsay. 


second of October 1634 he entered the fortress, the 
garrison of which, inclusive of the militia, amounted to 
about 3000 men. Immediately he set to work to prepare 
everything that was requisite for a successful and pro- 
bably long-continued defence of the place. But besides 
this according to the approved maxim that the greatest 
strength of the defence consists in the garrison taking the 
offensive as often as possible, he made a series of skilfully 
conducted and successful sallies. 1 By these means he not 
only encouraged the spirit of his troops but solved the 
problem of bringing in supplies often from a great distance. 

In spite of these temporary encouragements the distress 
in the beleaguered town rose to a terrible height. 
Together with the scarcity of money and bread the 
plague or the " Black Death," as it is called in German, 
appeared and increased during the hot summer months, 
rendered still more violent by the crowding together of 
so many fugitives in a narrow space and by the pestiferous 
exhalations of the stagnant waters in the fosses. 

But neither Ramsay nor the citizens who shared his 
patriotic adherence to the evangelical cause, ever thought 
of surrender, although the trenches of the Imperial 
general Lamboy, who was conducting the siege, now 
completely surrounded the town in a wide circle. On 
the other hand the Governor, "an astute and excellent 
schemer," discontinuing his sallies on account of the small 
number of his troops, commenced a series of sham-negotia- 
tions with the enemy. 2 At one time he proposed sending 
a messenger to the Swedish Chancellor Oxenstierna or to 
the Duke Bernhard in order to obtain their consent to 
the surrender of the fortress, a consent which at that time, 
as he knew well, was not to be thought of; at another 
time he advanced the still more extraordinary proposition 
to hand over the town provisionally to the protection 

1 Especially brilliant was the retaking of the small town of Gelnhausen, 
then occupied by the Imperialists. The careless enemy, surprised in his 
sleep, lost many dead and prisoners, also twelve standards, the whole 
baggage and all their provisions. 

2 Wille, ?.c, p. 236. 


of a neutral prince, such as the King of England or the 
Prince of Orange, and when the parties had at last 
agreed to accept the Landgraf George of Hesse-Darmstadt 
and the Elector of Mayence as mediators, he managed to 
protract their deliberations from month to month till they 
were broken off as useless. After this period of rest the 
old sallies and punitive expeditions were again resorted 
to; and the Governor was so "joyful and of good 
courage " in consequence of the successful issue of the 
most of them, 1 that he presented General Lamboy, who 
had sent him the scornful gift of two fat pigs, with fifty 
pounds of carp, caught in the moats, in return ; adding for 
the fun of it ("aus Kurtzweil") the mocking request to 
"send him some news, especially as to the rumour current 
in his part, of the town of Hanau being besieged." 2 

In the meantime Lamboy had received reinforcements 
so that his forces now numbered 4000 to 5000 men. His 
soldiers grew daily more insolent, his officers already 
divided the best quarters of the doomed town amongst 
themselves, whilst within the fortress the situation became 
daily more serious. Without the iron rule of Ramsay, 
combined with his skill and his strict justice, which was 
acknowledged by all; 3 without the equally great self- 
sacrifice of the magistrates, a further defence would no 
longer have been possible. As it was, the strictest 
measures were adopted and most conscientiously carried 
out, which appeared necessary. Against threatening 
mutiny the utmost severity was shown; orders against 
the waste of powder and shot were issued ; the ammunition 
of the Scottish company, which formed an unshaken 
and always reliable body-guard of the Governor, was 
doubled. Ramsay further regulated with extraordinary 
care the supply of food-stuffs ; all public-houses were 

1 Once he captured four ships loaded with provisions and ammunition 
on the Main River by night. Wille, I.e., p. 249. 

2 Chemnitz, Der Schivedisch-Deutsche Krieg {The Swedish-German 
War), ii. 963. 

3 The Magistrates acknowledged Ramsay's great merits by presenting 
him with a costly gold chain on the 31st Dec. 1635. Wille, p. 262. 


closed except one, where, under the supervision of the 
military, twice a week a certain small quantity of wine was 
being sold. In spite of all these measures, however, a 
terrible time of misery commenced in the beleaguered 
town in the spring of 1636. People ate horse and dogs' 
flesh ; and a contemporary chronicler relates that " cats 
were esteemed venison." It was no rare occurrence that 
the flesh of dead men and beasts was bought or stolen 
from the executioner. Mortality had increased at a fear- 
ful rate : the garrison being reduced to only 400 or 500 
men. Only for a few weeks longer was resistance possible. 
Hanau's deliverance is due to two causes ; the inexplicable 
delay of General Lamboy in proceeding to the assault ; and 
in the final resolution of Landgraf William V of Hesse- 
Kassel not to consider himself bound any longer by the 
existing truce, but to hasten to the assistance of the 
distressed fortress. He was urged to adopt this course 
by his wife, a high-minded and noble lady and a native 
of Hanau. On the 22nd of June he joined his forces 
with those of the Swedish Field-marshal Alexander Leslie. 
Ramsay, who maintained an excellent service of scouts, 
had received the welcome news of the approach of his 
friends. Losing no time he gave fire-signals from the 
top of the castle-tower and fired his guns at frequent 
intervals. Early on the 23rd the attack on the strong 
position of the Imperial general commenced, and it was 
not long before the enemy was completely routed. Land- 
graf William and Leslie entered the town amid the 
ringing of bells and the joyful shouts of the populace ; six 
hundred waggon loads of provisions and herds of cattle 
for slaughtering accompanied them. 1 After a solemn 
thanksgiving service the prince at once visited Ramsay, 
the brave defender, in his quarters to consult about further 
military measures. 

The following time of rest the Governor, whose power 
also extended over the fortified places of the surrounding 

1 In remembrance of the deliverance of the town the so-called 
"Lamboy" festival is celebrated at Hanau to this day on the 13th of 


district, employed in the most effectual manner. First 
of all he increased his garrison, and having succeeded in 
doing this he again undertook frequent and far extend- 
ing punitive incursions to the terror of his enemies. 
Travellers who showed themselves in the territory of 
Hanau had to produce "Ramsay-passports"; this order 
extended to the merchants from Cologne and Holland, 
who desired to visit the great Fair of Frankfurt. In 
short, the whole country was seized with a "Ramsay- 
terror." x 

But there was more work cut out for the restless 
General. Cries of help had reached him from the 
garrison of Hermanstein or Ehrenbreitstein on the Rhine, 
as it is now called, which was then besieged by the 
Imperialists. He therefore undertook the difficult and, 
considering the straitened circumstances he himself was 
placed in, splendidly generous task of revictualling the 
fortress by way of the river. The bold enterprise 
succeeded the first time, but on being repeated a second 
time the ship fell into the hands of the more watchful 
and suspicious enemy. 

Ramsay seems even to have considered the plan of 
reconquering the Palatinate for the unfortunate nephew 
of Charles I. Already in 1634 he had received the 
visit of Sir George Douglas, the English ambassador to 
Poland, 2 and it is possible that already at that time he 
offered his services. This offer he now, at a more 
favourable juncture, repeated, if 6000 men were placed 
at his disposal. But England hesitated, and the proper 
moment was lost for ever. 3 

Moreover, the Imperial troops again commenced — in 
the beginning of July — to attract his earnest attention. 
After the final fall of Ehrenbreitstein the besieging forces 
of General von Werth had become free and were marching 

1 The fair at Frankfurt in 1637 was postponed, on account of the 
frequent sallies of the garrison of Hanau. 

2 Douglas was formerly officer in the Swedish army and governor of 

3 Wille, p. 410 f. 



in the direction of Hanau. Ramsay, who knew that a 
second siege, owing to the superior power of the enemy 
and the scarcity of food would be disastrous, communi- 
cated with the Elector of Mayence, the Landraf of Hesse- 
Darmstadt and the city of Frankfurt with a view to 
an honourable treaty. After a great many subterfuges 
on the part of the allies, this treaty was finally signed 
by all parties. 1 It contained as chief-paragraphs the com- 
plete pardon of Count Philip Moritz, a free pass for 
Ramsay to the Swedes, the payment to him of 150,000 
marks, the cession of the Mecklenburg estates that had 
been given to him by Gustavus Adolfus or suitable 
compensation, and the placing of Imperial hostages in 
the hands of the Swedes till all the conditions were 
fulfilled. From the first, however, it became clear to 
the penetrating mind of Ramsay, that there were not 
only great omissions in the treaty, but that the allies 
could and would not fulfil their promises. In spite of 
this or, shall we say, just because of this, he appended 
his signature to the document and the Imperial ratification 
was not long in following. Philip Moritz, the fugitive, 
was asked speedily to return to his country and Ramsay 
requested to give up Hanau at once. This, however, he 
was not prepared to do, as long as the conditions of the 
treaty remained unfulfilled and no mention was made of 
money or estates or hostages. Then followed a long 
time of a wearisome war of the pen ; a time of proposals 
and counter-proposals, of allegations, irony, craft and 
cunning. Ramsay himself wrote several times in terms, 
that did want neither clearness nor bitterness. The 
negotiations nevertheless were continued till February 
1638. At that time the wily General succeeded in 
procuring the original of the Imperial ratification and in 

1 The first sketch contained nothing of Ramsay's remuneration, nothing 
of the fate of the garrison. The General therefore sent it back to Mayence 
with the words addressed to the messengers : " Go and tell your Elector 
that if he does not put in the proper conditions, I shall come with my 
army and devastate his whole country. What would you say if I kept 
you here ? " 



establishing the astounding fact, that the text of the treaty, 
as concluded at Mayence on the 31st of Aug. 1637, and 
that of the document signed by the emperor on Sept. 
14th did not agree. Immediately he had his secretary 
draw up a collateral copy of the documents in question 
and sent a calm and dignified letter to the allies, in which 
he pointed out the contradictions. 1 But before there 
could be an answer to this startling communication the 
doom of our hero had been sealed. Philip Moritz, who 
seemed to have no other thought now than to get rid 
of the troublesome Swedes and their general and to 
embrace the cause of the emperor without reserve, 
returned to his capital in spite of Ramsay's remonstrances 
and before the negotiations had been concluded. All his 
obligations towards Sweden, all his gratitude towards the 
man, who by his bravery and perseverance had saved his 
sovereignty, were forgotten. Openly and secretly he 
urged the removal of Ramsay. 2 The Hessian Regiment, 
which formed part of the garrison, was recalled. Ramsay 
replied by sending letters to his countryman, General 
King, 3 then commanding Swedish troops in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Weser, in which he asked for reinforce- 
ments. He also sent urgent messages into Franconia 
for the supply of provisions. But all these plans were 
rendered futile by Philip, who on his part despatched 
other forged letters countermanding the request of ad- 
ditional troops and supplies. 

No wonder that the Governor saw himself compelled 
to adopt stringent measures. He ordered the castle, 
which is at the same time the citadel of Hanau, to be 
occupied by his soldiers and the intercourse of the Count 
with the outside world to be restricted. Not even the 

1 See Appendix. 

2 Mayence openly proposed after the occupation of the fortress to 
proceed against Ramsay and his Scots according to the usage of war. 
{mile, Z.c, p. 455.) 

3 Born about 1589 in the county of Aberdeen. After having spent 
some sime in the service of King Charles I, he joined the Swedes, 
became General, and died at Stockholm about 1651. He was buried in 
the Riddarholms Church. 


Countess was allowed to confer with her husband. And 
yet violence and treason succeeded in outwitting Ramsay. 
A certain Major Winter, jointly with the Imperial General 
Graf Ludwig Heinrich of Nassau-Dillenburg, offered to 
seize the fortress on condition that, being successful, he 
should receive the 150,000 marks deposited for Ramsay. 
Out of his own means he had levied about 200 men for 
this purpose, Mayence contributed another 200, the Count 
of Dillenburg 300. With the greatest secrecy everything 
was prepared by means of bribed messengers to and from 
Philip Moritz; false keys for the gates were manufactured 
and certain signals agreed upon. On the 22nd of February, 
at the dawn of morning, this force succeeded in occupying 
the Altstadt, old town of Hanau, of surprising Ramsay's 
weak garrison and of getting possession of the castle. On 
the following day the count sent a flag of truce to the 
Governor asking him to surrender, a demand which was 
at once indignantly refused. 1 Then the fire was opened 
upon the New-town, during which Ramsay, according to 
one report in the defence of his house, where he and 
seventy of his soldiers had barricaded themselves; 2 accord- 
ing to others whilst walking up and down in front of 
the "White Lion," his headquarters, and giving orders, 3 
was struck by a bullet in his back penetrating as far as 
the hip. He now felt that the further shedding of blood 
was useless; a drummer was sent to the Count "to ask 
for quarters for the General and his soldiers, as he had 
been badly wounded," to which the request was added 
that the treaty of Mayence should be observed. Ramsay 
was then hastily dressed and brought to the Guard-Room. 
Later on, when his wound seemed to admit of his removal, 
he was carried to the Castle of Dillenburg. 4 Here his 
treatment was at first friendly and considerate. He was 

1 Wille, p. 47 1 . 

2 Pufendorf, Schwedisch-deutscher Kr'teg (Swedish-German IVar), 1688, 
book x. 

*Wille,y. 471. 

4 Major Winter was loaded with favours at the Imperial Court and 
ennobled as " Baron of Giildenborn." 

THE ARMY. 101 

given a cheerful room ; he was allowed to have his 
secretary Dr Henckel with him. The Count, who could 
not but admire his brave conduct, invited him to his table 
at dinner and supper-time. He was able to receive 
visitors, amongst them the most learned men of the 
neighbourhood and members of noble families. He 
frequently went to the " Schlosskirche " (chapel), where 
service was being held in the reformed persuasion, and 
partook of the sacrament. In short he proved a sort ol 
imprisoned lion, but a lion, whom they had not ceased to 
fear. Especially at Vienna great spite and great fear were 
shown towards the prisoner. They tried by force and 
favour to extort all manner of secrets from him, amongst 
others, how he got in possession of the original treaty; 
what did he mean by saying he had a spiritus familiaris ; 
what were the Swedish plans of war? To all these 
questions the prisoner replied calmly and deliberately, that 
he was not a common culprit and not subject to the Holy 
Roman Empire, but a prisoner-of-war and subject to the 
Crown of Sweden, which he had always served faithfully. 
It was not his fault that the treaty had been broken; 
the two texts of it had been revealed to his councillor 
and secretary Dr Hasman by two Imperial Commissaries. 
As to his spiritus familiaris, it consisted in this, that he 
knew how to put ducats upon ducats and Rosenoble upon 
Rosenoble so as to procure good scouts. 1 To the 
insinuation of delivering up military papers he replied 
curtly, "that it was against the rule of the service and 
the fidelity of an officer, to give the enemy any in- 
formation of his sovereign's military plans." 

Disappointed in their attempts, the Court at Vienna 
had recourse to violent measures. Ramsay's secretary 
was seized, carried to the capital and there put to the 
rack, under the tortures of which he " gave up his 
ghost." The Count of Dillenburg, who was willing 
to liberate the prisoner on receipt of a high ransom 
offered by him, and thus to have at least " some 
feathers of the bird before he let him escape," received 

1 Wille, p. 481 f. 


stringent orders under no circumstances to set free 
one that had proved an inveterate enemy to the Empire. 1 
Ramsay then tried to enlist the sympathy of the King 
of France, now an ally of the Evangelical party ; of 
the Queen of Sweden and of England : but all in vain. 
The old faithful servant had been forgotten ; only death 
could now deliver him. "Easy it would have been 
for him indeed," says Wille, "to gain his liberty at 
once at the expense of his honour ; but Ramsay's fidelity 
and obedience to duty repudiated and scornfully with- 
stood the temptation and the suggestion to earn the 
vile reward of treachery." 

To complete the tragic fate of the prisoner it so 
happened, that the good and friendly relations hitherto 
existing between him and the Count latterly became 
strained. There were scenes of violent reproaches and 
recriminations, rising from very slight causes and, no 
doubt, mainly attributable to the irritable and gloomy 
temper of the sufferer. The Count even allowed him- 
self to be carried away so far by his anger that he 
ordered the General to be cast in irons, placed a strong 
guard in his room and limited his food to bread and 
water. Only after the lapse of several days the chains 
were removed, chiefly owing to the merciful interfer- 
ence of Count Ernst of Wittgenstein. But the hardest 
blow for the prisoner was the communication, withheld 
some time, of the Imperial order forbidding his liberation. 
"Now all my hopes are buried for ever," cried the 
unfortunate man, and abandoned himself to gloom and 
despair. His condition became worse every day in spite 
of the good-natured administrations of the Countess, 
and the skill — such as it was in those days — of four 
doctors in attendance. On the 21st of April he drew 
up his will, 2 but only on the 29th of June 1639 did 
death put an end to his cruel sufferings. 3 The Swedish 
Commander-in-Chief and Lady Isabella Ramsay, the widow 

1 Wille, p. 482. 2 See Appendix. 

3 Wille, p. 490. The tales of his having starved himself to death or 
of having died insane are entirely legendary. 

THE ARMY. 103 

of the deceased, then living at St Andrews, were at 
once informed of the sad event. But his body was 
finally buried on August 18, 1650, in the town church 
of Dillenburg, 1 the lady mentioned, u for want of means," 
not having taken any steps to have his remains brought 
to the land of his birth. 

" Thus ended the life of James Ramsay, the immortal 
defender of Hanau, rich in friends and admirers when 
fortunate, in misfortune abandoned by all and rewarded 
with the most cruel ingratitude by the prince who, to 
him alone, owed the continuance of his sovereignty." 

Unlike many of his former companions-in-arms, who 
from motives of selfishness or dissatisfied ambition 
deserted their colours, he had in sufferings and im- 
prisonment, in danger and death, kept the oath of 
allegiance to his Queen unshaken and in spite of 
temptations. But his sad end between prison-walls 
was none the less honourable and worthy of a brave 
officer, than the natural death of a soldier amidst the 
roar of the battle, which he had listened to so often. 
Honour be to his memory ! 2 

We now turn to another Scottish General in the 
service of Sweden, already mentioned in connection with 
the relief of Hanau, Alexander Leslie. 

Field-marshal Alexander Leslie, born about 1582, 
who, before entering the Swedish army, had already 
seen service in the Netherlands as a young man, was 
made a knight and a general by King Gustavus at the 
time when the latter received the Order of the Garter 
in the camp at Dirschau from the hands of the 
ambassadors of Charles I (Sept. 23, 1626). 

In May 1628, at the head of five thousand Scots and 
Swedes, he cut himself a way into the town of 
Stralsund, which was then closely invested by Wallen- 
stein. Having thus provisioned it, he took the command 
instead of Colonel Seatoun, who had hitherto acted as 
such with a Danish force, and conducted the defence 
so skilfully and vigorously that he contributed much 

1 Ramsay's tomb cannot now be discovered. 2 Wille, p. 492. 


to the final retreat of that famous general. The 
grateful town ordered rich presents to be given to him, 
amongst them a gold medal struck in commemoration of 
the siege. 1 Leslie remained commander of the Baltic 
cities until 1631, when he went to England to assist 
the Marquis of Hamilton in his levying of troops for 
the Swedish service. 

In the following year he met him in Germany and 
was appointed joint-commander of the English-Scottish 
auxiliaries with him. After having assisted at the siege 
and the taking of Frankfurt on the Oder, he was made 
governor of the place. As such it fell to his task to 
see to the proper state of defence and the provisioning 
of Crossen and Guben, two towns in the neighbouring 
district, by which the King's rear was to be protected 
on his southward march. Towards the end of the year 
Gustavus had reached Mainz, where he was joined by 
Leslie. Later on he shared with his leader the glory, 
though not the fate, of the battle of Llitzen, after having 
timely recovered from a wound in his foot. How deeply 
he felt the loss of the King, which quite overclouded 
this victory and endangered the future of Protestantism, 
is seen in a letter written to the Marquis of Hamilton 
from Stade, on the 26th of November 1632. In it, as 
Terry says, 2 he emerges from his habitual reticence 
and gives a touching expression to his genuine grief. 

"I have thought it expedient," the letter runs, "to 
mak your Excellencie this sad narration of the lamentable 
death of our most valarouse and worthie chiftaine, who, 
in the sixt (16th) of November, did end the constant 
course of all his glorious victories with his happie lyfFe, 

1 This medal, which is still preserved in the Leslie-Melville family, 
shows on the obverse the arms of Stralsund surrounded by a laurel- 
branch and the words : Deo Optim. max. Imperio Romano Foederi 
posterisque 1628; on the reverse the words: Memoriae Urbis 
Stralsundae Ao. MDCXXVIII. Die XII. Mai a Milite Caesariano 
Cinctae aliquoties oppugnatae Sed Dei Gratia et ope inclytor. Regum 
Septentrional. Die XXVII. Juli obsidione liberatae S.P.Q.S.F.F. 
(fabricari fecerunt). (Sir W. Fraser, Family of Leslie- Melville.) 

2 Terry, Life and Campaigns of Alexander Leslie, 1899, p. 29. 

THE ARMY. 105 

for his Majestie went to farre on with a regiment of 
Smolandis horsemen, who did not second him so well 
as they showld, at the which instant ther came so thick 
and darke a mist, that his owin folkis did lose him, and 
he being seperate from his owin amongst his foes, 
his left arme was shote in two, after the which whill he 
was lying, one asked him, whate he was, he answeared, 
King of Sweddin, wherupon his enemies that did compasse 
him thought to have carried him away; but in the 
mean while, his own folkis comeing on, striveing in 
great furie to vindicate his Majestie out of ther handis, 
when they saw that they most quite him againe, he 
that before asked what he was, shote him through 
the heade ; and so did put ane end to his dayes, the 
fame of whose valoure and love to the good cause sal 
nevir end. When his corpes were inbalmed ther waes 
found in them fyve shottes and nyne woundis, so ar 
we to our unspeakable griefe deprived of the best and 
most valorouse commander that evir any soldiours hade, 
and the church of God with hir good cause of the best 
instrument under God, we becaus we was not worthie 
of him, and she for the sinnes of hir children, and 
altho' our lose who did follow him sal be greate, yit 
questionlesse the churche hir lose sal be much greatter 
for how can it be when the heade which gave such 
heavenly influence unto all the inferiore members, that 
nevir any distemperature or weaknes was seene in them; 
how can it be, since that heade is taken from the body, 
bot the members thereof sail fall unto much fainting 
and confusion. But this I say not, that ather I doubt 
of God's providence or of these whom he hes left as 
actores behind him, for I am persuaded that God wil 
not desert his owne cause, bot will yit stirre up the 
heartis of some of his anoynted ones to prosecute the 
defence of his cause, and to be emolouse of such 
renowne as his Majestie hes left behind him for evir, 
and I pray the Almightie that it would please his 
Supreame Majestie now to stirre the King of Boheme 
and to make choyce of him in this worke, which indead 


is brought unto a great mesoure of perfectioun, neither 
doe I think that ther salbe any defect in these his 
valourous souldiours and followers, in whome ther is: 
not the least suspicioun of jelousie; bot this al men 
knowis, that a bodie cannot long subsist without a head, 
which gives such lyfFe and influence, ather good or bade,, 
as it has radically in itselfe, when it is present ; and 
when it is cutt away, cutts away with itselfe all lyfFe 
and influence. . . . 

Now it remaines that we turne our sorrow to revenge 7 
and our hearts to God by earnest prayer that he would 
stirre up the heartis of such men, as may doe good to his 
cause, and now tak it in hand when it is in such a case. 

I have no further wherof I can wreit to your Excellencie 
at this tyme . . . 

your Excellencies faithfull servant till death 

A. Leslie. 

During 1633 we hear nothing of the writer of this 
remarkable letter. What we know is, that, after the 
siege of Landsberg and the capture of Minden and 
Osnabruck (1636) he was made Field-marshal in the 
place of Kniphausen. In the meantime, the treaty of 
Prague had provided him with the opportunity of paying 
a visit to his native country, during which he received the 
freedom of Culross and judiciously invested some of his 
wealth in landed property. After his return he joined 
the Landgraf of Hesse, and marched South to the relief 
of the fortress of Hanau, then hard pressed, as we have 
seen, by the Imperialists. This and the victory at 
Wittstock in 1637 were his last successes. Soon after- 
wards the position of the Swedes became critical. Leslie 
had to retire to Stettin and describes his case in a letter 
as well-nigh desperate. "It were to be wished, that such 
as have a mind to helpe us would steppe in whiles it is 
tyme, before all bee lost, for then it may proove too 
late," he writes. 

From Stettin Leslie embarked for Stockholm, to concert 
further measures with Oxenstierna, the Swedish chancellor. 

THE ARMY. 107 

He was sent back to his command in Pomerania, and 
finding the Swedes under Baner, who had in the mean- 
time succeeded in repelling the Imperialists, about to march 
towards Bohemia, he very probably joined them. This 
last campaign, however, did not last long, for in summer 
1638, after the outbreak of the civil troubles in Scotland, 
he obtained permission from the Queen of Sweden to 
retire from her service which was granted in terms of 
great gratitude. He was also presented with two guns 
and 2000 muskets, a fact which seems to prove Turner's- 
statement, that the rebellion in Scotland was fomented by 
Sweden and France. 1 After a long and chequered career 
the old general of Gustavus died in 1661, having been 
made first Earl of Leven by Charles in 1642. 

The honour of being solemnly knighted by the King 
of Sweden in his camp at Dirschau was shared with Leslie 
by Sir Patrick Ruthven. He was a man of great courage 
and a very trustworthy leader. But it was his chief 
renown to be able to drink deeper and longer than any- 
body else at the King's festive boards. If Gustavus 
Adolfus entertained foreign ministers or officers and 
wanted to get at their secrets " he used to appoint 
Ruthven Field-marshal of the bottles and glasses, for in 
spite of his immoderate drinking, he always kept a cool 
head." 2 After Ruthven had taken part in the march 
through the Forest of Thuringia to Wlirzburg and Mainz, 
he was made Governor of Ulm. As such he succeeded by 
his vigilance to suppress two conspiracies, and to reduce a 
number of Catholic towns of the neighbourhood, though 
his garrison only amounted to 1200 men. In recognition 
of his faithful services Gustavus Adolfus gave him the 
valuable estate of Kilchberg, formerly the property of 
the Fugger family. 3 In December 1631 he shared with 
Sparruyter the command of General Baner's troops until 

1 Turner, Memoirs, 13. Terry, I.e. 

2 Ruthven Correspondence in the Publications of the Roxburgh Club 

3 Originally the Fuggers were merchants at Augsburg. They soon 
became very rich and held the positions of Rothschilds. During the 
Thirty Years' War a Count Fugger fought on the Imperial side. 


the recovery of the latter from his wound. Afterwards 
he took part in the skirmishes and battles in Mecklenburg 
with the army of the North, and after he had on various 
occasions visited England for the purpose of levying new 
recruits, he left the Swedish service, like Leslie in 1637, 
and returned to Scotland, where he joined the party of 
the King. He died at Dundee in 1651, being then 
Field-marshal and Earl of Forth. Powerfully built, 
almost unwieldy, covered with scars, and better able to 
wield the sword than the pen, he is the type of an honest, 
blunt, brave, old " Haudegen " of the time. 1 

The part played by the Marquis of Hamilton in the 
Thirty Years' War is a somewhat doubtful one. It was 
Lord Reay who first drew attention in Scotland to the 
largeness of his collected forces. Whilst, no doubt, the 
news of such powerful reinforcements from Scotland and 
England — above 6000 men — assisted the cause of Protes- 
tantism in Germany, people in his own country saw dark 
and ambitious designs in it as if the crown itself was in 
jeopardy. No doubt this is foolish enough, but the fact 
remains that the character of the Marquis — scheming, 
unscrupulous and deep as it was — lent itself to these 

In the meantime his enterprise in favour of Gustavus 
Adolfus was not crowned with success. First of all, the 
6000 men, which the King of Sweden had insisted upon, 
could only be got together by force. Only 1400 hailed 
from Scotland, the rest were English, made up for the 
most part of men of doubtful character and of small 
physical endurance. 2 Add to this as natural consequence 

1 Cp. Munro, His Expedition, p. 102: "carrying the marks of his 
valour in his body." Ruthven's second wife was the daughter of a 
landed proprietor in Mecklenburg, named Berner (Ruthven Papers, xii.), 

2 " They ate too much of the German bread which is dark and heavier 
than at home ; they likewise suffered from eating of honey too greedily ; 
neither did the German Beer agree with them." — Munro Expedition. 
To meet the expense of these levies the King of England handed over to 
the Marquis his income from the duties on wines for six years, realising 
a sum of about ^20, coo annually (Hist, of the Illustrious Family oj 
Gordon, ii. 157)' 



that disease of every description raged amongst his 
soldiers from the very first day of their landing in 
Germany. Finally, Hamilton's own position near the 
King was not one based upon mutual confidence. The 
latter spoke bitterly of Charles I, resented his plans to 
interfere, with the help of a large army commanded over 
by the Marquis, in his politics concerning Bohemia ; 
resented above all his claim to a voice in the matter of 
concluding peace. Thus it came to pass, that not only 
the English-Swedish Alliance, which Sir Henry Vane, the 
ambassador, was to press, failed, but the Marquis became 
a man who, on account of his being cousin to the King of 
England and surrounded by a princely entourage, was to 
be treated with all the forms of royal courtesy, whilst at 
the same time he was as firmly refused any position in 
which he might do more than merely assist the King as. 
one of the many Scotch officers. 1 It was for this reason 
that he was refused the command of an army after his 
own mercenaries had been decimated. He was employed 
in guarding the fortresses on the Oder. But scarcely had 
he taken possession of Crossen and Guben, two small 
towns in the district of Frankfurt on the Oder, than he 
was recalled by Gustavus and attached to his staff, and 
though weary of being a volunteer, his applications for 
better employment were constantly set aside ; he was 
'amused by delays.' At last — in 1632 — he returned, 
with all outward tokens of honour, to England. 

A more interesting and a more creditable part is that 
played by the namesake, relation and successor to the 
Marquis in command of the Scottish troops : Sir Alexander 
Hamilton, called "Sandy." He had been of great service 
to Gustavus Adolfus as a captain and later on as skilful 
general of artillery. He was also invaluable by his 
ability to manufacture pieces of ordinance. For a time 

1 See Burnet, Memoirs of Hamilton, 1677, pp. 17, 19 ; J. Grant, Adv. 
of Hepburn, p. 205. " He followed the King as volunteer," says 
Burnet, " of which he was weary, but he found that the King was so 
jealous of him, that he was not to expect any trust near or in the 
Palatinate, where he desired most earnestlie to be employed" (p. 22). 


he held the post of Governor of Hanau. After the 
King's death, he served the Duke William of Saxe- 
Weimar, for whom he established a small gun-foundry 
•at a place called Suhl or Suhla in the Thuringian forest 
(1634-35). Three letters of the Duke to Hamilton have 
been preserved. 1 They are addressed to him in Suhl and 
refer to his employment there. The first is dated Erfurt, 
Jan. 24th, 1634, and runs: "We should be sorry if this 
your work, the manufacture of pieces of small ordnance, 
should be interrupted by all kinds of inconveniences " 
(want of money among other things ! ). But We cannot 
help it at present, and must put our decision off till the 
return of the Chancellor. In the meantime, though 
there should be some delay, We entreat you to remain 
patiently at Suhl. We also send you along with this a 
letter to the Magistrates there, so that you may at least 
get what is necessary for your livelihood. Nothing more 
this time. We remain graciously and well-inclined towards 
you &c." 

The other two letters of the Duke have reference to an 
assault committed by one of Hamilton's lieutenants upon 
no less a person, than the " Ambts-Schulzen " or burgo- 
master. He orders a judicial inquiry and provisional 
imprisonment of the culprit. 

In the following year (1635) Hamilton returned to 
England furnished by the Duke with very flattering 
letters of recommendation to King Charles. After an 
eventful and honourable career in Scotland Hamilton died 
in 1649. 

Among the long list of prominent Scottish officers 
Sir James Turner, the author of Military Essays and 
an interesting memoir of his own life, deserves a few 
words. When a youth a restless desire for military 
renown filled him, and having joined the forces levied 

1 In Sir W. Fraser's Memoirs of the Earls of Haddington ; where also 
several letters of Gustavus Adolfus and of Oxenstierna are found, the 
latter referring to the pay of the Scotch troops which had been in arrears 
for a long time, two years it was said. The town of Halberstadt was to 
furnish the sum. 

THE ARMY. 1 1 1 

by Sir J. Lumsden in 1632 when only eighteen years 
of age, he landed at Rostock. But there a too greedy 
consumption of fruit, for which that part of Germany 
is famous, made him very seriously ill. He was 
laid up at Bremen for six weeks and was only then 
able to continue his military service under the Duke of 
Luneburg and General Kniphausen. Having taken a 
prominent part in the victory of Hameln he afterwards 
fought under the Scottish general King in Hessen and 
Westphalen, and returned to Scotland, like so many of 
his companions at arms, at the commencement of the 
Civil Wars. In his Memoirs he shows a delightful 
sense of humour and drollery, which in an atmosphere 
of smoke, blood and incredible misery that fills the reports 
of this dreadful war, does not fail to produce a bracing 
and refreshing effect. Thus he relates of the year 1634: 
" 1 was lodged at a widow's house in Oldendorf (Hesse), 
whose daughter, a young widow, had been married to 
a Rittmaster of the Emperor's. She was very handsome, 
wittie and discreet : of her, though my former toyle 
might have banished all love-thoughts out of my mind, 
I became perfitlie enamourd. Heere we stayed six weeks, 
in which time she taught me the High Dutch to reade 
and write, which before I could not learne but rudelie 
from sojors. Having then the countrey's language, I 
learned also the fashion and customs of the Germane 
officers ; and about this time was both regiments reduced 
to two companies, two captains-lieutenants and two ensigns 
(whereof I was one) only allowed to stand, all the rest 
casheered and in great necessitie and povertie. The 
two companies were bot badlie used, tossed to and 
fro, in constant danger of the enemies and without pay. 
But I had learned so much cunning and became so 
vigilant to lay hold on opportunities that I wanted for 
nothing, horses, clothes, meate or moneys, and made so 
good use of what I had learnd, that the whole time I 
served in Germanie I sufferd no such miserie as I had 
done the first yeare and a halfe, that I came to it." 1 

1 Sir James Turner, Memoirs of my own time, p. 7. 


Not a few of the Scottish officers in the Continental 
armies were married to German ladies. One of them 
was Colonel Sir William Gunn, a Roman Catholic, whom 
we first meet in the ranks of the Swedes, later on in the 
service of the Austrian Emperor. A few interesting 
details concerning him have been unearthed at Ulm, 
the famous town and fortress in Wurtemberg. In 1640 
he hands a letter of recommendation from H. M. in Great 
Britain to the Magistrates and Council assembled, and 
receives the permission to reside in the city. On June 
5th he invites the Town Councillors to his wedding, his 
bride being the young baroness Anna Margaretha von 
Freiberg, and the banquet taking place at the inn called 
the "White Ox." Two members of the Magistrates 
were deputed : the Burgomaster Marx Christoph Welser 
and the counsellor of war Johann Albrecht Stammler. 
They presented to him the gift of the town : a silver- 
gilt cup. Gunn remained at Ulm till 1649. After 
that time he mostly lived in Vienna. The last mention 
of him is in 1655, wnen ne conferred with the town as 

As to the Field-marshal Sir Robert Douglas, he won 
great fame by a clever cavalry attack in the battle of 
Jankowitz. But owing to his being early recalled to 
Sweden his share in the achievements of the Thirty Years' 
War is not great. 1 

Much might be told still of the brave deeds of the 
Munroes, the Drummonds, the Lumsdens, 2 and others; 

1 In Sweden Douglas obtained the very highest distinctions. His 
funeral took place with almost royal ceremonies ; the King and Queen of 
Sweden followed the hearse (1662). He was one of the last veterans 
of Gustavus Adolfus. His grandson Count William Douglas was 
Adjutant to Charles XII. Belonging to the Douglases of Whittinghame, 
he was the ancestor of the Counts Douglas now flourishing in the Grand 
Duchy of Baden in Germany. There was another Douglas, Sir G. 
Douglas, who played a prominent part in the War under Gustavus. He 
was imprisoned by the King for some breach of discipline but afterwards 
released. In later times he was ambassador of the English King to 
Poland (Turner, Memoirs, and p. 97). 

2 There were three brothers Lumsden with Gustavus. Sir James is 
the most famous one, and is often mentioned in conjunction with Hepburn. 

THE ARMY. 113 

but we must hasten to glance at the opposite camp in 
the Great War and recount the part played by the Scot 

If Gustavus Adolfus by preference levied his foreign 
troops in Protestant Scotland, we find in the Imperial 
camps the Irish Catholic soldier prevailing. But there 
were also not a few Protestant Scottish officers, notably 
the two, Walter Leslie and John Gordon, well known 
not only from Schiller's History of the Thirty Tears War 
but also from his great tragedy of Wallenstein. In 
Wallenstein! s Death the poet has fused for artistic reasons 
these two men into one: the old, good-natured, faithful 
Gordon. But besides the name there is nothing historical ; 
this Gordon is merely a creature of the imagination. 
History knows nothing of the days of his boyhood being 
spent together with Wallenstein at Burgau, 1 neither is 
the Gordon of history the weak-minded old man such as 
Colonel Butler, the Irishman, describes him. It must be 
granted, however, that we know little enough of his life. 
He was Governor of the Fortress of Eger or Egra in 
Bohemia, the town where the murder of Wallenstein was 
perpetrated, in which he took a prominent part. Like 
Leslie he was richly rewarded by the Imperial Court at 
Vienna in the service of which he continued until the 
end of the war. In 1648 he was taken prisoner by the 
Swedes in Wismar (Mecklenburg). As Baron of the 
German Empire he died at Danzig, but was buried at 
Delft in Holland. 2 

We are better informed of Walter Leslie. He was the 
second son of the tenth Baron of Balquhain in Aberdeen- 
shire. When quite a youth he went to Germany and, 
though a Protestant, entered the service of the Emperor. 

He showed great bravery in the taking of Frankfurt on the Oder in 163 1, 
fighting in the midst of his troops, where the fire was hottest. The 
remembrance of New Brandenburg had enraged the assailants and they 
caused a sad massacre in the town. Lumsden took 18 colours. He 
was Governor of Osnabriick in 1635. 

1 Schiller, Wallenstein' 's Tod, iv. 1-7. 

2 His will, written at Liikeck, was the cause of much legal wrangling. 
Cp. Scottish Notes and Queries, Oct. 1 900. 



A regiment of Scotch and Irish were under his and 
Gordon's command. In the skirmishes and battles around 
Niirnberg, especially in the hilly surroundings of the 
Altenberg, he showed great pluck and endurance. The 
Imperial General intended to cut off the retreat of the 
Swedish Colonel Taupadel, who had undertaken a sortie 
towards Freystadt (1632). With the utmost courage, 
seeking shelter behind the rocks, shrubs and trees the 
regiment stood firm after the rest of the Imperial troops 
had fallen back before a greatly enforced body of Swedes. 
But when General Gonzaga also took flight, Major Sparr, 
the commander of the regiment, had to surrender. The 
latter remained a prisoner in the hands of the Swedes, as 
he had before broken his word of honour. Gordon and 
Leslie, however, were set free by Gustavus Adolfus who 
knew how to acknowledge heroic conduct in an enemy. 
During five weeks they stayed at Niirnberg and were 
the guests of their countrymen, Hepburn and Munro. 
In banqueting and feasting they celebrated their meet- 
ing and recalled the days of old. Two years later 
Leslie arrived at Eger with his Scots and Irish for 
winter-quarters. It was from this town that he 
addressed a letter to the Imperial General Piccolomini, 
as a " Protector of all foreign officers to intercede 
in his favour with his colonel Trczka ; " but we do not 
know if there had been any misunderstanding between 
these two. At Eger also he heard for the first time, possibly 
from Wallenstein himself, of the plans of the latter to 
desert the cause of the Empire, and of the Emperor's order 
to seize the prescribed General's person dead or alive. 
Time was pressing. Milder measures were overruled by 
the necessity of immediate action. The murder of 
Wallenstein is decided upon. Leslie gives the signal for 
the massacre of the generals Kinsky, Illow and Neumann 
during supper in the castle. Then hastening into the 
town, he makes the guards take the oath of allegiance, 
and calls out a hundred dragoons for the maintenance of 
order. After the murder of Wallenstein himself, who 
received his death-blow from the pike of the Irishman 

THE ARMY. 115 

Devereux, the body was brought in Leslie's carriage to the 
citadel. On the following day the sergeant-major — for 
up till then Leslie did not occupy a higher rank — started 
on his journey to Vienna, where he arrived on the sixth 
of March. Here he found the Emperor extremely 
gracious. Although on the one hand masses in the 
churches were ordered for the soul of the dead Wallen- 
stein, and although the murder was repudiated as the rash 
act of anticipating officials : no wish of Leslie's, the chief 
actor in the tragedy, remained unfulfilled. He requested 
the command of a regiment and he received it ; he desired 
the title of Count, and the Emperor sent him the diploma 
with his own signature : " Annuit Maiestas S. Caes. motu 
proprio et libentissime, antequam quisquam Dominorum 
Consiliariorum consuleret, contestans id se facturum 
etiamsi nemo consuleret." 1 He advanced from Colonel to 
General, from General to Feld-zeugmeister 2 (1646) and 
finally to Field-marshal (1650). Moreover he received 
the golden key of a privy counsellor and the estate of 
Neustadt, formerly the property of Trczka. 

His military career ended with the battle of Nordlingen 
in 1634, where he took a conspicuous part, and in the 
carefully executed revictualling and fortifying of Petrin in 
Albania, where his new dignity as Governor of the 
Turkish- Austrian boundary-district had called him. After 
this he was chiefly entrusted with diplomatic missions, in 
which he proved himself a skilful negotiator. He travelled 
to Italy and obtained a subsidy from the Pope for Austria, 
amounting to 20,000 crowns and from Naples even 
100,000 crowns for the same purpose. No less success- 
ful was his journey to Constantinople, which he undertook, 
as an old man of sixty and infirm, at the express wish of 
the Emperor, who shortly before had decorated him with 
the Order of the Golden Fleece (1665). The reason of 
this embassy was the ratification of the treaty of Vasvar. 
Valuable presents had to be delivered ; a fleet of thirty- 
six gaily decked ships carried him down the Danube as 

1 Art. Leslie in the Allg. Deutsche Biographie. 

2 Master General of the Ordnance. 


far as Belgrade. Loaded with gifts from the Sultan, and 
followed by sixty Christians delivered out of Turkish 
imprisonment, but ill himself, he returned about Christmas 
time to the Austrian Capital. There he died on the third 
of March 1667 and was buried, having previously 
embraced Roman Catholicism, in the vault of the Church 
of the Scottish Benedictines with great pomp and magni- 
ficence. His great riches he had used to render the family 
estates in Scotland free of debt. 

There is no doubt whatever that Leslie served his 
imperial master with skill and fidelity. The question of 
guilt in his betraying Wallenstein stands and falls with 
the much debated question of the guilt of Wallenstein him- 
self. At any rate there is no need of assuming that Leslie 
was nothing but one of a band of low, hired assassins. 1 
It seems to be more just to say with the greatest of 
German historians, 2 that he did the deed " forced to it 
by the feeling of military obedience towards his sovereign 
and by the duty of an oath which could not be broken 
at will." 

The nephew of Field-marshal Leslie, who had been 
made the heir of his childless uncle, was carefully 
educated and served with distinction under the Emperor 
Leopold. He commanded the Galizian Regiment, No. 24, 
which was called Leslie's Regiment during 1665-1675. 
At the siege of Vienna he proved himself a daring and 
skilful leader. Afterwards he was, like his uncle, much 
used for diplomatic missions, never losing the favour of 
the imperial court. He held the title of Count, the 
rank of a Privy Counsellor and of Major-Gen eral. When 
he was married to the Princess Maria Theresa of Lichten- 
stein the Emperor as well as the Empress and the highest 
nobles of Austria were present at the ceremony. 

He left no children either, and another nephew, James 
Ernest, became third Count Leslie. Of him we know 
little more than that he built a hospital for invalided 
soldiers at Neustadt in Bohemia and left a legacy to tne 

1 See Hallwig, Artikal Leslie in the Allg. Deutsche Biographic 

2 Cp. Ranke, Leben Wallenstelns. 

THE ARMY. 117 

Scottish Monastery at Regensburg for the education of 
young Scottish gentlemen, especially those of the name 
of Leslie. He died in 1 694. 1 

The brilliant career of so many brave Scottish officers, 
which we have hitherto traced, if alone taken into ac- 
count, would indeed give us a wrong impression of the 
life of the Scottish mercenary. There is a sad, dark 
side of the picture as well. No sooner has the war- 
drum ceased to beat, than we meet with the familiar 
figure of the old Scottish soldier receiving alms from his 
countrymen in the seaport towns on the Baltic. Or we 
find him poor, ragged, ill, perhaps crippled for life in the 
company of idle Lanzknechte, gipsies, Jews, beggars and 
vagabonds, who, like a swarm of locusts, overran the 
country. In a few graphic lines a contemporaneous 
sketch of him has been preserved in the archives of the 
city of Breslau. Towards the end of the XVth Century 
a band of such vagabonds had been dragged to the 
Rathaus there on the charge of begging and using loaded 
dice. There were many Scots among them, mostly men, 
who had vowed a pilgrimage to Rome and were now 
returning home by way of Danzig ; others had been 
soldiers. One of these is introduced as Thomas 
Woysheit (?) from Edenburgk, " die beste stat yn 
Schotten," i.e. the best town in Scotland. Of him the 
clerk notes down : ' He has not been in Scotland for XII. 
years, and is a nobleman and went after military service 
and served under the King of France and of the Romans, 
and in the wars, which he has gone through, he has lost his 
all, and has been at Rome and from one town to another 
begging, so that he might feed his wife and children." 2 

1 The male line of the Counts Leslie became extinct in 1802. The 
estates passed into the hands of the heirs of Prince Dietrichstein, the 
first Count having married a princess of that house. They again became 
extinct in 1858. The Scottish heirs now came forward and their claims 
were recognised in 1861. But on some Austrian noblemen protesting a 
law-suit followed, which lasted till 1867, when a compromise was agreed 
upon to that effect that five-twelfths of the count's estates should go to 
the Scottish claimants. 

2 . . . ' ist yn XII. jorn yn Schutten nicht gewest und ist eyn edel- 


Nothing could be more tragic than this concise state- 
ment. Other facts like these, unrecorded, perhaps, but 
none the less numerable, awaken the sounds of the old 
song again : ' O woe unto these cruel wars ! ' and they 
dim the glory which Scottish valour gained abroad. But 
we must follow still further the traces of the Scots as 
revealed by history. 

The century between the Thirty Years' War and the 
Seven Years' War in Germany is chiefly filled by two 
Wars of Succession, in both of which Scottish troops and 
Scottish leaders have taken a not inglorious part. But 
now they were fighting no longer as mercenaries of a 
foreign power, but as trained soldiers of an allied king. 1 

In the Spanish War of Succession (1702-1713), in 
which the Austrians and the English opposed the French 
and the Bavarians, it was the Duke of Marlborough, who, 
with the heroic Prince Eugen of Savoy, obtained immortal 
fame, handed down to us in song and story. The 
following Scottish regiments accompanied the Duke : — 

1. The Royal Scots Dragoons, commonly called Scots 

2. One battalion of the Royal Scots Foot Guards. 

3. The Royal Scots. 

mann und hot dem dinste nach geczogen und hot gedint dem Konige czu 
(in) Frangreich und bey dem Romischen Konige und bey dem dinste ist 
her (he) komen yn den krigen von allem, das her gehat hot, und ist gewest 
czu Rome und von eyner stat czu der andern, und bettelt, uf das her 
seyn wayp und kynder mocht dernern (ernahren = feed)." Original in 
the Stadt-Archiv zu Breslau, undated, but probably belonging to the 
close of the XVth Century. 

1 In the intervening time Scottish officers at German Courts were not 
wanting. Thus William Ker, formerly English Consul at Amsterdam, 
in his " Remarks on the Government of several parts of Holland and 
Germany, 1688," relates that he met on his travels in Germany the 
following Scottish officers in Hanover : — Steelhand Gordon, who had 
already served at the Court of Poland, Grimes and Hamilton ; and in 
Liineburg-Zell, Col. Graham, Coleman, Hamilton, Melvin and others. 
At about the same time (1687), Sir David Leslie, Earl of Leven, served 
as colonel under the Elector of Brandenburg at Berlin, after having been 
recommended by the Electress of Hanover. He was in high favour at the 
Court, busily engaged in the interests of the Prince of Orange. (Sir W. 
Fraser, Melville and Leslie, vol. i. 248 f. ). 

THE ARMY. 119 

4. The Royal North British Fusiliers (21st Foot). 

5. The Cameronians. 

In the battle of Blenheim they had the first opportunity 
of distinguishing themselves. But in spite of their 
impetuous advance on the strongly entrenched village of 
Blenheim, an advance which brought them so close to 
the pallisades that their General, Rowe, is said to have 
stuck his sword into them before giving the order to fire, 
they did not succeed in driving the French out of their 
stronghold. Only after the fate of the battle had 
already been decided elsewhere did the brave defenders 
of the village surrender to the Earl of Orkney. 

Besides the regular troops there were not wanting 
volunteer officers from Scotland in the Imperial army, 
whom the brilliant generalship of Prince Eugen of Savoy 
had attracted. Special mention deserves John, Earl of 
Crawford, who in 1735 went to Germany and was attached 
to the Prince's staff, taking part in the engagements near 
the Moselle river. He distinguished himself in the battle 
of Claussen (17th Oct., 1735), where his friend the 
Count of Nassau was killed at his side. Later he fought 
against the Turks under the Russian flag, but returned to 
Austria in 1738. Under General Wallis and the Prince 
of Waldeck he was present before Peterwardein and in 
the battle of Krotska. It was there that he discovered 
the Turkish outposts in a churchyard, and after having 
charged them drove them across the river. On the battle 
proceeding his horse was killed under him and he himself 
severely wounded in the left thigh. Half dead from the 
loss of blood, only hastily bandaged up, he remained lying 
by the road-side waiting for the sleeping-coach of General 
Waldeck, which had been promised to him. In vain he 
tried to persuade his faithful servant, a German named 
Kopp, to leave him to die, handing him at the same time 
his watch and his purse as a reward for his services. At 
last the vehicle appeared and the wounded man, who 
suffered the most intense agony, was safely conveyed to 
Belgrad only three days prior to the surrounding of the 
town by the Turks. Here he spent weeks, hovering 


between life and death, until his strong constitution 
gained the upper hand. On the 27th of October 1738 
he succeeded in reaching Vienna on the Danube in a 
primitive boat. Thence he went to Baden to take the 
waters, but though greatly improved in health, he never 
altogether recovered. His wound kept discharging splinters 
ever and again and accelerated his death in 1749 after 
he had taken a prominent part under the Earl of Stair in 
the battle of Dettingen (June 16th, 1743). 1 

In the war of the Austrian Succession (1742- 1748) 
in which, as is well known, the forces of France and 
Bavaria as enemies of Austria opposed those of England, 
Holland and Prussia, it was chiefly this battle of Dettingen, 
where the Scottish troops under the eyes of King George 
II. himself distinguished themselves. Prominent amongst 
them Colonel Sir Andrew Agnew, who commanded the 
Royal North British Fusiliers. The impetuous attack 
of the French Cuirassiers left them no time to form a 
square ; all they could do was to draw up in a line and 
to receive the enemy with such hot musketry-fire from all 
sides that only a few of the gallant troopers escaped. 2 

It is no secret that the advice and the plan of the Earl 
of Stair, 3 " the only tolerably bright man in the army," 
to pursue the enemy, was not accepted, and that he 
himself, incensed at the growing Hanoverian influence in 
matters of military tactics, soon resigned his command. 

Passing on to the age of Frederic the Great of Prussia, 
our attention is soon attracted to the scions of an old, 
famous, Scottish family, the Keiths. No less than six 

1 Many members of the Crawford family have excelled in foreign 
military service in Poland, Sweden, etc. As to Lord James Crawford 
in Augsburg, see Appendix. 

2 The story is told that the king after the battle rode up to Agnew 
and called out to him : " Well, Colonel, I saw the French Cuirassiers 
get into your lines to-day ! " Agnew coolly replied : " Ou aye, your 
Majesty, but they didna get out again ! " Cp. Carlyle, Friedrich, v. 

3 Cp. Carlyle, Friedrich, v. 297. The Earl of Stair had been fighting 
gallantly under Marlborough ; he had saved the life of Frederic of Hesse, 
afterwards husband of Ulrike Eleonore, Queen of Sweden, by shooting 
a Frenchman who was just aiming at him. 

THE ARMY. 121 

Scotsmen of this name have played a more or less important 
part in the life of the Prussian king. 

Far away in the extreme north-east corner of the county 
of Aberdeen, struck by the storms of the North Sea, there 
stood, a few years ago, the lonely ruins of the Castle of In- 
verugie, the family seat of the Earl Marischals. There they 
lived lives of hardihood and energy, constantly engaged in 
and often directing the shifting fates of their native country. 
Here George Keith was born in 1693, his brother James 
in 1696, brothers throughout their long career deeply and 
affectionately attached to each other. They were the sons 
of the ninth Earl Marischal, and were educated by a 
Catholic mother and a Protestant father in the principles 
of unswerving fidelity to the Stuarts. Very soon these 
principles were put to the test. It was on the 20th of 
September 17 15, that the two youthful brothers, together 
with other Highland nobles at the old Market Cross of 
Aberdeen, proclaimed Charles Edward King of Scotland 
as James VIII. But when the war-like enterprises in 
favour of the Stuart dynasty miscarried and the new-made 
king, after the defeat at Sheriffmuir, in which the elder 
Keith commanded two squadrons of cavalry, was compelled 
to seek safety in France, the two brothers, like so many 
others, were declared outlaws and their estates forfeited. 
George, nothing daunted, went first of all to Spain, and 
obtained the command of a small Spanish force, that was 
to land on the Isle of Lewis in the north-west of Scotland, 
take Inverness and again raise the standard of the Stuart. 
But this foolhardy expedition could not but end in 
disaster. Scarce had the handful of warriors reached the 
mainland, when they were attacked by General Whitman 
and scattered. The Highlanders dispersed to their 
mountains, the Spaniards, 274 in number, surrendered. 
Keith was wounded, but escaped to the islands and from 
there in disguise to Spain. Here he continued to live in 
the town of Valencia, still busily intriguing for his hero. 
Again in 1744 he was to command and lead an expedi- 
tionary force of the enemy into Scotland, but the plan 
was not carried out. In the following year Keith went 


to Vienna, and shortly afterwards, being invited by his 
brother, to Berlin. Here he gained very soon the complete 
confidence and enj oyed the close friendship of Frederic the 
Great, whose philosophical views of life he shared. He 
became a member of the Academy, and in 1751 ambassador 
of Prussia to the King of France. This post, however, he 
soon gave up, owing, no doubt, chiefly to the irritation of 
England at seeing a Jacobite outlaw appointed to one 
of the most responsible diplomatic positions. Frederic 
honoured him by bestowing upon him the Order of the 
Black Eagle and nominating him Governor of Neufchatel 
in Switzerland, then part of the Prussian possessions. 

His administration bore the stamp of Frederic's humane 
and tolerant philosophy ; the use of the rack, and public 
penance done in the churches were abolished, not without 
bitter hostility on the part of the enemies of light and 
progress. Rousseau, the banished philosopher, was 
offered an asylum and friendly assistance. Keith 
procured for him many favours of his royal master, and 
so great was his esteem for this much abused man, that he 
offered him a house in Scotland or in Potsdam, where the 
two might continue their intercourse, and when Rousseau 
refused, he granted him a pension of 600 francs. 1 

The stay of the Earl Marischal at Neufchatel extended 
over ten years, but it was often interrupted. In 1759, 
for instance, Keith was sent on a diplomatic errand to 
Madrid, where King Ferdinand of Spain had just died. 
But though this embassy did not procure any tangible 
benefit for Prussia, it proved of the greatest advantage 
to Keith himself. He gained the goodwill of Pitt by 
communicating to him the family-compact of the two 
houses of Bourbon, and thus, aided by the powerful 
intercession of his royal friend, he smoothed the way 
towards a final removal of all his Jacobite disabilities. 

1 Rousseau's description of his intimacy with Keith is very charming. 
" La grande ame de ce digne homme," he writes, " ne pouvait se plier 
que sous le joug de l'amitie, mais elle s'y pliait si parfaitement, qu'avec 
de maximes bien difTerentes, il ne vit plus que Frederic du moment, qu'il 
lui fibt attache" (Confessions, ii. 524 f. ). 

THE ARMY. 123 

King George II issued a patent declaring the Marischal 
able to inherit, parliament assented and voted a con- 
siderable sum in lieu of his confiscated property, and 
Keith, now no longer under the ban of outlawry, at 
once entered on possession of the inheritance of the 
late Earl of Kintore, who had died without issue. He 
was presented to the King in 1760 on the 16th of 

Three years later, he visited his old home at 
Aberdeen, where his kinsmen did all they could to 
persuade the Earl not only to settle among them, but 
to marry and give them welcome heirs of the loved 
name of Keith. However, King Frederic wrote an 
urgent letter, (Febr. 16, 1764), which was not to be 
resisted. "I do not wonder," he said, "that the Scots 
fight for your possession, and wish to have progeny of 
yours, and to preserve your bones. You have in your 
life-time the lot of Homer after death : cities arguing 
which is your birthplace. I myself would dispute it 
with Edinburgh to possess you. If I had ships I would 
make a descent on Scotland, to steal oif my dear My lord 
and to bring him hither. Alas ! our Elbe-boats can't do- 
it. But you give me hopes, which I seize with avidity. 
I was your late brother's friend, and had obligations to 
him; I am yours with heart and soul. These are my 
titles, these are my rights. You shan't be forced in 
the matter of progeny here, neither priest nor attorney 
shall meddle with you, you shall live in the bosom of 
friendship, liberty and philosophy." 1 

Keith gave in, removed in 1764 to Potsdam, where 
Frederic had built him a villa, and lived there, peacefully 
and hale in body and soul till his death in 1778. 

King Frederic lost in him a true friend, who had 
proved useful to him in many ways, not only sharing his 
tastes and his philosophy, but showing an interest also 
in his plans of industrial and agricultural improvement. 
He even bought paintings for him and procured him 
his favourite tobacco from Spain. Moreover, he was a 

1 (Ewvres de Frederic, xx. 295. 


strictly upright man, a cheerful, 'excellent, old soul, 
honest as the sunlight.' His king loved him, 'almost as 
one boy the other.' His conversation was that of the 
wise, not without some dry humour, some 'little vein of 
wit ' ; 1 his manner of living was eccentric, a strange 
mixture of Aberdeenshire and Valencia. 2 Frederic's letters 
to him are all full of true friendliness. Thus he writes in 
1758 after the death of the Field-marshal, his brother: 
"There is nothing left for us, mon cher Mylord, but to 
mingle and blend our weeping for the losses we have had. 
If my head were a fountain of tears, it would not suffice 
for the grief I feel. 

" Our campaign is over, and there has nothing come of 
it, on one side or the other, but the loss of a great many 
worthy people, the misery of a great many poor soldiers 
crippled for ever, the ruin of Provinces, the ravage, 
pillage and conflagration of flourishing towns : exploits 
these which make humanity shudder; sad fruits of the 
wickedness and ambition of certain people in power, who 
sacrifice everything to their unbridled passions ! I wish 
you, mon cher Mylord, nothing that has the least resem- 
blance to my destiny and everything that is wanting to it. 
Your old friend till death." 3 

The brother, to whom this letter alludes, James Keith, 
is better known in history. His life was full of adven- 
tures, warlike deeds and escapes. He was a Scotsman, a 
Frenchman, a Spaniard, and a Russian till he ended his 
career on a Prussian battlefield. 

After he had taken part in the Jacobite insurrection 
in Scotland, he also was compelled to take flight, and 
went first of all to Paris, where he was well received at 
court. Having for some time studied under Maupertuis, 
he travelled to Spain and took part in the siege 

1 Not even during his illness did he lose his good-tempered nature. 
He offered to the British Ambassador at Berlin to take any message to 
Pitt, who had died a fortnight previously. 

2 See Memoirs of Sir R. M. Keith, i. 129. " He, the Earl Marschal, 
is the most innocent of all creatures and has a conscience fit to guild the 
inside of a dungeon." 

3 (Ewures de Frederic, xx. 273. 

THE ARMY. 125 

of Gibraltar. But as his Protestant faith barred the 
way of his promotion, he offered his services in 1728 
to Russia. Here his career was brilliant and rapid. 
From General-Major and Colonel of the Body Guard of 
the Empress Anne he rose to be Army-Inspector on the 
Volga and the Don. In the Polish war of 1733-35, as 
well as in the war against the Turks in 1737, he proved 
his great military skill. After having been wounded 
during the siege and the storming of Otczakoff by a bullet 
in the knee, the Empress is said to have exclaimed: "I 
would rather lose ten thousand of my best soldiers than 
Keith." In 1740 he was made Governor of the Ukraine, 
where his just administration procured for him the love of 
the people. After the war against Sweden, in which he 
forced 17,000 of the enemy to surrender at Helsingfors, 
and conquered the Aland-isles, he was honoured with the 
post of Russian ambassador at Stockholm (1744). But 
then a gradual reversion of fortune took place. The 
favours so lavishly bestowed upon him by the Empress 
excited the jealousy and the envy of high officials and 
generals, especially of Bestucheff, the Vice-Chancellor. 
One command after the other was taken from him ; his 
brother was not allowed to visit him at Riga and his 
position become daily more difficult and dangerous. 
Circumstances like these would in themselves have been 
sufficient to explain his sudden departure from Petersburg 
in 1747. But there seems to have been another very 
potent reason for this step, which has only lately come to 
light in the correspondence of the Field-marshal with 
Chevalier Drummond at Berlin. This was nothing more 
nor less than the growing affection of the Empress, 
which threatened to assume a form incompatible with his 
station and his security. In her letters she calls him the 
only man, " who can bring up a future heir of the throne 
in my mind and in the footsteps of Peter the Great," and 
he himself writes to Drummond as early as 1745 : " The 
empress is resolved to raise me to a height, which would 
cause my ruin as well as her own." This being so — in 
other words, Siberia looming in the distance, — Keith's 


sudden departure is more than sufficiently accounted for. 
At Berlin he was received with open arms, the King 
nominating him Field-marshal and Governor of the 
capital. With his new sovereign he lived on terms of 
cordial friendship. He was of great service to him in 
times of war and of peace, taking an active interest in the 
importation of English woollen cloth, promoting the 
affairs of Scottish merchants, endeavouring to open up 
trade to the East Indies, translating the English parlia- 
mentary debates, and even drawing designs for bridges 
across the Spree River. 

Unfortunately the King was not long to enjoy the 
services of his devoted friend. After the siege of Prague 
in 1757, which had to be raised in consequence of the 
disastrous battle of Kolin, we find the Field-marshal 
as victorious commander of the second army corps at 
Rossbach. Then followed the long and futile siege of 
Olmiitz, stubbornly defended by the Imperial general 
Marshal, another Scotsman ; the masterly retreat before 
the forces of Loudon, and finally the fatal day of Hochkirch 
(1758). In vain Keith had expostulated with the King 
on the weakness of his right wing, and when ' on that 
misty morning of October ' the furious and sudden on- 
slaught of the Austrians shook the ground, he was 
not able to withstand the shock nor to retake his former 
position. Forsaken by his very aides-de-camp the Field- 
marshal was thrice wounded, the last time mortally. 
Not even his body could be found. At last the Austrians 
discovered it, plundered by the Croats and naked, and 
carried it into the church, where General Lacy, who had 
fought under him in Russia, recognised it by a scar as 
that of the intimate friend of his father and had it buried 
with all military honours ; ' twelve canons salvoing thrice, 
the whole corps of Colloredo with their muskets thrice. 
Lacy as chief-mourner, not without tears.' 1 Four months 
afterwards the body was brought to Berlin and there 
interred for a second time in a still more solemn manner. 

1 Carlyle, Friedrich, viii. 1 12. About the Irish Lacys in the service 
of Russia and Austria, see Jas. Grant. 

THE ARMY. 127 

il Keith now sleeps in the Garnisonkirche far from bonnie 
Inverugie ; the hoarse sea winds and caverns of Dunottar 
singing vague requiem to his honourable line and 

The epitaph erected in the little church at Hochkirch 
by Sir Robert Murray Keith, a kinsman, bears the in- 
scription : "Dum in Praelio non procul hinc inclinatam 
suorum aciem mente, manu, voce et exemplo restituebat, 
pugnans ut heroas decet, occubuit. Die xiv Octobris 

The King was deeply moved at the premature death of 
his favourite. His works bear witness how highly he 
esteemed the brilliant general and the true friend. The 
Earl Marischal lost in him, as Carlyle expresses himself, 
44 more a father than a younger brother." The Field- 
marshal died poor. 

Among the Scottish officers abroad, he was, without 
doubt, the foremost. He will also be remembered as the 
inventor of the " Kriegs-Spiel " or its precursor, the 
"Kriegs Schachspiel " (Game of War-Chess). 3 

Two other remarkable members of the family of Keith, 
known and esteemed by the Great Frederick, were the 
Murray-Keiths, father and son, ambassadors at Vienna. 
Of them we shall have to speak later on. Here we have 
to mention still two other brothers : Keiths, the pages, 
who did play a passing part in the life of young Prince 
Frederick. They were not related to the Earl Marischal's 
family, though also descended from Scottish forebears. 
They were born at Poberow in Pomerania. Peter Karl 
Christoph von Keith, the elder, was privy to the secret 
flight of the Crown Prince, and when the plans were dis- 
covered, he was warned by his master in a short letter 

1 See Carlyle, Friedrich, viii. 1 1 2. 

2 Two statues of Keith are at Berlin ; a bronz-replica was presented to 
the town of Peterhead by King William in 1868. Prince Henry of 
Prussia also honoured his memory. On an obelisk erected at Rheinsberg, 
he inscribed : 'With the greatest uprightness he joined the most extensive 

3 S. Varnhagen v. Ense, Life of Feldmarschall Jacob Keith, pp. 109- 


containing only the words, " Sauvez-vous ; tout est de- 
couvert." He had time left to escape to Holland, and 
with the assistance of Lord Chesterfield to England. His 
image was hung on the gallows at Wesel. After a short 
stay in Portugal, where he served as major, he returned 
to Berlin, when the Crown Prince had succeeded his 
father as King Frederick II. There he was made equerry, 
Lieutenant-Colonel and Curate of the Academy of Sciences 
with a good salary. But even then he complained and 
thought himself but poorly rewarded. His character, so 
different from the splendid and lofty unselfishness of the 
Earl Marischal, soon forfeited the favour of the King. 
He died in 1756. Of his younger brother almost nothing 
is known except that he served in a regiment of infantry 
at Wesel. 

Besides the Keiths, there were many other Scottish 
officers in the army of Frederic. A Major Grant of 
Dunlugas, the same that brought the news of the victory 
at Leuthen (Dec. 5, 1751) to England, distinguished 
himself at Kolin. There the King had placed himself, 
after desperate efforts of collecting his troops, at the 
head of a small body "against a certain battery." But 
in his rear, man after man fell away, till Grant ventured 
to remark : " Your Majesty and I cannot take the battery 
ourselves ! " upon which Frederic turned round, and, 
finding nobody, looked at the enemy through his glass 
and rode away. 1 

Again we find the names of Lord John Drummond and 
Lord John Macleod mentioned. Both were attracted by 
the military genius of Frederick and entered his service as 
volunteer officers. Drummond was adjutant or aide-de- 
camp in 1747; 2 Macleod came from Sweden and published 
later on a description of the first summer campaign of 1757.^ 

1 Carlyle, Friedrich, viii. 227. Grant had formerly served in the 
Russian army as the Adjutant of General Lascy. He was made 
General and Governor by Frederick of the fortress of Neisse, where at 
the age of 64 he died in 1764. See Supplement. 

2 Cp. Red Book of Grantully, i. 234, Drummond of Logiealmond. 

3 Macleod of Cromartie ; see W. Fraser, The Earls of Cromartie, i. 
244 ; ii. 244. 

THE ARMY. 129 

Finally we must not forget the 10,000 to 12,000 English 
auxiliaries, who joined the army of the Duke of Brunswick 
at Soest on the 20th of August 1758, after public opinion 
in England had at last veered round in Prussia's favour. 
Amongst them were many Scots, but none distinguished 
themselves more than the Scots Greys and the 1000 or 
1600 Highlanders. " Grand-looking fellows all of them," 
said the Germans. "And did you ever see such horses, 
such splendour of equipment, regardless of expense ? Not 
to mention the " Bergschotten " with their bagpipes, 
sporrans, kilt, and exotic costume and ways. Out of all 
whom Ferdinand got a great deal of first-rate fighting." 

The brigade of Maxwell particularly distinguished 
itself in the battle of Warburg (1760). They did some 
excellent practice with the bayonet, muskets, and cannon, 
"obstinate as bears." x But what pleased Prince Ferdinand 
most was the dashing bravery of the Highlanders under 
their colonel, Robert Murray Keith. He ordered even 
more regiments to be raised in Perth, Inverness, Ross, and 
Sutherland. In non-military circles of Germany, however, 
the notions entertained of the " Bergschotten " were still as 
singular as when the curious woodcut appeared at Stettin 
in 1627. Says the Vienna Gazette of 1762: "The 
Highlanders are in dress, temper, and custom altogether 
different from the rest of the inhabitants of Great Britain. 
They are caught in the mountains when young, and they 
still run with incredible swiftness. The soldiers are of 
small stature and mostly either old or very young. They 
show an extraordinary love for their officers, who are all 
handsome and young. Their good endowments, proving 
the innocence of nature before being corrupted by 
example and prejudice, make us hope that their King's 
laudable though late endeavours to bring them up in the 
principles of Christianity will be crowned with success." 2 

On the side of Austria the following Scottish generals 

1 Archenholtz, i. 350. Carlyle, Friedrich, viii. 124; ix. 45. 

2 There is also mentioned an Austrian " Generalmajor Gibson '* 
(1716). He was wounded before Belgrade and afterwards appointed 
Governor of Courtrai in Flanders (Northern Notes and Queries, iv. 81). 



fought in the Septennial War : Ogilvie, St Paul, Wallis, 
and Loudon. Ogilvie has already been mentioned ; 1 of 
St Paul little is known beyond his being created a count 
in 1786; Wallis was a scion of the Scottish Wallaces, 
though himself born in Ireland. Gideon Ernest, Baron 
Loudon or "Laudohn," descended from Sir Matthew 
Campbell of Loudon, in Ayrshire (t 1574), must be placed 
in the foremost rank of military commanders. He alone 
could match the genius of Frederick ; he was the one 
dreaded, resourceful leader of the enemy : a man who 
earned the high praise from the Prussian King, that he 
never committed a mistake, and that he was one he 
would rather see beside him than opposite him. The 
family of Loudon emigrated in the XVIth Century to 
Livonia and became possessors of two considerable estates, 
one registered under the old name of Loudon, the other 
of Tootzen. When Gideon was born in 171 6 only 
Tootzen remained as property. His father had been 
Lieut.-Colonel in the Swedish army, but Livonia having 
been ceded to Russia in 172 1, young Loudon, after a 
very defective education, entered the Russian army as 
cadet in 1731. He distinguished himself in the Polish 
War and against the Turks, and was promoted to the 
rank of Lieutenant. When the War of the Austrian 
Succession broke out, he was disappointed at Russia not 
taking part in it, resigned his commission and sought 
employment elsewhere. He seems to have contemplated 
taking service in Sweden or even offering his sword to 
England and the Dutch, who were then sending out a 
fleet to defend their possessions in the East Indies ; but at 
last he resolved to go to Vienna and to call at Berlin on 
his way, where by the help of some Scottish friends he 
hoped to obtain an audience of the King, and, if possible, 
receive a commission. Frederick did not absolutely refuse 
his request, but kept him waiting fully six weeks, after 
which time he declared, in one of his fits of anger, that 
he indeed must needs have many squadrons at his disposal, if 
he was to give a command to every foreign officer. Nor 
1 See Supplement. 



did a personal interview improve matters ; the King de- 
claring that the " physiognomy of that man did not please 
him." It is true, nature had not bestowed upon the 
future Field-Marshal an imposing stature or prepossess- 
ing features : heavy eyebrows overhung a pair of sad, 
grey eyes ; his mouth was seldom known to smile ; his 
stature was lean ; his manners were modest and retiring. 
Baffled at Berlin, Loudon turned to Vienna, which he 
reached in 1744 in very straitened circumstances. At 
first he only obtained the command of a company under 
the famous Baron Trenck, whom he had known in Russia. 
This post he resigned in 1748, disgusted at the coarse- 
ness, cruelty, and insolence of his leader. Having been 
promoted to a captaincy in a regiment of Croats, he 
married a Miss von Haagen and removed to the Croatian 
frontier, where he lived a studious, happy, and retired 
life for the next eight or nine years. In 1750 he was 
made Major, and three years later Lieutenant-Colonel. 
On the outbreak of the Seven Years' War, the Austrian 
Chancellor Kaunitz, who had recognised in him " a man 
of iron nerve, of great precision of thought, of marvellous 
memory and great observing powers, a man fit not only to 
conceive bold plans, but to carry them out," entrusted 
him with the command of a battalion of Croats under 
Field-Marshal Brown, an Irish-Austrian. Here he soon 
gained by experience that striking characteristic of a 
great military leader : swiftly to detect the weak point 
of an enemy's position and to fall furiously upon it. 
After the battle of Kollin he received the command of 
four companies of Grenadiers, two thousand Croats, and 
six hundred Hussars, with which he formed the vanguard 
of the army. His boldness and dashing spirit displayed 
itself everywhere, in striking contrast to the hesitancy 
and caution of his Commander-in-Chief, Daun, who often 
deprived himself of the fruits of his dearly-bought vic- 
tories. How Loudon distinguished himself at Olmiitz, 
where he cut off the supplies of the enemy ; at the 
battles of Hochkirch and Kunersdorf, where his urgent 
request to pursue the shattered armies of the Prussians 


was rejected ; at the subsequent battle of Landshut, the 
taking of Glatz, the storming of the strong fortress of 
Schweidnitz, which enabled the Austrians for the first 
time to winter in Silesia : all this is a matter of history. 

Nor were the rewards for such splendid services want- 
ing. His grateful sovereign, the Empress, decorated him 
with many high orders, presented him with two houses in 
Vienna and the estate of Klein Beczwar in Bohemia. 
He was made Feldzeugmeister, and Field-Marshal and 
Generalissimo. After the conclusion of peace in 1763 
Loudon went to Karlsbad to take the waters. Here he 
met the famous German poet Gellert, who gives a very 
characteristic account of him, calling him " his dearest 
acquaintance, an earnest, modest, religious, somewhat sad 
man, who never speaks of his own exploits." His quiet 
life at Beczwar was interrupted only by his regular visits 
to Vienna twice a year to pay his respects to his sovereign. 
In 1769 he accompanied the Emperor Joseph II on a visit 
to Frederick at Neisse, and in 1770, when the King of 
Prussia returned the visit at Neustadt in Moravia, he 
commanded one of the divisions in a great sham-fight 
with such skill that he earned the greatest praise from 
the royal guest. It was here at the banquet, when 
Loudon was about to take a seat low down on the side 
of the table opposite to his own, that the King called 
out : " Come here, Field-Marshal Loudon. I would 
rather see you at my side than opposite me ! " On two 
subsequent occasions Loudon's services as commander were 
required, once in 1777, when the war of the Bavarian 
Succession broke out, Austria claiming certain parts of 
Bavaria after the death of the Elector, and in 1787, when 
Austria joined Russia in a war against the Turks. The 
former campaign ended ingloriously, as a battle against 
Prince Henry, the Prussian Commander, had to be avoided 
because of the strict order of the Empress ; the latter was 
distinguished chiefly by the capture of Berber and Belgrade. 

During the years of peace the now aged Field-Marshal 
lived at Hadersbach, near Vienna, a large estate, which 
contained a castle, some twenty farm-houses, and a mill. 

THE ARMY. 133 

Here he farmed his own land, spending his time amongst 
his people, building, gardening, planting, and improving, 
often visited by the Archdukes Leopold and Ferdinand, 
Chancellor Kaunitz, and other friends. Here also he died 
on the 14th of July 1790, in his seventy-fifth year, after 
having been the sword and the shield of the House of 
Habsburg for nearly half a century. Great as he was as 
general, he was no less great as a man ; a true friend, a 
loving husband, a man all whose thoughts were lofty. 1 

His last words were words of comfort to his weeping 
nephew, who was kneeling by his bed-side. " Love your 
God," he said, " never injure your fellow-men ; reverence 
your sovereign, and be a true defender of your country. 
Providence raised me from the dust to a greatness which 
I never sought. I have always only tried to do my duty. 
In that let me serve as your example." 

Passing on to later times, a word or two must be said 
about Sir Charles Gordon, who served in the wars in 
Holland under the Duke of Brunswick in 1787, and about 
Lord Lynedoch, who accompanied the Austrian army to 
Italy in 1 796, as Military Attache of Great Britain. As 
such he distinguished himself during the siege of Mantua 
by the French. This strong fortress was held by a brave 
Austrian garrison ; but famine threatened, and unless 
provisions could be sent from headquarters, the fate of 
the town was sealed. In this emergency Lynedoch 
volunteered to carry the message to the Austrian General 
commanding. He disguised himself as a peasant, left 
Mantua in the midst of winter during a terrible snow- 
storm, and reached his goal on the sixth day after many 
hair-breadth escapes during his march through morass and 
swamp. 2 

We have now come to the limit of our task. In the 
great struggle of Europe against Napoleon during the 
first fifteen years of the new century, Great Britain had 
her own glorious share. Once again, at Waterloo, 
the Germans by the side of the British against a 

1 Baron v. Janks, Leben Loudons. Mallison, Js. Grant. 

2 John Murray Graham, Life of Thomas Graham, Baron Lynedoch. 


common foe, and spilling their blood, repaid for the many 
good services rendered by their brethren-of-arms during 
past centuries on German soil. But of Scottish soldiers 
fighting for a German cause, we hear no more. 1 

Only the famous old Scottish names of the Hamiltons, 
Douglases, Leslies, Gordons, Campbells, Gaudis, John- 
stons, Spaldings, and others, still occurring in German 
Army lists, remind us of days long past, when the drums 
of the recruiting officer awoke the echo of every glen 
of Scotland, and when the world-famed kings and heroes 
of battle in Germany attracted the scions of her nobility 
under their victorious banners ; banners of all colours and 
emblems, but banners which they never disgraced. 

1 Excepting only a battalion of Highlanders serving in the army of 
General Walmoden in the North of Germany in 1813. 




It is a remarkable fact that in the history of the 
development of the human mind the great spiritual 
movements did not always proceed from the most famous 
and the most powerful nations or cities, the so-called 
centres of intelligence, but, similar to the mighty rivers 
of the world, had their sources in localities small, 
hidden and unknown. Eisleben and Haddington were 
joined to Nazareth, Marbach to Stratford, Ecclefechan 
to Konigsberg. 1 

This being true, it need not excite our astonishment 
when we observe how the ecclesiastical and religious life 
of the Vth, VI th and Vllth Centuries in Europe, from 
Iceland to Italy, from Paris to the Alps, was fanned by 
an almost unknown country, filled by half-savages — Ireland. 
Not only was ecclesiastical art in the North of Ireland at 
a very early time in a remarkably flourishing condition, 
but the spirit of Christianity itself, combined with the 
fiery and venturesome spirit of the Celts, had produced a 
number of Christian men, who in zealous enthusiasm 
sailed across the sea, and with wallet and staff traversed 
France, Germany, Switzerland and Italy. Thus St Catald, 
the Patron Saint of Tarentum, left the seminary of Lis- 
more; his brother Donat (Donncadh) becoming Bishop 
of Lupice in Naples. St Columbanus (1615) founded the 
monasteries of Luxeuil in France and Bobbio in the 
Appennines. The Irish monk Gallus gave his name not 
only to a town but to a whole canton of Switzerland, 
while St Kilian (t ab. 689) is inseparably connected with 
Wiirzburg, Marianus with Ratisbon. 

There can hardly be any doubt that the oldest of the 

1 Marbach, the birthplace of Schiller ; Eisleben of Luther ; Konigsberg 
of Kant, the philosopher. 


so-called Scottish Monasteries on the Continent owe their 
origin to the Irish " Scoti." At the same time, we must 
not forget the fact that these " Scoti " soon crossed the 
narrow water that divided their country from what we 
to-day call Scotland, but was then named Albania, and 
settled in the Highlands and the county of Argyle, with 
the far-famed Iona as their centre. In the course of 
centuries they became amalgamated with the Picts and 
formed the great nation which gave their name to the 
country, while the Scoti of Ireland, a small remnant 
excepted, soon succumbed. There may have been, there- 
fore, Scotch as well as Irish among the "Scoti," who in 
later years entered the Scotch Monasteries in Germany. 
In tradition and popular history, however, these founda- 
tions were never separated from the inhabitants of Scotland 
proper, and when quarrels arose among the new arrivals 
and were referred to arbitration, the decision of the 
superior courts was always given in favour of the Scottish. 
During the XIV th and XVth Centuries, however, these 
monasteries were entirely filled with Irishmen, and their 
gradual decay is chiefly attributed to this cause. Obedient 
and gentle at first, they became proud and overbearing, 
enriching themselves with the property of others. Their 
buildings and their morals showed an equal decline in spite 
of the Councils of the Church at Basle and Constance. In 
the Scottish Monastery of Nurnberg in 141 8 they sold 
wine ; mitre and staff of the abbot were pawned ; the 
library contained only two volumes and no vestments. If 
a husband was looking for his wife, the common reply was : 
Go and find her u apud Scotos." Nor was the state of 
matters better in Vienna. Here the buildings of the 
monastery were in a ruinous condition, bells and chalices 
in pawn. Both these foundations were therefore trans- 
ferred to the German monks. Ratisbon alone and its 
Monastery of St James of the Scottish Benedictines out- 
lasted the storms of the Reformation and the mismanage- 
ment of Irish Abbots, and it was only in 1862 that the 
Bavarian Government bought it from the Scottish for the 
low price of £10,000, to convert the building into a 


clerical seminary. There had been only Scottish Abbots 
at Ratisbon from the year 1 5 1 5 onward. 

After these general remarks we must now follow the 
history of this monastery, the head and mother of so many 
other religious houses, a little closer. 

About 1067 Marianus Scotus, 1 along with some other 
monks, came from Ireland to Bamberg in Bavaria, where 
he became a Benedictine. On his later pilgrimage to 
Rome he passed through Ratisbon, where he was prevailed 
upon by his countryman the monk and "inclusus" 
Mercherdach 2 to make a short stay. When he was about 
to continue his journey with his companions, his friend 
advised him first to seek a revelation from God by prayer 
and fasting. In the last night, the legend continues, 
Marianus received the divine command to set out very 
early on the next day, and to remain where he should 
first see the light of the sun. In obedience to this vision 
he took up his staff long before daybreak, and walking 
along he came to a very old church, built in honour of St 
Peter. 3 Here he entered to say his prayers. Scarcely 
had he risen to go on his way comforted when the first 
rays of the sun shone across his path. Marianus then 
settled permanently in Ratisbon, to the great joy of the 
city, in which the Benedictines were then in great favour, 
on account of their strict obedience to religious duties 
and their love of learning. The pious Abbess of Ober- 
munster handed over to him the church and a plot of 
ground, and thus arose, aided by rich contributions in 
money from other quarters, the first monastery of the 
Scottish Benedictines in Germany, the so-called Priory of 
Weih St Peter (1075). 4 In the course of time the 

1 Not to be confounded with Marianus, the historian. His proper name 
was Muiredach trog mac robartaig, i.e., Marianus miser filius Robertaci. 

2 v. Waldersdorff, St Mercherdach and St Marian in the Verhand- 
langen des Historischen Vereins zu Regensburg, xxxiv. 207. 

3 The foundation of this Weih St Peter is lost in the remote darkness 
of the reign of Charlemagne. 

4 Beitrdge zur Geschichte der Schottenabtei zu St Jacob (Contribu- 
tions to the Hist, of the Scottish Monastery of St James at Ratisbon), 
by G. A. Renz, Stift Raigern, 1897. 


settlement increased, 1 and already in 1090 the larger 
Monastery of St James was founded and taken under 
his special protection by the Emperor Henry V. 
Another letter of protection, dated March 26, 11 12, 
endowed it with the estate of Monespach and freed 
it from all imposts and services. Nor were the 
popes behindhand. Calixtus (1120) and Eugen III 
(1148) issued bulls in favour of the new establish- 
ment, according to which the monastery was immediately 
subject to the Holy See only. In the year 1152 
Abbot Christian set out for Scotland (' ad nostrum 
regem') to King David I in order to collect further 
sums for the building of a new church and the enlarge- 
ment of the abbey, which was afterwards rebuilt 
" lapidibus quadris ac politis." With rich presents and 
accompanied by several monks he returned in 1153, 2 and 
it was not long before the very beautiful church of St 
James, one of the finest specimens of the Norman style of 
architecture and of Celtic ornament in Germany, 3 was 
built. Then there began a time of great prosperity. A 
monk completed the "Vita Sti. Mariani," valuable as the 
oldest source of information concerning the Scottish 
foundations at Ratisbon ; the abbots tried to preserve 
discipline and the dignity of the monastery ; 4 presents and 
pious donations were received from many parts. But 
above all the mother-house renewed itself in a number of 
young foundations. As such are mentioned, the monas- 
teries of the Virgin and St. Gregory at Vienna ; the St. 
James' monasteries at Erfurt and Wiirzburg ; St. Giles at 
Niirnberg ; St. James again at Constance ; St. Nicholas at 
Memmingen ; the monastery " Sanctae Crucis " at Eichstadt, 
and the priories of St. John at Kehlheim and Altenfurt 

1 The Benedictines of Ratisbon carried on extensive missions as far as 
Poland (Wattenbach, Die Congregation der Schottenhloster, i. 28). 

2 Brockie, Monasticon Scoticum, Pedeponti, Stadt am Hof, Ratisbon, 
1752, p. 112. 

3 Riehl, Denkmale fruhmittelalterlicher Bauhunst in Bayern (Archi- 
tectural Monuments of the early Middle Ages in Bavaria), p. 85 f. 

4 Repeated resolutions are passed against the " vagrant " monks. Thus 
in 1 21 1 and 1329 


near Nurnberg. These eleven monasteries x were formed 
into one body at the Lateran Council of 12 15. Every 
three years the combined Chapter assembled with the 
Abbot of Ratisbon as president. He also became the 
Provincial of the Order and the " General Visitator " 
(head inspector) ; the right to wear the Mitre and the 
other Pontificalia was granted to him in 1286. 2 

Unfortunately this flourishing condition was not of 
long duration. Vienna was handed over to the German 
Benedictines by order of the Council of Constance for 
reasons already alluded to (141 8); Constance ceased to 
exist in 1530. The half ruinous buildings were pulled 
down by the Magistrate, the garden made into a burial- 
ground. The last abbot, John, signed an agreement in 
1533 waiving all his claims for an annual payment of 
40 gulden. Nor did the priories fare better. Weih 
St Peter at Ratisbon was razed to the ground by the 
troopers of Count Eberstein in the Schmalkaldian War 
" for military reasons." Only the bells and the altar were 
saved. In St James's prosperity had been succeeded by 
a period of decay. Two abbots, named Macrobius, are 
mentioned towards the end of the XHIth century as 
"viri vere prodigi et bonorum monasterii dilapidatores," 
i.e. as great prodigals and squanderers of the property 
of the monastery. Then matters changed for the 
better for some time ; the monastery recovered under 
the honest and energetic administration of one Henry 
of Rotteneck. The small estate of Einbach and some 
houses in the city were acquired as donations. But 
then a series of Irish abbots followed and the mis- 
management steadily increased up to the time of the 
Reformation. The first of them was called Nicolaus 
(1326-1332). Of him it is said: "Those Irish had 
been received by the Scottish for some years past; 
but latterly they had increased to such an extent, that 

1 Twelve, if we add Ols in Silesia (Cp. Wattenbach, I.e.). 

2 A letter of protection of Henry VII granted the Abbot and Prior to 
bear in their arms the divided Eagle of the Empire (Reid), but the 
genuineness of it is disputed. 


they were able to elect their countryman Nicolaus 
abbot. He was deposed by the Bishop of Ratisbon as 
a prodigal and banished." 1 Of his successors, Nicolaus II, 
Eugenius and Matthaeus V, we are told that they assumed 
the title "prince," though neither emperor nor king 
had given permission. 2 Philippus II (140 1- 141 8) and 
Mauritius II (1446) were again prodigals, and Bene- 
dictus (1442-1444), "multa mala fecit," did much evil. 
Thus the disgraceful catalogue continues to the last 
Irish abbot, Walterus or Gualterus (1499-15 15), who 
was not only deposed on account of his misrule, but was 
kept a prisoner in the bishop's castle at Worth. Add to 
this a destructive fire in 1433, an( ^ lt does not sur P r i se 
us, that at the beginning of the era of the Reformation 
the once wealthy monastery was nearly reduced to beggary. 
To stave off complete ruin the hand of an energetic and 
upright ruler was wanted. To accomplish this object 
Pope Leo X took the important step of giving back 
the monastery to the Scottish and of appointing a very 
able Scotsman, John Thomson, who had hitherto lived at 
Rome, to fill the vacancy as abbot; "being," as the Bull 
of Confirmation has it, " the true and legitimate owner of 
the Monastery, since he is Scottish by birth and not an 
Irishman." Serious dissensions arising out of Walterus's 
protests were quelled by the firmness of Leo and the 
Duke of Bavaria. Joannes called around him monks from 
Dunfermline, Inchcolm and Paisley, and thus gradually the 
condition of the Scottish Benedictine Abbey began to 
improve. Unfortunately the number of monks still re- 
mained small, falling as low as two during the rule of 
Abbot Thomas (Anderson). To remedy this help was 
forthcoming from Scotland, whence help was least ex- 
pected. There the rapid spread of the Reformation had 
been followed by wholesale banishment and flight of the 
adherents of the old faith. A great number of monks 
were driven out of the country, and sought refuge on 
the Continent. Among them was one of the most 
zealous and gifted defenders of the Catholic Religion, 

1 Brockie, I.e., 131. 2 Ibid., I.e., 137. 



a man blameless in life and famed for scholarship : Ninian 
Winzet, formerly schoolmaster of Linlithgow. He had 
been born in 1 5 1 8 at Renfrew in the diocese of Glasgow, 
obtained his degree of Master of Arts, and was made 
priest in 1540. Eleven years later we find him again 
holding school in the old royal residence of Linlithgow, 
the birthplace of King James V, and then a centre of 
ecclesiastical activity. Expelled in 1566, he sought an 
asylum with Queen Mary at Edinburgh, who probably 
made him her chaplain and confessor also. It was here 
that he entered the arena against John Knox, and while 
the palace resounded with the blows, cuts and thrusts 
of theological disputants, Queen Mary was reading Livy 
every day after dinner with her teacher Buchanan. Here 
also he wrote his first book entitled, Four Score and 
three Questions, a work which, on account of its out- 
spoken concessions on the one hand, and its unshaken 
firmness on the other, exercised no small influence on 
vacillating minds at that time. 1 The author of such a 
book could not long remain unmolested in Edinburgh. The 
magistrate endeavoured to seize him, and it was only 
with great difficulty that Ninian escaped to Flanders on 
board a ship. Thence he went to Louvain, the place 
of refuge for many Roman Catholics (1562). Later, 
he visited Paris, in order to finish his studies, and Douay, 
a university then newly founded, where he obtained the 
degree of licentiate of theology (1575). In the same 
year he accompanied Bishop Leslie, Mary's ambassador, 
to Rome, at the express desire of the Queen. 

Two years afterwards, when the death of the abbot of 
Ratisbon, Thomas Anderson, 2 became known in the 
Vatican, both the Pope himself and the Bishop of 
Ross being convinced of the necessity of placing an 
energetic, and withal a prudent and moderate man at 
the head of the monastery, a man who might bring about 
a new season of prosperty, Ninian Winzet was elected 

1 At first this book was only read in manuscript copies ; it was printed 
at Antwerp in 1563. 

2 Thomas had never been confirmed by the Pope. 


abbot and duly confirmed (1577). Nor did he dis- 
appoint his superiors in their expectations. For the 
present, indeed, there were but few monks to welcome 
him at St James's, and the condition of the buildings 
was still deplorable. But the new abbot soon succeeded 
in mending matters. A secular seminary was opened 
where he not only supervised the teachers conscientiously, 
but taught the higher branches of education himself. 
In the year 1583, the estate of Hopfengarton was 
acquired for the monastery, the purchase-money amounting 
to 2000 guldens, and an agreement was concluded with 
the Abbess of Obermunster concerning the revenues of 
Weih St Peter. To all these efforts must be added 
Winzet's unwearied exertions on behalf of those religious 
houses in Germany, which had formerly belonged to 
Scotland. In this he was supported by Queen Mary 
herself, his friend and patron, Bishop Leslie, and many 
crowned heads. It was Leslie's special mission to obtain from 
the Emperor and the other Catholic Princes of Germany, 
protection for the Scots who were exiled on account of 
their faith, and at the same time to urge the restoration 
of these monasteries. In a letter dated April 30th 1578, the 
unfortunate Queen explained her wishes to the Emperor 
Rudolph, 3 and the latter answered by sanctioning the 
claims of the Scots with regard to Ratisbon, Wiirzburg 
and Erfurt, they being the "original owners." 2 But he 
refused the prayers of Abbot Ninian, which he had laid 
before the Emperor in a pamphlet, entitled, "Eleven 
reasons for the restitution of the Scottish Monastery at 
Vienna." 3 Nor could Niirnberg or Constance be resumed. 
In Niirnberg the magistracy held out promises to Leslie, 
and revelled in polite words, — but nothing more. As 
to Constance, new negotiations were entered upon in 
1608, when Joannes VII was Abbot of Ratisbon. But the 
magistracy answered, that there was not a stone left of 
the old monastery, the former revenues had been 
expended " ad pias causas." The only result was a sum 
of 1500 guldens which was paid to the Monastery of 
1 See Appendix. 2 See Appendix. 3 Ninian Winzeti. 


Ratisbon as compensation, and that the duty entered upon 
by the city of Constance of maintaining regular divine 
worship in the " Friedhofskapelle " (Mortuary Chapel). 1 

Winzet displayed a like energy in the affairs of the 
Scottish monastery at Erfurt. He restored the buildings 
and gave it an excellent abbot in the person of John 
Hamilton. 2 In the meantime the Pope had interceded 
on his behalf with the German Emperor, the Dukes of 
Bavaria, and the Bishop of Ratisbon, 3 whilst Queen Mary 
wrote again recommending him to the Archbishop of 
Mainz, Duke Albert of Bavaria and his consort, a princess 
of Lorraine. All these high dignitaries of Church and 
State replied in terms of friendship and commiseration, 
and promised their protection to the new abbot. 4 

With all his labours in Ratisbon and elsewhere, Ninian 
did not neglect his literary work. In 158 1 he published 
at Ingolstadt his commentaries on the Epistles of St Paul, 
and in 1582 his polemical "Flagellum sectarium," the 
Sectarians' scourge, which he dedicated to the Duke of 
Bavaria. Besides this he wrote epigrams and occasional 
verses in his leisure hours and translated the large Cate- 
chism of Canisius, the Jesuit, into the Scottish vernacular. 
With his friend Professor Robert Turner of Ingolstadt, 
a Scotsman by extraction, if not by birth, he frequently 
exchanged letters until death put an end to his active life 
in 1592. In him the Catholics lost a candid friend, the 
Protestants an honest foe> and the world of letters an 
independent thinker; an advocate of practical reform, 
though a faithful adherent of the old Church. 5 

Winzet's successor was Joannes VII, whose family name 

1 G. A. Renz, I.e., p. 16 f. 2 Ibid. p. 15. 

3 Letter to the Emperor 1 7th of July 1 577 ; to Duke Albert on the same 
date. Cp. King Hewison, I.e., ii. 16. 

4 The Duke of Bavaria wrote on the 6th of Sept. 1578 that he would 
take the abbot or any other Roman Catholic Scotsman under his 
protection, and his duchess promised the same in a touching French 
letter, dated Munich, Sept. 12 1578. Cp. King Hewison, I.e. 
Append. W. 

5 Cp. Bellesheim, Hist, of the Cath. Church in Scotland, ii. 35. See 
also Appendix. 



was White or Wight. He discharged his office till 1623, 
when he retired. The chroniclers call him "a scholarly- 
man and one well versed in polemics." It was during his 
rule that those negotiations with Constance took place of 
which we have spoken. Renewed appeals to the Emperor 
for the purpose of regaining the Scottish establishment at 
Vienna were again fruitless ; in spite of the assistance of 
Cardinal Berberini and the Bull of Pope Urban VIII of 
April 27th, 1624, in which the Emperor was called upon 
to restore the monastery to its owners, German Bene- 
dictines retained possession of it. Wiirzburg, however, 
which since the year 1497 had been occupied by the 
Germans, was returned to the Scots by Bishop Julius, 
whose statue adorns the place in front of the Hospital, 
and peopled with six monks from Ratisbon. 

Then there came the Thirty Years' War with its 
frightful train of plague and plunder, of war contributions 
and impoverishment. Ratisbon was occupied by the 
Swedes under Duke Bernhard of Weimar in 1633 and 
great damage was done to the town and the Monastery. 
Of the 75,000 florins exacted from the clergy, the 
Scottish abbey of St James had to pay 1000 gulden. 
The buildings decayed, a great number of monks died, 
the revenues were reduced to 1200 gulden a year or a 
little more, scarcely sufficient for the maintenance of four 
"patres." During ten years, from 1630-1640, there were 
no abbots but only managers (' administratores '). 

It was not till 1646 that an attempt was made to 
improve this sad state of matters. In that year the 
energetic and learned Alex. Bayllaeus (Baillie), who had 
formerly been Abbot of Erfurt, 1 was chosen for the same 
dignity at Ratisbon. He took pains first of all to redeem 
such of the monastery's property as had been pawned, to 
restore the buildings and to buy new Church vessels. 
Then he turned his attention to the political interests of 

1 Since 1636. He was succeeded at Erfurt by Macarius Camerarius. 
The abbot of the Scottish Monastery there had been appointed " Con- 
servator et judex" of the University by Pope Martin V in 1427 
(Feb. nth). 


the Monastery. Owing to his skill the attempts of 
Ferdinand III and IV to hand it over to the Carmelites 
(1641), or even to the Irish (1653), failed, and Pope 
Urban VIII as well as Innocent X expressed themselves 
again in favour of the Scottish Benedictines. 1 With 
the University of Salzburg, excellently conducted by the 
Benedictines, an agreement was concluded by which the 
Abbot of St James's at Ratisbon was to take the place of 
the Abbot of St Peter's, Salzburg, at the time of the 
election of a new Rector. 2 

After Baillie the most eminent abbot was Placidus 
Fleming (Flaminius), under whose long and beneficent 
rule the monastery greatly recovered its former flourishing 
condition. He was born at Kirkoswald in Ayrshire, and 
was related to the Earls of Wigton. In his youth he is 
said to have been a naval officer and to have been once 
captured by pirates in the Mediterranean Sea. As Abbot 
of St James's he showed uncommon energy, learning and 
zeal in matters of education. The library owed, if not its 
existence, its rich book-treasures to him. He founded a 
professorship of Philosophy at Erfurt, always to be held 
by a Scotsman. He built a Seminary for young Scottish 
boys of better families, first at a small place called Gries- 
statten (17 13) and later in Ratisbon (171 9) ; 3 and finally 
he formed the three remaining Scottish Religious Houses 
of Ratisbon, Erfurt and Wiirzburg into a closer union, in 
which the abbot of the first-named should always take 
the highest rank on account of the " great age of the 
Monastery and its many privileges granted by Popes and 

It was during Fleming's rule that the Monastery of St 

1 Wattenbach, I.e., p. 58. 

2 Renz, I.e., p. 18. Already in 161 8 Abbot Benedict of Ratisbon 
had signed the agreement of the united Benedictine abbots for the main- 
tenance and the appointment of professors and officers at the University 
of Salzburg, then about to be founded. (P. M. Sattler, Blatter %ur 
Geschlchte der ehemaligen Benedictiner Universitdt Salzburg, Kempten 

3 Scottish monks were also active in the service of education at 
Waldsassen and Munich. 


James's began to be used as an asylum for members of the 
old Scottish aristocracy, who, like George Gordon, the 
brother of the Earl of Aboyne, desired to spend their last 
years in peaceful retirement, or who used their utmost 
efforts secretly to restore the Stuart dynasty. Between 
Paris, Ratisbon and Rome an unceasing communication 
took place ; but all the Stuart letters were lost, when 
Strahlheim, one of the estates of the monastery, where 
these documents had been deposited, was consumed 
by fire. 

Fleming's successor was the learned Maurus Stuart. 
During sixteen years he had been a professor at Erfurt. 
He died before his consecration and was succeeded by 
Bernard Baillie. Well versed in history and philosophy 
he had likewise filled a professor's chair at Erfurt, but 
had been recalled by Fleming to superintend some im- 
provements and additions to the buildings of the monastery 
at Ratisbon. He took a great interest in the library and 
gained the affection of his monks. After his death in 
1742 Bernard Stuart, a nephew of the above-named 
Maurus, was raised to the dignity of abbot. He was a 
man of great natural gifts, but of a character little noble 
or loveable. Excelling in provinces of learning far 
removed from the requirements of his office, he very 
frequently absented himself from Ratisbon. Born in 
Scotland in 1706, he early showed great aptitude for 
mathematics. He was educated at St James's seminary, 
and became priest in 1726. Some years after he obtained 
the chaplaincy of the Nonnberg near Salzburg, which 
enabled him to prosecute his studies in that University 
with a view mainly to perfect himself in Canon law. 
During 1 733-1 741 he himself taught as professor of 
mathematics, filling at the same time a number of other 
important offices. Thus the Prince- Archbishop appointed 
him his clerical adviser and inspector of buildings ('rei 
asdilis director'). As such he successfully drained a large 
bog near Salzburg after a labour of three years, and drew 
the plan of the Archbishop's castle Leopoldskron. In 
1742 he visited at St Petersburg his brother, who was 


a general in the Russian service. After his return the 
city of Augsburg nominated him her "director aedilitiae" 
with a salary attached of 1800 florins. A theatre or 
public-hall for the pupils of the Jesuit seminary is his 
work ; more useful was a strong embankment which he 
built on the river Lech, and which can be seen to this 
day. For this the grateful city presented him with a 
gold cup. The Imperial Court of Vienna likewise em- 
ployed him as Inspector of Fortresses in Swabia. In 1743 
he was chosen Abbot of St James's at Ratisbori. During 
his term of office the above-mentioned estate of Strahlfeld 
was acquired for the monastery after a long law-suit, 
and the Jacobite intrigues culminated in 1745, when a 
messenger from the monastery to the " King " at Rome, 
Father Macdonnell, actually proposed the raising of a 
regiment of Bavarians to assert the rights of the Royal 
Stuart. The " King " was prudent enough to thank the 
messenger for his good intentions, but to decline the pro- 
posal. Another priest of St James's accompanied the 
Pretender on his invasion of England as confessor, and 
was wounded at Culloden. Only with great difficulty 
and after many adventures he succeeded finally in escaping 
to the Continent disguised as the servant of the Bavarian 
ambassador's secretary. This was Gallus Leith. Born 
in 1709 he had early entered the Ratisbon seminary. 
After having professed he studied divinity and Canon law 
at Salzburg, and was then sent to Rome on business 
(1736). In 1756 he was chosen abbot and proved him- 
self a capable ruler, only " too narrow-minded with 
regard to himself and others," as the chronicler puts 
it. 1 

In brilliant gifts, aristocratic bearing and a lofty and 
amiable disposition however, he is far surpassed by 
Benedict Arbuthnot, the last abbot, a true prince of the 
Church. The long period (1775-1820) during which he 
held office was very eventful for Ratisbon. For no sooner 
had the Diet meeting within its walls roused deeper 
interest in science, literature and art, promoting at the 
1 Brockie, I.e. 


same time a refined social intercourse, 1 than the troublous 
events in the world of politics made the country resound 
with the tumult and rumours of war, and brought the 
French within the very gates of the city. We possess a 
graphic account of the life in Ratisbon then from the pen 
of Thomas Campbell, the poet, who was, at the beginning 
of the century, the guest of the monastery; and the 
skirmish, which he witnessed under the walls of the 
building, gave rise to one of the most famous lyrical 
poems of the language. 2 

Particularly interesting is Campbell's description of 
Arbuthnot himself as we find it in his letters. After 
praising his unusually tolerant views he adds : " Dr. 
Arbuthnot is one of the handsomest and strongest men I 
have ever seen." . . . "Not to love him was impossible." 
. . . "The whole of Bavaria," they told me, "lamented 
his death. When I knew him, he was the most com- 
manding human figure I ever beheld. His head was then 
quite white, but his complexion was fresh and his features 
were regular and handsome. In manners he had a per- 
petual suavity and benevolence. I think I see him still 
in the cathedral with the golden cross on his fine chest, 
and hear him chanting the service with his full, deep 
voice. 3 

Our sketch of the abbot would be incomplete, how- 
ever, without having mentioned his scientific achieve- 
ments. He was especially learned in mathematics and 
chemistry. His lectures on these subjects were well 
attended, and several of his essays were printed in the 
Publications of the Royal Bavarian Academy of Sciences, 4 
of which he was a member. Well stricken in years, he 

1 The worthy abbot was a conspicuous figure in the aristocratic circles 
of the day. The British Ambassador often made use of his services as 
an interpreter. 

2 The well-known "ijHohenlinden." 

3 Beattie, Life and Letters ofTh. Campbell, vol. ii. 575. 

4 In T 77 5 he obtained a prize for a chemical essay. See Publ. of the 
R. Bav. Ac. of Sc. ix. 410, 436. See also vols. vii. and viii. A good 
portrait of Arbuthnot is to be seen in the library of the Benedictine 
Abbey at Fort Augustus, Scotland. 


died in 1820, after having ruled the monastery for forty- 
four years. 1 

Two other remarkable men, who lived at St James's 
during his government, were P. Archibald M'lvor and 
Romana Robertson. M'lvor was a teacher of the Crown 
Prince of Bavaria and later Dean of Ratisbon Cathedral ; 
Robertson served his monastery and England on several 
occasions in matters of political import. It is said of him 
that, when Napoleon decreed the secularisation of monas- 
teries in 1803, Robertson wrote a petition, which he per- 
sonally presented to Napoleon at Paris, and thus gained 
a postponement of the measure for the benefit of his 
Order. But according to tradition of a more trustworthy 
kind, it was Marshal Macdonald, Duke of Taranto, one 
of Napoleon's most famous generals, that successfully 
interceded for the monastery of his countrymen. 

The second affair in which Robertson was implicated 
is as well attested as it is strange, There was at that 
time a Spanish general, called the Marquis of Romana, 2 
a fearless man, whose intense love of liberty had lost him 
the favour of Napoleon, then about to conquer Spain. 
In order to get rid of the patriot and his troops, he sent 
him to the Danish island of Fiinen, in the far north of 
Europe, ostensibly with the purpose of co-operating with 
Bernadotte. Here the proud Marquis wasted away his 
days in hateful inactivity. To rescue him from this 
ignominious position, England accepted the services of 
Robertson, whose fitness for a mission of daring and 
secrecy had strongly impressed itself on the Duke of 
Richmond, then on a visit to the Scottish monastery at 
Ratisbon. He had proposed the name of the humble 
prior to the Duke of Wellington, and after an interview 
in London, when Robertson's reward was fixed and also 
the promise given to provide for his mother and two 
sisters in Scotland in case of failure, the bold messenger 
started on his journey (1808). His message to the 
general was that English ships were ready to carry him 

1 See the inscription on his monument in Appendix. 

2 Hence Robertson's name, " Romana Robertson." 


and his troops to any port he wished, and that, if an 
insurrection against the usurper should take place in 
Spain, England would be ready to throw in her lot 
with that country. After many adventures Robertson 
left Heligoland, then English, and landed in Germany on 
board a smuggling vessel. A revenue cutter, the captain 
of which had been bribed, next brought him to Bremen, 
a city then in the hands of the French. Here he suc- 
ceeded in procuring a passport under the name of an 
acquaintance of his, a German, who had died lately. On 
he went on his journey, heeding no warnings, by way of 
Liibeck to Kiel. Having laid in a stock of cigars and 
chocolate, he resolved to continue his expedition as a 
commercial traveller. At last Fun en was reached. But 
now the difficulty was to approach the Marquis so as not 
to rouse suspicion. After some futile attempts he in the 
end succeeded in obtaining an audience for the purpose 
of effecting a sale of his wares. Having given an 
account of himself by producing his papers, he was told 
by the Marquis, after some hesitation, that he accepted 
the English proposals. Robertson's mission was effected, 
and Romana, making use of the opportunity of a grand 
parade of troops, which had been ordered by Bernadotte, 
and at which he himself intended to be present, collected 
as many soldiers as possible at Nyborg, his headquarters; 
and when the Commander-in-Chief arrived there, already 
some 10,000 men had embarked on English ships, which 
had been lying ready opposite the little town. They 
sailed first to England, thence to Spain, where Romana's 
assistance was highly welcome. 1 As to Robertson, he 
reached the coast of Germany and London after many 
escapes and on all sorts of round-about ways cleverly 

1 General Romana died in 1 8 1 1 . The Duke of Wellington, on the 
23rd of January of that year, issued the following eloquent tribute to his 
memory : " His talents, his virtues and his patriotism were well known 
to H. M. Government, and I myself shall always gratefully acknow- 
ledge the assistance I received from him either in the field of action 
or in council. In him the Spanish army has lost its greatest ornament, 
his native land its most upright patriot, and the world the most active and 
zealous defender of a cause which still claims our attention." 


contrived. He had been closely but ineffectually pursued 
by the French. 1 

Arbuthnot was the last abbot of the Scottish Monastery 
of Ratisbon. After him there were only priors, the 
number of monks gradually decreased, and, although a 
few Scotch boys were still taught at the seminary, 2 the 
final extinction could no longer be staved off. All appeals 
to the fact that the monastery for centuries had done 
good work in secular education also, were of no avail. 
Primate Dalberg prohibited the further reception of 
novices or pupils. This prohibition was withdrawn 
by King Ludwig I of Bavaria in 1827, but when 
the Bishop of Ratisbon declared that he wanted the 
buildings of the monastery for the extension of the 
clerical seminary, the Scottish Episcopacy acquiesced, 
an agreement was at last arrived at between Bavaria 
and the Vatican, and the Monastery was dissolved by a 
Breve of Pope Pius IX on the 2nd of September 1862 
for the sum mentioned above. The old, time-honoured 
foundation of Marianus passed into German hands. 

With regard to the " Schottenkloster " at Erfurt, the 
foundation of which is likewise lost in the obscurity of 
the Xlth Century, we have to add that its existence, 
much chequered by the reverses of fortune, never pro- 
duced any deep and lasting impression on its surroundings 
except in its connection with the University. In 11 98 it 
was granted a privilege, afterwards confirmed by the 
Emperor Rudolf of Habsburg, according to which every 
damage done to its present or future property was 
punished by a fine of 100 talents "of pure gold." 
Towards the end of the XVth Century it was, as one of 
the chroniclers relates, "almost entirely ruinous," so that 
nobody trusted himself to live in it. About the same 
time Irish monks seem to have been received. There was 
a series of Irish abbots from the end of the XlVth Century. 
In the year 1450, Thaddseus II, the last of them, presented 

1 See Robertson, Story of a Secret Mission to the Danish Isles, 1863. 

2 From 1 71 3-1855 one hundred and forty-one Scottish youths received 
their training at the school of the monastry. See Appendix. 


a pamphlet to all the teachers of the University, in which 
he defended himself against a certain Magister Heyne- 
mann, and others, who had publicly maintained that the 
monastery did as much belong to them as to him, he 
being Irish. Abbot Matthaeus commenced the building 
of a new monastery ; but this edifice was burned down 
to the ground, together with the church, at the time 
" when the fatal conflagration took place " at Erfurt in 1472. 
Then, indeed, misery and distress reached their height. 
"The abbot, however, did not become discouraged," the 
old chronicler continues ; " he collected contributions from 
his countrymen in Germany and received a ' considerable ' 
writing, with seals attached to it, from the abbots of 
Ratisbon, Wiirzburg and Constance and other prelates, 
who all of them spoke in moving terms of the pitiable 
condition of the Scottish Monastery at Erfurt, exhorting 
pious Christians to contribute their donations. The 
sum collected, however, was not sufficient to repair the 
damage in any way. The abbot therefore saw himself 
obliged to pawn fields, vineyards, houses and other 
property of the Monastery, in order to make the most 
urgent repairs and to have a roof over his head again." x 

At the beginning of the next century Abbot Benedictus 
was in a similar plight. He also was anxious to rebuild 
the ruined edifice (1510), but not having the means, and 
the " great Lords rather putting him off with letters of 
recommendation than affording him any real assistance, he 
likewise resorted to the sale of monastic property, by 
which means he was able to restore the church in the 
way it remained until the year 1724." 2 

In 1 5 14 the altar dedicated to St Ninian and given 
and endowed by two citizens of Erfurt, Scotsmen by 
birth, named Balthasar Barding (?) and Jacob Flamingk 
(Fleming), was erected. 3 

During the period of the Reformation there was 

1 Falkenstein, Thur. Chronik, 1738, iii. 1065. 

2 Ibid., p. T066. 

3 Tettau, Bait- und Kunstdenhm'dler (Monuments of Architecture and 
Art), at Erfurt, 1890, p. 180. 


temporarily only one monk in the monastery. But he 
continued regularly to say mass. Matters became still 
worse after the occupation of Erfurt by the Swedes in 
1632. The monastery of the Scots was then made a 
present to the community and afterwards sold by the 
magistrates. It had, however, to be given back to the 
Order after the Peace of Prague 1 in 1635. 

Finally, the use of the church of the monastery was 
granted to the congregation of St Nicholaus in 1744; 
the definite property of which it became in 1820, when 
the secularisation took place. Joseph Hamilton was the 
last prior, a man whose great benevolence is repeatedly 
mentioned. Every morning between nine and ten o'clock 
he gave free advice to the sick, and tried to cure them 
with the help of electricity. He also willingly paid visits 
to poor patients in their houses, carrying with him his 
electric machine. 2 

The former monastery served for some time as military 
store-house ; afterwards the military academy was built on 
its site (1858). 

We are better informed of the history of the Scottish 
monastery at Wlirzburg (Herbipolis) in Bavaria. To 
the north of the Marienberg, afterwards strongly fortified, 
on the western banks of the Main River, rises the hill of 
Girsberg or Geiersberg. At the time of the foundation 
of the monastery in the Xllth century there was no 
human dwelling on it ; a bare and bleak mountain, 
waiting for its cultivation from the industrious hands of 
the monks. Here then Bishop Embricho, in answer to 
the prayer of an Irish-Scottish monk, named Christian, 
granted the foreign pilgrims a home for the sake of St 
Kilian, the apostle and martyr of Franconia. Thus the 
primary destination of the building appears to have been 
a resting place (hospitium) for the Irish pilgrims to Rome 
and for the missionaries. As coat-of-arms the young 
foundation showed a shield with a scallop-shell and two 

1 Tettau, Bau- und Kunstdenkmd/er, p. 1 36. 

2 Hartung, H'duser Chronik des Stadt Erfurt (Chronicle of houses in 
the town of Erfurt), 1878, ii. 180. 


crossed pilgrim-staves. Pope Coelestin in 1195, Clement 
IV in 1348, and the Emperor Charles IV in 1355, con- 
firmed all its privileges, liberties and possessions. 1 

And these were already large. Embricho had given 
his estate of Wolfsthal, with all its " meadows, forests 
and waters," to the monastery, and endowed the chapel 
with a " meadow along the Main," and with the river 
itself, "as wide as the meadow" (1142). Other pious 
men and women left other estates, houses and vineyards. 
Sums of money also were forthcoming, nay, even serfs 
and their services were handed over to the monastery as 
legacy. 2 

The political events of the times, however, did not 
allow this flourishing condition to continue long. Already 
the year 1400 proved disastrous to the free development 
of the new foundation, in consequence of a war waged 
by the citizens of Wiirzburg against their Bishop Gerhard. 
How severe these losses must have been appears from a 
convention arrived at by Bishop Johann and the citizens 
of Wiirzburg in 1402, when the latter agreed to pay the 
sum of 40,000 pounds' weight of pence for damage done 
to various religious houses. 3 On other occasions also 
rapacious hands tried to possess themselves of monastic 
property. It required a bull of Pope Martin V in 14 18 
to stem this course of spoliation. 

An important resolution was arrived at by the Abbots 
of Wiirzburg and Erfurt, and the Prior and Monks of St 
James's at Ratisbon, after the death of their Abbot John 
in 1479 (October 22nd) ; according to which the Abbot 
of Wiirzburg had the right to nominate a candidate for 

1 Reg. Bav. i. 365. Royal Archives (Wiirzburg) Copeibuch, fol. 28 
and 28b. Cp. M. Wieland, Das Schottenkloster zu St Jakob zu 
Wiirzburg (The Scottish Monastery of St James at Wiirzburg) in the 
Archiv des Historischen Vereins ( Society ) von Unterfranhen und Aschaffen- 
burg, xvi. 2, p. 1-182 (1863). 

2 Wieland, I.e., p. 168. 

3 The monastery also received as the emoluments of a canonry, bread and 
wine in daily rations, corn at certain seasons, meat at Martinmas, and 
two pounds of mustard (!). In the division of certain tithes, payable to 
the cathedral, it received a share like every canon. Wieland, p. 80. 



the abbacies of Constance and Memmingen with the 
consent of the other Scottish abbots. If he had no 
other suitable individual, the monastery of Ratisbon was 
to furnish one. Other paragraphs aimed at the restriction 
of the power of the Abbot of Ratisbon, who, it would 
appear, had exercised it somewhat arbitrarily and too 
severely. It was further agreed, that no prelate should 
be allowed to sell any property of the house, except 
with the consent of the other prelates ; that no benefice 
of the Scottish nation should be given to a German, and 
that all the elections for vacant offices had to take place 
at Ratisbon. 1 

In spite of all these efforts the tide of decay that set 
in towards the end of the XVth Century, could not be 
stemmed. At the death of Abbot Philip (1497), there 
was not a single monk left ; there was no grain nor 
wine in barn or cellar, and the walls of the building 
threatened to come down. The reason of this seems to 
have been partly the mismanagement of the abbots, 
partly the unruly times, partly the ignorance of the 
foreign monks of German law in their frequent legal 
difficulties arising out of property, tithes, and other 
questions. 2 

Be this as it may, Pope Alexander VI, taking charge 
of the deserted monastery, tried to mend matters by 
introducing German monks. But his hopes were doomed 
to disappointment. The Peasants' War had plundered 
and destroyed the sacred buildings, and the Germans 
in 1547 arrived at the same end, after an administration 
of only about fifty years, as the Scots after three hundred. 

It was then that a new helper arose in the person 
of the excellent Bishop Julius. When attending the 
Diet of Ratisbon in 1594, he took up his quarters in the 
Monastery of St James, and was received and entertained 
with princely honours by its abbot John James White 
(Albus), a scholarly and generous man, who did not lose 
the opportunity of pressing the claims of the Scots to 
the foundation of Wiirzburg, with his noble visitor. 

1 Wieland, l.c, p. 172 f. 2 Ibid., I.e., p. 1 3. 


This reason would have been quite sufficient to explain 
the Bishop's later actions with reference to the Scottish 
monastery. But the people's mind in those days required 
more than cold logic ; it loved to trace back every great 
event, every ancient foundation of Church or Cloister to 
a miracle, a direct interference of Providence. It was a 
dream that once led the old Irish monk to build his 
narrow cell at Ratisbon ; it was an illness unto death 
that made Bishop Julius vow to restore the monastery at 
Wiirzburg to its rightful owners, and thus become its 
second founder in the case of his recovery. The violent 
fever left him, he returned to Wiirzburg, restored the 
monastery, paid its debts, and requested the Abbot of 
Ratisbon to send some learned Scottish x monks. These 
were most solemnly, in the presence of the most noble 
men of Franconia, reintroduced into their own. After 
this time the existence of the monastery was no longer 
disturbed, although it continued to suffer much from 
the war. Many good abbots directed their attention 
to missionary and educational work ; the library 2 was 
increased ; a guest-house built, the other buildings 
were enlarged and improved. At the same time the 
fortifications of Wiirzburg gradually encroached upon 
the Girberg. One large vineyard after another was lost, 
besides many houses and properties, which paid their 
rents to the monastery. The owners, of course, were 
compensated, 3 but the fact of being now placed within 
the rayon of fortifications led to many hardships. At 
various periods the precincts of the monastery were re- 
quisitioned by the military for their stores. Latterly 

1 Wieland p. 17. 

2 Ibid. p. 67. It contained about 8000 volumes at the time of its 
secularisation. In 17 15, 745 guests used the hospitality of the monks. 

3 In 1645, the compensation awarded by Prince Bishop Johann Philip, 
amounted to 733 gulden in money, 46 quarters of corn, 4^ of wheat, 
3 of oats, 1 quarter of peas, 1 waggon-load of wine, 1 ox, and 1 hundred- 
weight of carp. In 1664 were added: several rents; wine; 200 fl. 
ready money ; 2 cwt. of carp ; 1 cwt. of cod ; 50 lb. of butter ; a 
quarter of a tun of herrings, salt, etc. All this annually. See Wieland 
p. 18. 



the difficulty of obtaining monks and nonces from Scotland 
was experienced as in Ratisbon, so here also. In 1803 
the old foundation was secularised; the books were 
incorporated with the Royal University Library; the 
archives now formed a part of the Royal Archives ; the 
wonder-working relics of St Macarius, the first abbot, were 
transferred to St Mary's Chapel on the Market Square, and 
the whole buildings were converted into a military hospital. 1 
To this short sketch of the history of the " Schotten- 
kloster" at Wiirzburg, we now add some biographical 
notices of its monks and abbots. 2 The first abbot was 
Makarius ; he was early reverenced as a saint, and died in 
1 153. His burial place was for a long time unknown, 
until it was miraculously rediscovered in 16 14 by a 
monk Gabriel. Abbot Philippus was made chaplain to 
Charles IV (1355), and showed great diplomatic skill. 
Franciscus Hamilton, one of his successors, obtained his 
degree of divinity at the University of Wiirzburg, and 
was elected Abbot in 1602. As such he worked hard 
to pay off the debt of the monastery. In 1609 he re- 
signed and went to Munich in the service of William and 
Maximilian of Bavaria. He was followed by Guilelmus 
Ogilbaeus (Ogilvie), who increased the number of monks 
and decorated the buildings. It was during his tenure of 
office that the town was besieged by Gustavus Adolfus, 
and after a last desperate resistance surrendered. Ogilvie 

1 What became of the many pictures, among others of an original 
portrait of Queen Mary and of that of General Alex. Hamilton, the gun- 
maker, painted by Van Dyck, we do not know. 

2 For a list of abbots see Appendix. The income of an abbot at Wiirzburg 
in the XVIth Century amounted to about 200 gulden. He received as 
honorary gifts : a glass of wine from the Chief-Magistrate on the third 
day after Whitsunday at the close of the "Vespers" ; a wreath of flowers 
on Corpus- Christi-day from the parishioners of Burkard, when they 
proceeded to the Scottish Church early in the morning at four o'clock, 
and a large candle at Candlemas from the Cathedral after High Mass. 
(Wieland, p. 87.) Besides this he was lord of the manor of Gerchsheim, 
over which he had the jurisdiction. (Wieland, p. 88.) A solemn court 
of justice was held there annually between Christmas and Ash Wednesday, 
and the abbot had the privilege of bringing with him 12 horses, 12 
mounted men, 1 servant, 3 dogs and 1 hawk. 


met the conqueror with the keys of the city in his hands, 
and by his pleading succeeded in assuaging the anger of 
the King (1631). 

A man of equally high character and untiring energy 
was Abbot John Audomarus Asloan. A friend of the 
Bishop he ruled wisely and well, always mindful to have 
the account-books and the tithe-rolls of the house in 
good order. So well known were his excellent business 
qualities, that the monks at Ratisbon desired him for 
their abbot, when in 1639 Algacus had left their 
monastery in a deplorable condition. For a time he 
seems to have gone and assisted there as temporary 
"administrator." 1 He died in 1661. 

Ambrosius Cook, who ruled the monastery from 1689- 
1703, was a man of a very different type. He showed 
a weak, vacillating, worldly character ; now rigorous, now 
lax ; often abroad, preferring the intercourse with boon 
companions to the solitary life of a religious house. In 
1697, when one of the Patres, Macarius Brown, had 
died in Scotland and left a legacy to Wiirzburg, he 
set out himself for that country, to receive it. But 
instead of four weeks he stayed a year, without writ- 
ing a single line either to his monks or to the Bishop. 
When summoned (Feb. 18, 1699) to appear in person 
before his superiors, he replied from Paris, that he 
intended to enter the religious fraternity at La Trappe, 
asking at the same time that his post might be kept 
open for him during his novitiate. But the severity of 
the Trappist rules appears to have been too great for 
him. He returned to Wiirzburg and for a time seems 
to have lived soberly and honestly. But he relapsed 
again ; his way of living became so offensive, that after 
having been shut up in the fortress for his misdeeds, he 
was deposed in 1703. Towards the end of his life he 
travelled much and finally retired to the Cistercian 
Monastery of Dusselthal, in the diocese of Cologne, 
where, piously obedient to the strictest rules, he at last 
found peace. He died in 1727. 

1 Cp. Part iv. 


There were no abbots from 1 703-1713 nor from 
1753-1756. The last two filled their office worthily. 
Augustine Duff from Fochabers in Scotland is called 
the type "of a good shepherd." 1 He was an excellent 
scholar and a patron of the library. His death in 1753 
prevented him from finishing the reconstruction of the 
chapel of St Makarius. Placidus Hamilton, finally, the 
last abbot, was of noble descent and united great 
prudence with scholarly attainments and a large ex- 
perience of men and manners, which he had gathered 
on extensive travels. But as a ruler he was scarcely 
successful. Having retired to London in 1 763 with a 
pension of 200 gulden from the Prince-Bishop, he died 
there in 1786. 2 

From this time to the dissolution of the monastery 
there were only priors at the head of it. 

Among the monks, a list of whom is given in the 
Appendix, Gabriel Wallace deserves a special notice. 
He is described as a man of great humility and ex- 
celling in the mortification of the body. He slept only 
three or four hours and was girt with a heavy, stout iron- 
chain. 3 Like many other ascetic monks he was given to 
visions and dreams. During one of his prayerful nights 
he heard, as the story goes, repeatedly and long continued 
"music of angels' voices" issuing from a certain place of 
the church, where it was said, but now forgotten, that St 
Makarius slept his last sleep. Having reported the matter 
to his superior he received permission to make a search, 
and when he had raised the floor he came upon a stone 
with the inscription: "Hie jacet Macarius, primus Abbas 
hujus ecclesiae, per quern Deus vinum in aquam convertit." 
He also found other written documents testifying the same 
thing (1614). Bishop Julius then had the relics with 
great solemnity transferred to the main church and 
deposited in a stone coffin (161 5). 

1 Wieland, I.e., p. 133. 2 For a complete list of abbots see Appendix. 

3 " Vir humilitate et corporis sui castigatione insignis, quatuor tantum 
horas dormiens, catena ferrea lumbos cingens ponderosa satis et crassa." 
Wieland, I.e., p. 106. 



Of monks and priors, who excelled in literature, we 
shall have to speak elsewhere. 1 It only remains to 
mention the sad fate of Marianus Gordon of Banff, who, 
a descendant of the Marquis of Huntly and the Dukes of 
Gordon, entered the monastery in the 14th year of his 
age as a pupil. He showed great aptitude for learning, 
and having obtained a degree in arts as well as in 
theology, he went to St Gall for the study of Oriental 
languages, and remained there about a year and a half. 
After his return to Wiirzburg he was made a priest. It 
appears that Marianus had for some time past corresponded 
with Protestants, and not only read Protestant books, but 
taken steps to escape from the monastery and embrace the 
Lutheran doctrine. Some of his letters to Protestant 
authors were intercepted ; Protestant books were dis- 
covered in his cell together with writings of his own, 
which were sufficient to convict him of heresy. He was 
sentenced to imprisonment for three years (1732). At 
first he was detained in St James's Monastery, but, when 
new letters of his to his Protestant friends were dis- 
covered, his prison was changed to the so-called " Pfaffen- 
thurm " (Priest's-tower) in the fortress of Marienberg. 
Here the unfortunate young man, against whose moral 
conduct not a voice was raised, died by his own hand on 
the 1 2th of November 1734. 2 

At the time of the secularisation of the monastery in 
1803 there were still eight patres in it, viz. : Placidus 
Geddes from Edinburgh, prior; Kilian Pepper from 
Crieff, for some time missionary in England ; Columban 
Macgowen from Balquhain, an excellent disciplinarian and 
a zealous monk, who was prior twice ; Gallus Carmichael 
from Perth, who died as octogenarian at Wiirzburg in 
1824; Andreas Geddes from Cairnfield; Maurus 
Macdonald from the Hebrides, a good botanist ; Joannes 
Bapt. Anderson, who during an eventful life had been a 
slave in Africa, and who died at Wiirzburg in 1828, 

1 See Part iv. : Statesmen and Scholars. 

2 This story has been published with all the documents in the Journal 
for Francoma (i. 1 14-361, ii. 558). 


reverenced and loved for his piety ; and lastly, Benedictus 
Ingram, who removed to Frankfort-on-the-Main. 1 

The last prior, and also the last Scottish monk in 
Wiirzburg, was Placidus Geddes, who died at Wiirzburg 
at the ripe age of 82, in 1839. 

Once again at the time of the Reformation an intimate 
intercourse in matters of religion, a mutual giving and 
taking, took place between Scotland and Germany. In 
the early centuries of the Middle Ages the question was 
one of working out a monastic ideal to the glory of 
Rome ; now scores of Scottish pilgrims went to Wittenberg 
to enrich their armoury and to sharpen their swords in de- 
fence of a new doctrine. 

Already in 1525 (July 17th) the Scottish Parliament 
had passed an Act prohibiting the introduction and the 
reading of " Luthyr's " books. 2 In August of the same 
year the King issued an order to the Magistrates of 
Aberdeen (the University of which town was then up- 
holding the Erasmian teaching), mentioning not only 
strangers in possession of Luther's, the heretic's, books, as 
did the Act of Parliament, but others as well. The law 
is to be rigorously enforced. All those that favour the 
new doctrine are to be deprived of their goods. To this 
the Lords of Council, disquieted at the rapid spreading 
of the reformer's opinions, added two riders in 1527, ex- 
plaining that all subjects of the King being " assisters " 
to the heresy should likewise be punishable, and that the 
permission formerly granted of " disputing and rehersing " 
those "opunyeouns" should be restricted to "clerkis of 
the sculis alanerlie." 

But no restriction could quench the new spirit. 

One of the first that felt its influence and was to seal 
it with his blood was that noble Patrick Hamilton, the 
precursor of Knox and the protomartyr of the Scottish 
Church. The year of his birth cannot now exactly be 
fixed; generally 1504 is adopted as such. During 1524- 
25 Hamilton studied at St Andrews where he incurred 

1 See Part iv. : Statesmen and Scholars. 

2 Acts of Parliament (Scot.}, ii. 295. 


the suspicion and the hatred of Cardinal Beaton. He 
had formerly, probably during his stay at Paris, become 
acquainted with Luther's writings, but not till 1525 did 
he publicly express his adherence or at least his sympathy 
with the prescribed doctrines. To study these at their 
source and to avoid further proceedings on the part of the 
Cardinal, he left Scotland in 1526, accompanied by John 
Hamilton, Gilbert Winram, and a servant. In Wittenberg 
he made the acquaintance of Luther and Melanchthon. 
As, however, his name as " cives academicus " does not 
occur in the album of that University, 1 but appears as 
the thirty-fourth among the names of the one hundred 
and four students who signed the roll at the opening of 
the newly-founded University of Marburg, 2 the hypothesis 
" that he left Wittenberg on account of the plague which 
raged in the city and necessitated even a temporary removal 
of the University," seems to be deserving of some credit. 
Hamilton stayed at Marburg for six months only ; a time 
too short, one would think, to commence the study of 
theology, but long enough for him to receive powerful 
impressions and to purify and strengthen his faith. He 
was particularly influenced by the venerable Lambert of 
Avignon, then Professor of Theology, and by Hermann 
von dem Busche, one of the leading humanists of the day. 
It was Lambert that persuaded him to write the only little 
treatise we possess from his pen, his so-called "loci "or 
"theses," in which he explains Luther's doctrine of justi- 
fication by faith in the words of the New Testament. 
He had much intercourse besides with Tyndale and Frith, 
his friend, who having left Worms had sought the pro- 
tection of the Hessian prince. It is a remarkable fact that 
the small town, so picturesquely perched on a hill above 
the Lahn River, should thus have harboured at the same 
time three future martyrs of the New Faith within its walls. 
Tyndale died at the stake at Vilvoerde on the 6th of 
August 1536 ; Frith suffered martyrdom three years earlier. 
In the meantime there arose in Hamilton, after he had 
strengthened his views in personal contact and friendly 
1 See Appendix. 2 See Appendix. 


communion with the greatest reformers of Germany, the 
ardent wish to speak and to proclaim this faith to his 
countrymen. His time of flight and of preservation of 
life was followed now by the time of fight and self- 
sacrifice. He left Marburg, in spite of the urgent advice 
of his remaining Scottish friends, in the autumn of 1527. 
His fate is known. On the 28th of February 1528 he 
gave up the ghost after long-continued terrible sufferings 
at the stake. Lambert says of him: "His learning was 
for one so young uncommonly great, and his judgments in 
matters of divine truth extremely clear and well founded. 
His intention in coming to Marburg was to become still 
more rooted in the truth, and I can honestly say that I 
seldom met anyone that could talk of the Word of God 
with greater depth of insight and with a firmer conviction. 
We often conversed about these subjects." x 

In close connection with Hamilton the history of the 
Scottish Reformation mentions Alexander Alesius, whose 
proper name was Alane. He was born on the 23rd of 
April 1500 at Edinburgh, and was in his youth a canon 
of the St Augustinian Monastery at St Andrews, and a 
zealous opponent of Luther. He even undertook to 
convert the imprisoned Hamilton. But the contrary 
happened ; he himself, profoundly moved by the firmness 
of the martyr, began to be doubtful about the truth of 
the Roman doctrines. More and more convinced of his 
own errors, he attacked the luxurious life of the priests, 
especially that of his prior Hepburn, who, having been 
educated in France, had grown up a proud and prodigal 
prelate. As a consequence he was several times cast into 
prison by his enraged superior, from which finally not 
even the intercession of the King could save him. With 
the help of his fellow-canons he succeeded, however, to 
escape and to gain the shores of the Firth under the 
protection of night. Neither did his hope of meeting a 
vessel 2 there deceive him. Before daybreak he was on 

1 Cp. Lorimer, Life of Patrick Hamilton. 

2 The owner of the vessel is called by Alesius a "homo germanus," not 
necessarily implying that the ship was a German ship. 


board, and when the troopers of his enemy appeared on the 
scene he was already on his way to Dieppe. A violent 
storm, however, carried the ship away to the north, as far 
as the Sound and the town of Malmoe in Sweden. Here 
Alesius encountered, to his astonishment, a community of 
Scottish merchants who, as they commonly did in foreign 
lands, kept their own preacher and had accepted the new 
teaching two years ago. At last the ship reached 
Antwerp and Bruges, from which latter place our exile 
went to Cologne (1532). But in spite of the friendly 
reception of Hermann von Wied x he did not stay long. 
He was drawn towards Wittenberg. There in the enjoy- 
ment of most familiar intercourse with the great reformers, 
especially with Melanchthon, who confessed to a predilec- 
tion for the Scots, 2 he declared his adhesion to the 
Articles of the Augsburg Confession, or, in other words 
to the Lutheran Church, although, as he expressed 
himself, " in some things he missed moderation and a 
certain sense of justice," remaining an advocate of con- 
ciliation to the end. During this his first stay at the 
University he chiefly studied Greek and Hebrew and 
composed his treatise against the prohibition of the Scot- 
tish bishops to read the Bible in the mother tongue. It 
was this pamphlet that prepared the victory of the 
Reformation in Scotland, although the right which 
Alesius claimed was only granted to the people of Scot- 
land ten years later, in 1543. It was this pamphlet also 
which drew upon him the censure of the famous con- 
troversialist on the Catholic side, Dobeneck or Cochlseus, 2 
against whom he frequently entered the lists with 
his pen or his spoken word. In 1535 he went to 
England as the bearer of Melanchthon's letters to 
King Henry VIII and Archbishop Cranmer. He was 

1 An archbishop favouring the Protestant cause (1477-1552). 

2 In a letter to the University of Wittenberg Melanchthon writes : 
" We owe something to the Scottish nation, for although disciples of the 
apostles established churches in Germany, they were afterwards destroyed 
by the Honeti and Huns, and the Scots with great labour restored them " 
(Feb. I, 1542). Corpus Reform, iv. 770. 

3 Born 1479, died 1552. 


well received, the Court at that time being anxious for 
a union with the Protestant princes of Germany. The 
post of public lecturer at Cambridge was given to him, 
and he taught Hebrew and Greek in the same college 
where Erasmus had been lecturing before him. Soon, 
however, on his friendship with Melanchthon becoming 
known, he was subjected to all kinds of indignities. 
A leader of the Roman Catholic party, who had chal- 
lenged him to a public debate, but had failed to appear 
on the appointed day, now secretly agitated against him. 
Riots among the students followed, and Alesius' life 
was in danger. Thus compelled, he returned to London, 
where for about three years he gained a scanty liveli- 
hood by the practice of medicine, to the study of which 
he had already given some attention. But when the 
King tried to enforce the doctrine of transubstantiation 
and the celibacy of the priests, he resigned his office 
as public teacher, sold whatever he possessed, and, being 
timely warned by the Archbishop, fled to the house of 
a German sailor, who conveyed him in the disguise of a 
sailor on board a vessel bound for Holland. Two friends, 
John Macalpine and John Fyffe or Fidelis, accompanied 
him. Having safely reached Wittenberg, he accom- 
panied Melanchthon soon afterwards to Worms. 1 But 
the greatest service that his friend rendered him was 
that of procuring for him the appointment as Professor 
of Divinity at Frankfurt on the Oder. Thus Alesius 
became the first academical teacher of the new doctrine 
in Brandenburg. In his inaugural dissertation, " De 
restituendis scholis," he energetically advocated the neces- 
sity of a University training for clergymen. After a 
stay of two years the " perfervidum ingenium " attributed 
to Scotsmen led him into what seems to have been an 
unseemly quarrel with the magistrates of the city on 
the subject of the suppression of prostitution. Being 
thwarted, he resigned his office suddenly, much to the 

1 Cruciger in a letter to Luther, dated Nov. 6, 154O, announces the 
arrival of Alesius. See Burckhardt, Luther s Briefivechsel (Correspond- 


disgust of his friend Melanchthon, 1 and went to Leipzig, 
where he was honourably received and made Professor 
of Theology in 1544. Now at last the "wanderer" 2 
was at rest. The remaining twenty-one years of his 
life he spent at this famous University. Twice, in 1555 
and 1 56 1, he was chosen Rector. Here he published 
most of his exegetical and apologetical writings, one of 
the most important of which was his Cohortatio ad 
concordiam pietatis (" Exhortation to unity in love "), 
dedicated to the Scottish nation, its barons and prelates. 
In it he eloquently pleads for brotherly union, a cause 
which Knox took up after him with much energy. The 
whole tendency of his mind in religious matters was, 
indeed, one of conciliation, like that of his great German 
teacher and friend. The extreme views of the Lutheran 
party he disliked. Accordingly, when at the Diet of 
Ratisbon in 1541 a mutual approach of the two hostile 
parties among the Evangelicals appeared possible, we find 
him heading a deputation, which was sent to Luther at 
the instigation of the two brothers Georg and Joachim 
of Brandenburg, to try and make this man of iron 

Honoured by his colleagues and his Prince, loved by 
Melanchthon ; courageous, where courage was needed, and 
yet showing a moderation rare among the reformers of 
his adopted country, Alesius died in 1565, on the 17th 
of March. His only son had at a tender age preceded 
him. Probably the father rests in the same grave in the 
church of St Paul, though there is no stone to mark 
his last resting-place. 3 Beza says of him : " He was 
dear to all scholars and beloved by them, and would 
have been an ornament to Scotland if the light of the 

1 See Letter of Malanchthon to J. Camerarius : " Alesius the Scot has 
left Frankfurt, and although he has done so against my advice, some 
seat is to be sought for him." Corp. Reform, iv. 760. 

2 Alesius was the name given to Alan by Melanchthon. Its meaning 
is "Wanderer." 

3 Alesius invites Melanchthon in a friendly Latin letter to the wedding 
of his youngest daughter in 1 557. Cp. Mitchell, Scottish Reformation, 
p. 300 f. 


Gospel had been granted earlier to that country. Re- 
jected by Scotland and England, he was warmly wel- 
comed by the Evangelical Church of Saxony, and highly 
esteemed to the end of his life." 

As to the above-mentioned friends of Alesius, they 
also obtained high positions among the scholars of the 
age. Macalpine, or Maccabaeus, as Melanchthon had 
christened him, became Doctor of Divinity at Witten- 
berg, 1 Luther himself presiding at the ceremony, and 
afterwards accepted a call from King Christian III to 
his University of Kopenhagen, having been recommended 
by the two German reformers. There he laboured as 
Professor of Divinity till his death in 1557. He was a 
very learned, pious and moderate theologian. Denmark 
owes to him and some of his friends the Bible translated 
into Danish. 

Joannes Fidelis, alias Faithus or FyfFe, was for a time 
evangelical preacher at Liegnitz in Silesia, after having 
obtained a thorough mastery of the German tongue. 
Afterwards he was called to Frankfurt-on-the-Oder as 
the successor of Alesius. 

Thus we see that the precursors of Knox during the 
first period of the Scottish Reformation, when the foremost 
question was the separation from Rome, turned to Wittenberg 
and Luther, whilst in the second period, when the new 
ideas were to be embodied into a sharply defined doctrine 
and system of Church government, the Scottish theologians 
flocked to Geneva and Calvin. Wishart was the first of 
these. He was followed by John Knox. 

The connection of the latter with Germany is, though 
slight, not without interest or importance. It was in the 
year 1554 that the call reached him at Geneva to be one 
of the preachers of the English-Scottish Congregation of 
refugees at Frankfurt-on-the-Main. Driven out of England 

1 In Denmark also the Scots have played a part. The son of Mac- 
cabaeus was a clergyman of high rank ( ' Pralat ') and a gifted Latin 
poet ("f 1 598). A Scot, P. Davidson, formerly a teacher at Cologne, 
was called to Kopenhagen as Professor of Theology, when this University 
was founded in T479. 


during the persecution of Bloody Mary, they had settled in 
this city and obtained permission to worship in the same 
church with the exiled Walloons and French, provided 
a common form of divine service could be arrived at. 
After a good deal of bickering, the English Prayer-Book 
in a modified form had obtained the sanction of Knox and 
Calvin. The new order of worship was provisionally 
adopted for one year ; differences of opinion during that 
time were to be decided by Calvin and Bullinger. All 
went well, until the year 1555, when a certain Dr Cox, 
afterwards Bishop of Ely, arrived at Frankfurt. He at 
once commenced a quarrel about the liturgy ; grave 
breaches of decorum occurred during service, and Knox 
saw himself obliged to rebuke his adversary sharply. 
Apparently he gained his purpose ; the conditional per- 
mission to use the church may have prevented the opposite 
party from open rupture. But in secret they agitated 
and continued to agitate against the new preacher. Cox 
even went so far as to inform the Magistrates that in 
Knox's Admonition to the true Professors of the Gospel, 
there occurred a passage in which the German Emperor 
was compared with Nero. 1 Thereupon the senate, being 
afraid the Emperor, who was then at Augsburg, might 
issue an order to surrender Knox, banished him from the 
city. It was on the 26th of March 1555, that the 
Scottish reformer, accompanied for some miles by a number 
of friends, proceeded on his return journey to Geneva. 
On the previous night, before an audience of some fifty 
people, he had preached a powerful sermon in his own 
lodgings on the death and the resurrection of Christ and 
the blessed reward of believers after the tribulations and 
persecutions of this world. In the whole affair he had acted 
with rare moderation, and Calvin in a letter to Cox com- 
plains of the rough and arbitrary treatment of his friend. 2 

1 Knox apostrophises England and foretells utter ruin for her if she 
insists upon returning to Egypt, that is, to conclude alliances, marriages 
and treaties with princes, who maintain idolatry such as the Emperor 
(" who is no less an enemy of Jesus Christ than Nero ever has been "). 

2 Letter dated May 31, 1555 : "This one thing I cannot keep secret, 


Before we complete our account of the Scottish 
Reformers in Germany by giving a short sketch of the 
brothers Wedderburn, who by their spiritual songs and 
psalms contributed so much to the popularising of the 
new doctrine, a word or two must be said about John 
Willock, a friend and companion of Knox. He had fled 
from London to Emden in Friesland in 1553, the dis- 
astrous year of the English Mary's accession. Here he 
practised the art of medicine, in which he was an adept, 
and having recommended himself to Anna, the energetic 
ruler of the duchy by his skill and discretion, he was sent 
twice to Scotland by her on diplomatic business, to con- 
gratulate the queen on her accession and to promote better 
commercial facilities between the two countries. After 
1558 he supplied the place of Knox in Edinburgh, 
became moderator of the General Assembly in 1563, and 
died in 1585. 

John Wedderburn was descended from an old family of 
merchants at Dundee, where he was born in 1500. Early 
already he showed an inclination towards the new teaching, 
which was still further strengthened by the influence of 
John Major at St Andrews, and by the cruel death of 
Hamilton. He evaded persecution by timely flight in 
1539 or 1540, and turned his feet, like so many of his 
friends, towards Wittenberg, " the city of the prophets." 
The name of "Joannes Scotus," entered in the University 
album between those of Alesius and Maccabaeus, is very 
probably his own. During a stay of two years' duration 
in this place, he doubtless acquired that fixedness and 
depth of principles and that clear insight into the funda- 
mental requirements of the Protestant theology, which 
shows itself so distinctly and repeatedly in his book of 
songs. Being, like his brothers, poetically gifted, he was 
especially influenced by the German sacred poetry, and 
Luther, in his masterly, terse and homely employment of 

that Master Knox was in my judgment neither godly nor brotherly dealt 
with. ' See Brief Discourse of the troubles begun at Frankfurt, p. 51. 
See also Original Letters relat. to the English Reformation, ii., letters ccclvii. 
and following. (Parker Soc.) 


the German language, became his prototype. After the 
model of the German " Geistliche Ges'ange, Psalmen und 
Lieder " (Spiritual songs, psalms and hymns), especially 
those that had appeared in the hymn books of Magdeburg 
and Strassburg, he resolved to publish a collection of 
songs in the Scottish vernacular. In doing so, he pro- 
ceeded in the same manner that the development of 
German hymnology had taught him : he started from the 
secular poem, the love-song, the hunting-song, and so 
forth, and filled these songs with a new spiritual meaning, 
whilst very frequently retaining the tune of the old 
popular song also. To this he added a large number of 
translations from the German. It is to this wise, if to 
modern readers sometimes startling, adaptation of that 
which was already living in the people's hearts, and was 
affectionately cherished by them, that his collection owed 
its enormous and until recently not sufficiently acknow- 
ledged success and influence on the newly awakening 
religious life of the nation ; a nation to which the divine 
arts had meted out their gifts more sparsely, indeed, than 
to other nations favoured by a milder sky and softer sur- 
roundings, but a nation that had in this great struggle not a 
mind only to be convinced, but a heart also to be cheered 
and warmed and filled with the soft glow of enthusiasm. 

The book of the brothers Wedderburn, 1 the first hymn 
book of the Scottish Church, was published in 1567, 
under the title, " Ane compendious Booke of Godlie and 
Spirituall Songs," or shortly called the "Dundee Psalms." 2 

It contains first a calendar; thenfollows the catechism; the 
ten commandments, the Apostolic creed and Lord's Prayer, 
baptism, etc., being translated from the text of Luther. 
These six items are succeeded by five hymns on faith, 
baptism and the Lord's Supper, the originals of which are 
also to be found with Luther. A number of graces 

1 The younger brother of John, Robert, had a share in the compilation 
of the book, though it is no longer possible to say which songs are his. 

2 Some of the songs appeared first printed on broad-sheets, exactly as 
in Germany, where the two first hymns of Luther were thus published 
in 1523. 


before and after meat, such as appear in many of the old 
German hymn books, conclude the first part. The spiritual 
songs begin with two on the confession of sins ; they 
contain, besides songs on the war of the flesh against the 
spirit and on the cross, a metrical paraphrase of the 
parables of the prodigal son and of Lazarus ; and finally, 
a hymn on the passion of our Lord. Then follow the 
acknowledged translations from the German, twenty-two 
psalms, and several hymns. 

In the third part we are introduced to the spiritually 
remodelled popular songs. It is now no longer the girl 
that calls out : " Quho is at my window ? quho ? quho ? " 
but God. In the hunting-song : "With huntis up," the 
Pope is the fox, the hounds are Peter and Paul. It is 
only natural that here we should find much that sounds to 
our ears intolerable in its rudeness. As to the tunes, 
Wedderburn took them where he could find them, in 
Scottish popular songs and in German hymns. 

As we mentioned above, the circulation of these songs 
was at once rapid and wide, and this in spite of a pro- 
hibition in 1549, which ordered a search for them to 
be made, and " the books of rhymes and songs containing 
such abominable defamations of the priests and heresies of 
all kinds," to be confiscated and burned, and in spite of 
the Act of Parliament of the year 1551, against the 
unauthorised printing of books of "Ballatis, sangis, 
blasphematiounis, rhymes, etc." 1 

Of John Wedderburn we have to add, that he was at 
Dundee in 1546, but was obliged to flee again. He died 
in England in banishment (1546). 2 

The Reformation in Scotland has been spared the 
humiliation of having reared in its bosom brothers 
destined to be each other's bitterest foes. It is true, 
that in Scotland the episcopal form of worship was not 
finally abolished until 1688, after severe and obstinate 
struggles ; but then this form never was the popular one, 

1 Acts Pari Scot. ii. 488 f. 

2 Some examples of Wedderburn' s songs and their German originals, 
see in the appendix. 


the one advocated by the reformers of the nation, but only 
something foreign, something obtruded from without. In 
Germany, on the contrary, the war was raging between 
Calvinists and Lutherans, amongst the people, the teachers, 
and the rulers. It infected and poisoned social intercourse, 
it was a matter affecting the hearth, the pulpit and the 
throne. For about three hundred years, two Protestant 
Churches, both having gained their independence from 
Rome after cruel struggles only, could and would not 
take the step towards a friendly union, nay, not even 
towards mutual forbearance ; and when at last it was 
accomplished by royal command, it was considered an act 
of Csesar and Pope combined, a violent measure, that 
could not be conducive to any peace. 

This Calvino-Lutheran feud with all its cruel bitterness 
forms indeed one of the saddest and most disgraceful 
chapters of German history. No Calvinist was admitted 
a godfather, whilst a Roman Catholic was. The question 
was seriously and obstinately argued whether children 
of a mixed marriage, that is of a Calvinistic father and 
a Lutheran mother, or vice versa, should be buried 
with Christian ceremonies, it being a heretic's child. 
(" Ketzerkind "). In the church of St Nicholas at Berlin, 
the condemnation of the Catholics and Calvinists was 
shortly condensed into the words : "he who is not 
Lutheran, is cursed." 

We admit that this condition of things was deeply 
felt and mourned over by the nobler natures in the 
nation, especially by laymen. Not a few well-intentioned 
rulers, even tried to cut it short by edicts against the 
Lutheran wranglers, but with small effect. The idea 
of a union of the evangelical confessions would have 
remained a monstrosity, or at best, only the dim, timidly 
expressed hope of some gentle scholar, but for the 
persistent, unselfish, almost fanatical labours of John 
Durie or Duraeus, the Scot. What the liberation of 
Jerusalem was to the crusader, this peaceful union was 
to him : it filled his whole soul ; it became the watch- 
word of his life ; the fountain in which his drooping 


courage was rejuvenated, and an ideal, which he never 
surrendered, though famishing by the roadside, weary of 
war and surrounded by enemies. 

Let us now communicate to the reader what the most 
recent research has brought to light about the stirring 
life of this international Scotsman. 1 

The father of John Durie was Robert Durie, an 
Edinburgh clergyman of the strict Presbyterian type. 
He was known for his efforts in the cause of the 
evangelisation of the Orkney and Shetland Islands. 
When King James VI insisted upon introducing 
Anglican bishops into Scotland, he was banished with 
many others in the year 1606, and betook himself to 
Leyden in Holland, where he preached to a congregation 
of Scottish exiles. In this town, his son John, born in 
Edinburgh in 1595 or 1596, received his education. 
After having finished his course of divinity in Holland 
and at Sedan, he became tutor to the son of one Mr 
Panhusen, who was then pursuing his studies in France. 
This office he filled until the year 1624, when he was 
called to Elbing in the East of Prussia, as minister of 
a small congregation of Scottish and English Presby- 
terians. We cannot, however, exactly state the date 
of his arrival there. At all events in this small, 
out-of-the-way town Durie arrived at the turning- 
point of his life, which gave a peculiar direction to his 
whole future career. The King of Sweden, Gustavus 
Adolfus, of whom we have spoken so much in the second 
part of this book, had established at Elbing, then occupied 
by Swedish troops, a High Court of Justice, of which 
a certain lawyer and Doctor of Laws, Godemann, was 
the president. This learned man, being deeply interested 
in religious matters as well, became Durie's friend and 
sent him on one occasion a pamphlet, written by himself, 

1 F. Brandes, Joh. Duraeus in Germany. Catholic Presbyterian 
Review, 1882. July and August. Klahr Joh. Duraeus in the Monthly 
Review of the Comenius Gesellschaft. 1897. Tollin, Joh. Duraeus in the 
Geschichtsbldtter fur Stadt und Land Magdeburg (Historical Review 
for the town and district of Magdeburg), 1897, ii., 1898, i. 


on the union of the Calvinists and the Lutherans in the 
doctrine of the Lord's Supper (1628). In this Durie 
saw the hand of God, and his work in the interest 
of this union he henceforth considered a divine call, 
('vocatio interna'). With unwearied courage, and an 
optimism which left him only towards the close of his 
long life, he dedicated himself entirely to this task, 
convinced to the last of its practicability with a blindness 
almost tragic. 

No doubt his chances appeared favourable in the com- 
mencement. Godemann perceived that the precarious 
position of the Protestants after the battle near the White 
Mountain, after the successes of the great Wallenstein and 
his consequent endowment with the Duchy of Mecklenburg 
in 1629, rendered a close harmony between the Protestants 
absolutely necessary. And when Sir Thomas Roe, the 
English Ambassador, who was to mediate between Poland 
and Sweden, embraced the cause of the union likewise, 
gaining over to his side the powerful Swedish Chancellor 
Oxenstierna, success did not seem altogether impossible, 
especially when calculating upon the expected energetic 
assistance of the King. To secure this success with a 
still greater probability it seemed of first-rate importance 
to the Swedish statesmen, that the work should be under- 
taken by a State which had remained neutral during the 
internal strife of Germany. Such a State they conceived 
England to be ; and, after having persuaded Durie to 
resign his position in Elbing, they sent him to London, 
well furnished with letters of introduction from Roe 
(1630). Here Durie succeeded in gaining the assent of 
Archbishop Abbot and three other bishops; only about 
twenty scholars and clergymen of the English and Scottish 
Church gave in their adhesion to his plans of unification. 
But it never occured to him, that Abbot was no longer a 
man of commanding influence, 1 and that, the number of 
English friends won over to his cause being infinitely 
small, his mission had proved, if not altogether a failure, 
yet only a very partial success. He took with him the 

1 He had been superseded in power and jurisdiction in 1628. 


letters of commendation and assent of these clerical 
dignitaries, and, calling himself a delegate of the English 
Church, he returned to Germany. There matters seemed 
to have improved in the meantime. At the Church 
Conference held at Leipzig in 1631 the Court Preacher 
of Brandenburg, a Calvinist, had declared himself in favour 
of peace, and the Lutheran champion, Hoe of Hoenegg, 
Court Chaplain at Dresden, lamenting the interconfessional 
quarrel, had advocated an amicable settlement. Durie 
himself, if he was present at the conference, does not 
appear to have taken a prominent part in it. It is certain, 
however, that in the same year he went to Gustavus 
Adolfus, then at Wiirzburg, to deliver a letter from his 
friend Roe. The King received him kindly and conversed 
with him for several hours. He also perceived the great 
advantage that would accrue to the Protestant Church, 
if the hostile parties could be reconciled. Yet he com- 
mitted himself to no more than promising Durie a letter 
of recommendation to the Protestant princes of Germany, 
and commissioning a Lutheran clergyman to confer with 
the Lutherans, whilst Durie himself undertook to do the 
same with the Calvinists. 1 Unfortunately the promised 
letter, written by Sadler, the private secretary of the 
King, never reached its address. Durie thought he 
would first come to an understanding with the theologians 
before applying for it, but when in the following year 
King Gustavus had been killed at the battle of Liitzen, 
neither his nor Oxenstierna's signature could be had any 
more. Durie's correspondence with theCalvinistic preachers 
and academies in Germany and elsewhere was of an 
amazing bulk ; his efforts on journeys here and there to 
convince his friends of the nobility of his aim by word of 
mouth were no less surprising. But his hopes were still 
concentrated on the King of England as the chief promoter 
of his scheme, especially since, after the death of the 
Swedish Royal Champion, his expectations in the direction 
of Sweden had been considerably brought down, if they 
had not entirely collapsed. On a second journey to England 

1 Tollin, I.e., p. 235. 



in 1633 he found everything sadly changed. The 
gentle Abbot had died. In his place there ruled 
Laud as Archbishop of Canterbury, who refused to have 
anything to do with Durie, a Presbyterian ; so that the 
latter had no other course open to him than to embrace 
the Anglican creed, unless he wanted to relinquish his 
cherished plans of a union of the Protestant Churches 
with the help of England. He did not do so without 
misgivings; he even thought it necessary to defend the 
step he took with the excuse, that the confession of the 
two Churches, the Presbyterian and the Anglican, was 
really the same, and that mere outward forms and cere- 
monies had to give way before higher purposes. The 
immediate effect of his ordination as clergyman of the 
Church of England was his appointment to a living in 
Lincolnshire, the income of which seems to have been 
very acceptable to him just then. As to the rest, we 
may well doubt if Durie's changed attitude in Church 
matters really procured him the wished for advantages. 
In the meantime he only received a letter of commendation, 
written in general terms by Archbishop Laud and endorsed 
by the learned Ussher, Archbishop of Armagh in Ireland. 
On the other hand his Presbyterian friends called him 
a Proteus, whilst his Anglican fellow-clergymen looked 
upon him very much as upon a Presbyterian spy. 

In the retinue of Roe he returned to Germany in 1634 
and went to Frankfurt where a great meeting of Evan- 
gelical States was being held, called together by the 
Landgrave William of Hesse, who at the same time had 
invited the Prince of Orange and the States General of 
Holland to this "work of peace." Here he presented his 
" Judicia Theologorum Anglorum et aliorum de Pace Pro- 
testantium sacra," and being supported by Oxenstierna 
procured at least the resolution of the eight delegates that 
"the efforts for peace were laudable and necessary, and 
that both parties were to use moderation until the views 
of their respective sovereigns could be ascertained and full 
powers be received." Then came the terrible news of 
the Swedish defeat at Nordlingen ; the meeting was dis- 


persed, and Durie saw very clearly that at the present 
moment Germany offered a very unfavourable basis for 
his peaceful experiments. He therefore went to the 
Netherlands, where, at the Synod of Utrecht in April 
1636, his efforts on behalf of "the good and sacred" 
union between the Church of the Augsburg Confession 
and the Calvinists met with the warmest and most genial 
approbation. Moreover, Durie enjoyed the renewed 
friendly intercourse with the famous Hugo Grotius, 1 who 
suggested to him the idea of an English-Swedish Confes- 
sion of Faith as the counterpart of the political alliance to 
be concluded in the near future between the two countries. 
He also made the acquaintance of Petrus Figulus Jablonski, 
a Bohemian, known as the son-in-law of Comenius. 2 This 
faithful friend accompanied him henceforward for seven 
long years on all his journeys as secretary. But his visit 
to Holland did not practically bring him nearer the realisa- 
tion of his plans. Still less successful was his journey to 
Sweden in 1636. Notwithstanding the friendship of the 
Chancellor and the favour of the Queen during the first 
months of his sojourn, he could neither overcome the in- 
tolerance of the Synod nor the enmity of Bishop Rudbeck 
who hated " the stranger confessing the cursed heresy of 
Calvinism." 2 Moreover, he had drawn upon him the dis- 
approval of many by his inordinate love of publishing 
matters not ripe for publication as well as by his attempts 
to pose as a Lutheran. Oxenstierna was at last obliged to 
discard the former favourite, and Christina, the Queen, 
published a decree on the 7th of February 1638 to the 
effect that the English clergyman, John Duraeus, having 
given much offence to the Swedish clergy during his stay 
in the country, was ordered to leave the kingdom without 
delay. 3 A severe illness, however, brought about by 
over-exertion and excitement, compelled Durie to post- 
pone his departure until the month of August. He had 
consecrated himself anew to his sacred task, and his 

1 Hugo Grotius, the famous Dutch scholar and statesman, was born in 
1583 and died in 1645. 

2 Brandes, I.e. 3 Tollin, p. 246. 



undaunted enthusiasm served him well, for in Liibeck 
also and in Hamburg, whither he went after having left 
Sweden, he was unable to win the clergy over to his 
plans. The same spirit of harsh intolerance, which caused 
the poor English fugitives under John a Lasco, the pious 
reformer of Poland, to be driven out of these cities in 
mid- winter 1554, was still ruling. 1 

It was with the German princes that Durie found the 
readiest approval and support. The dukes Frederick 
Ulrich (1-1635) and August, the founder of the famous 
library at Wolfenbuttel, in the arranging of which he 
lent a helping hand, showed a warm interest in his work, 
as did the princes of Anhalt, of Zweibrucken, the Land- 
grave of Hesse-Cassel, the counts of Isenburg and Solms, 
and above all the Elector of Brandenburg. In the mean- 
time, however, he had been called to London to assist in 
the work of the Synod of Westminster. So studiously 
and unnoticed by the world did he apply himself to the 
labours of this assembly, that many of his friends on the 
Continent believed him dead. Politically he had done 
his utmost to save the unfortunate King Charles I by 
preparing a set of documents for him which were to prove 
his innocence. 

After Cromwell had taken up the reins of government 
Durie yielded to pressure and for the sake of his one 
great object turned Puritan. He was appointed librarian 
of St James's, and received not only friendly letters from 
the Protector, but also a yearly stipend, which was to 
enable him to continue his journeys in the interest of 
religious peace. But it soon became clear that these 
recommendations, far from being a furtherance of his 
objects, became, in part at least, a danger and a snare. 
Many of the princes, as well as the Lutheran divines, 
turned from him as from a murderer of the King. Only 
in Switzerland his reception was enthusiastic. At the 
General Church Assembly of Aarau in 1654 he was 
celebrated as the "famous ambassador of the Protector." 
At Zurich a considerable sum was handed to him as a 

1 Dalton, Johannes a Lasco, Gotha, 1881, p. 433 f. 437 f. 


national gift of honour towards his travelling expenses. 
From almost all the reformed cantons he received com- 
mendatory letters, and his cause was spoken of as one 
worthy to be promoted by every Christian believer. The 
above-named Calvinistic princes also received him warmly, 
only the Elector of Brandenburg, influenced, no doubt, by 
the attitude of Bergius, his Court Chaplain, who dis- 
countenanced Durie's fickleness in joining a party of 
murderers, preferred to treat with Cromwell direct about 
the Evangelical Union through his ambassador in England. 1 
The senate of Frankfurt presented him in 1655 with 
bread and wine ; that of Bremen promised him support. 
In the Netherlands also he found ready consent. Thus he 
returned loaded with documents and full of hope — a hope 
which was, however, raised only by the Calvinistic parties 
— in the following year to England. In London there 
was satisfaction with the results of his efforts, and steps 
were taken to make use of the new connections formed 
by him as a basis for further international and inter-pro- 
testant deliberations, when Cromwell died. After the 
short rule of his son Richard, Charles II entered London 
in triumph. It was a cruel dissappointment for Durie. 
Neither the Archbishop of Canterbury nor the Bishop of 
London nor the King himself noticed his letters. He, 
as a friend of Cromwell, had no longer any chance in 
England. Accordingly he left London in 1661. Hence- 
forward he could no longer count on the support of this 
country. But not even then did his courage fail him. 
Though ageing fast he took up the work of reconciling 
Lutherans and Calvinists in Germany with renewed 
zeal. On the one hand the time chosen did not seem to 
be inopportune. In the religious assembly at Cassel in 
1 66 1 the divines of Rinteln and Marburg had adopted the 
u Tolerantia ecclesiastica," and the University of Rinteln 
had been handed over to the Reformed or Calvinistic 
Party. Frederick William, the Elector of Brandenburg, 
had not only forbidden his subjects to study at Wittenberg, 
in consequence of the most violent and scurrilous polemic 
1 Tollin, I.e., p. 261. 


of the learned Lutheran, Doctor Abraham Calovius, a 
professor at the said seat of learning (1662), but had 
also strongly commended peaceableness and moderation in 
their pulpit utterances to his clergymen, 1 and a more 
"amicable" attitude towards Calvinists. All uncharitable 
references to the latter as "heretics," "syncretists," were 
to cease, and instead of them, the sermons were to contain 
exhortations towards true Christian piety. In the opinion 
of this wise prince the "dissension" of the Evangelicals 
was " not fundamental." 

On the other hand Durie had not sufficiently taken 
into account the growing enmity of the orthodox 
Lutheran clergy. This was the barrier which the most 
strenuous labour of a man, even in conjunction with 
powerful rulers, could not break. 

A colloquy at Berlin, for the purposes of a union, 
took place under the presidency of Otto von Schwerin, a 
distinguished statesman and Durie's friend. But already 
during the discussion of the first question Reinhardt, a 
Lutheran clergyman and member of the consistory, 
declared, that " he could not recognise the Calvinists as 
brethren," whilst Paul Gerhard t, the famous author of 
some of the finest German hymns, added : " nor as 
Christians either." 2 

The assembled representatives of the two persuasions 
wrangled and debated until May 29th, 1663. Finally, 
the Elector, getting tired of all this, issued his so-called 
" Toleranz-Edict " in 1664, which punished with instant 
deprivation such recalcitrant clergymen as continued to 
decry their evangelical brethren. The solution of the ques- 
tion by a mere arbitrary "Le roi le veult " was, however, 
not what Durie insisted upon. He wanted a union based 
upon conviction, and a conviction based upon brotherly love. 
He made a last attempt. Aided and supported by the 
Landgravine Hedwig Sophia, the pious sister of the Great 
Elector, he commenced new negotiations in the City 
Chambers of Berlin on the 21st of August 1668; but 

1 Landwehr, Kirchenpolitik des Grossen Kurfursten, p. 205. 

2 Tollin, I.e., p. 274. 


these also remained without result, partly, it must be owned, 
through the vagueness of Durie's own proposals. His 
unselfish zeal was praised ; the hope was expressed that 
his good intentions would yet be rewarded; he was even 
presented with a gift of 100 thaler; but that was all. 
He received not even a written communication, owing to 
his old well-known weakness of rushing into print, and 
the Elector indirectly sent him this message i 1 "It has 
been represented to His Electoral Highness, how Joannes 
Duraeus, an English clergyman and a member of the 
reformed church, has been endeavouring to promote 
peace among the evangelical persuasions in his quality 
as a private individual, and has been devoting all his 
life to this end. In this his Christian zeal deserves duly 
to be praised, whilst H. H. confidently hopes that his 
efforts will in no way be prejudicial to the Church. We 
therefore wish him the blessing of God Almighty, and 
remain always his gracious sovereign." 

This was satisfactory as far as it went ; but it did not 
go far, did not even go any distance. 

Nor was Durie's reception in Heidelberg in 1667 by 
the otherwise broad-minded Elector Karl Ludwig more 
promising. The probable reason assigned for this is 
that the wife of the Elector, separated from him by all 
sorts of scandalous facts, was at present living at Kassel, 
the same town where Durie had his home and enjoyed 
the favour of the Hessian Court. 

The last years of this apostle of peace were embittered 
not only by the growing j enmity of the Lutherans, of 
which we have spoken, but by the desertion of some of 
his Calvinistic friends. The former called him "Aposto- 
lastrum," "an interpreter of peace fallen from the sky," 
"a bird without wings," "a weather-cock," "a new 
Thomas Munzer," 2 " a regicide." The latter had taken 
it amiss that he accepted the Lutheran doctrine of free 
grace, as opposed to the predestination of the sister 
Church ; they were incensed at his later dream of ad- 

1 Tollin, I.e., p. 277. Landwehr, I.e., p. 334 f. 

2 The well-known head of the Anabaptists. 


mitting even Roman Catholics into his universal union, 
and at the hearty reception he had given to William 
Penn, the Quaker, when he visited Kassel in 1677. 

In these circumstances it was fortunate for Durie 
that the Landgravine Hedwig Sophie had offered him a 
permanent resting-place at her Calvinistic court, granting 
him a free house and board, and even paying the large 
expenses incurred by his incredibly extensive corre- 

His courage, however, and his hitherto unconquerable 
optimism, after having supported him during sixty years 
of a laborious life, left him in the end. "Le fruit 
principal qui m'est revenu de mon travail," he writes in 
1674, in the dedication of his commentary on the Book 
of Revelation to his sovereign-lady, " est ceci, qu'au 
dehors je vois la misere des Chretiens, qu'elle est beau- 
coup plus grande, que celle des payens et des autres 
nations ; je vois la cause de cette misere, je vois le 
defaut du remede, et je vois la cause de ce defaut, et 
en dedans je n'ai d'autre profit, que le temoignage de 
ma conscience." And in a Latin letter 1 to the senators 
of the Swedish Kingdom he adds : " I have done what 
I could to advance the union of saints. Henceforth I 
shall solicit the help of no one, because I have asked 
them all. Neither do I see any Patron in Germany, 
whom God would point out to me as fit for the 

John Durie died in his eighty-fifth year on the 28th 
of September 1680 at Kassel, where he is also buried. 
It is sad but intelligible, that, at a time when intolerance 
was considered strength, tolerance weakness ; when people 
thought they could confine absolute truth in the long- 
necked, narrow bottles of confessions of their own 
manufacture, Durie's attempts to restore unity and 
peace must end in failure. Many of his proposals, 
too, lacked definiteness and clearness. And yet his 
unwearied testimony has not remained without fruit. 
To him as to the champion of freedom of conscience 

1 Durie corresponded in five or 6ix different languages. 


and of the political equality of religious creeds, the 
great achievement of our times, under the protection of 
which the adherents of the various confessions, united 
not by the same form of certain articles, but by the 
conviction that they are brethren in love and charity and 
branches of the one Catholic Church, live and have their 
being : to him and to his memory, in Scotland as well as 
in Germany, honour is due for his self-denying labours. 1 

It is curious and reads like a belated recognition of 
Durie's work by the voice of history, that it was another 
Scotsman, who more than one hundred and thirty years 
afterwards played an active part in the realisation of the 
Union between the Protestant parties in Prussia by the 
King's command. 

Descendants of the old Scottish family of the Earls of 
Ross had settled in the Netherlands and on the Lower 
Rhine as far back as the XVIIth Century. One of these, 
William John Gottfried Ross, was born on the 7th of 
July 1772 at Isselburg. He was the son of a clergyman, 
studied at Duisburg, then a Calvinistic University, and, 
having been ordained, worked with the greatest acceptance 
as pastor of the small parish of Budberg 2 for thirty-three 
years. He was so active in promoting the education of 
the people and the welfare of his whole district, that he 
not only won the love and esteem of all classes and all 
creeds, but also attracted the attention of the King of 
Prussia, Frederick William III, who summoned him to 
Berlin, to consult with him about the condition of the 
Evangelical Churches in Westphalia and the Rhine 
Provinces, and after some pressure even persuaded 
him in the following year to leave Budberg and to 
settle in the capital.^ Here Ross devoted himself with 
untiring energy to the cause of the Evangelical Union. 
The King made him first Bishop of the new Church and 
General Superintendent of Westphalia and the Rhinelands. 
Ross was also greatly interested in the cause of education 

1 See the remarkable letter of the famous Grotius to his friend 
Bernegger in Strassburg in the Appendix. 

2 Near Rheinberg, Lower Rhine. 


and of the orphanage, persuading his cousin, Count Ross, 1 
an eccentric, rich, old man then living at Berlin, to leave 
a considerable legacy to the latter. The title of Count 
was offered to him also by the King, but he always refused 
it as being incompatible with his calling. In 1843 he 
received a congratulatory address from the University of 
Bonn thanking him for his long-continued efforts and his 
conciliatory attitude in Church matters. In appearance 
he was imposing ; goodness and benevolence were seen 
in his eyes. His influence on Frederick William was 
very marked. Finding, however, that his advice was 
neglected under King William IV, he resigned his 
offices and retired into private life. He died on the 27th 
of October in 1854 and was buried in the Protestant 
cemetery at Budberg. 2 

Turning now to the religious organisation of the Scots, 
who had settled in such great numbers in Poland and 
Germany during the XVIth and XVIIth Centuries, as we 
have seen in the first part of our book, we have reluctantly 
to confess that not very much is known about it. The 
old records in Germany have been partly lost during the 
turmoil of endless wars, partly buried beyond the hope of 
speedy recovery under cart-loads of official paper rubbish. 
In Scotland we have to content ourselves with an 
occasional reference. What we have been able to glean 
under such discouraging circumstances will be put before 
the reader in what follows. 

The General Assembly of the Church of Scotland has 
sometimes taken notice of its scattered countrymen on the 
Continent. One of the most interesting references is that 

1 This Count Johann Ross (1787-1848) saved the life of the King 
of Prussia at the Congress of Vienna when threatened by a would-be 
assassin. There have been several officers in the German Army, who 
belonged to this family. A Count Ross died in 1883 at Bonn, in 
consequence of injuries received at the explosion of the powder magazine 
when the Germans entered Laon in 1870. Two brothers Ross, an 
archaeologist and a painter, both born in Holstein, are also descended 
from the old Scottish stock. 

2 The lines on his tombstone are taken from 2 Cor. i. 24 : " Not for 
that we have dominion over your faith, but are helpers of your joy." 


of the year 1587, when Andrew Melville, who was then 
Moderator, was ordered " to pen a favourable writing to 
the ministrie in Danskine (Danzig) congratulating their 
embracing the treuth in the matter of the Sacrament. 1 ' 1 
From this notice it appears that already in that year there 
existed at Danzig a Scottish-Evangelical Church. But 
more than that, it did not only exist but prove its inner 
life and its keen religious interest by rejecting the 
Lutheran doctrine of consubstantiation ; for this is the 
meaning of the last clause. 

About sixty years later, on the 3 1 st of August 1 647, 
the Assembly writes the following interesting letter to 
the Scots in Poland and Germany : — " Unto the Scotch 
merchants and others our countrie people scattered in 
Poleland. . . . and among other things of this nature we 
have here particularly taken into account the sad and 
lamentable condition of many thousands of our country- 
men, who are scattered abroad, as sheepe having no 
shepherd, and are, through the want of the meanes of 
knowledge, grace and salvation, exposed to the greatest 
spirituall dangers. . . . We have therefore thought it 
incumbent to us to put you in mind of the one thing 
necessary, while you are so carefull and troubled about 
the things of the world ; and although we do not disallow 
your going abroad to follow any lawfull calling or way of 
livelihood, yet seeing it cannot profit a man, although he 
should gain the whole world and lose his own soul, and 
seeing you have travelled so farre and taken so much pain 
to get uncertain riches, which cannot deliver in the day of 
the wrath of the Lord ... we doe . . . most earnestlie 
beseech and warn you to crv,after knowledge and lift up 
your voyce for understanding, seeking her as silver and 
searching for her as for hid treasures, and so play the 
wise merchants, in purchasing the pearl of price and in 
laying up a sure foundation. . . . We shall hope . . . 
you will rather bestirre yourselves timely to pray that 
God would give you Pastors according to His heart . . . 
to consult also with consent of your superiors . . . for 

1 Bulk of the Universal Kirk, f. 148, 6. 


setting up the worship of God and ecclesiasticall discipline 
according to the form established and received in this your 
Mother Kirk . . . and in the mean time we exhort you 
that ye neglect not the worship in secret and in your 
families and that ye continue stedfast in the profession of 
that faith, in which ye were baptised, and by a godly, 
righteous and sober conversation adorn the Gospel; and 
with all, that distance of place make you not the less 
sensible of your countrey's sufferings. . . . 

"This letter we have thought fit to be printed and 
published, that it may be with greater ease . . . con- 
veyed to the many severall places of your habitation or 
traffique. . . . 

"Robt. Douglasse, Moderator." 1 

Finally, we find in the year 1698 a recommendation to 
those Presbyteries and Parishes " that have not yet sent 
in their collection for helping to build a church of the 
Reformed Religion at Konigsberg" to send the same to John 
Blair at Edinburgh, Agent of the Kirk; and in 1699 the 
receipt of a letter is duly registered from the consistory 
"of those of the Reformed Religion at Konigsberg," 
expressing thanks for " the Charity of this Church and 
Nation to help them build their church." 

In German sources we find, as to Danzig, that already 
in 1577, when the town levied a force of 700 Scottish 
mercenaries, permission was given them, as being of the 
reformed faith, to bring with them a preacher of their 
own persuasion. 2 Now it is very probable that the 
reformed congregation of Danzig formed itself gradually 
around this nucleus, till it attained to that independent 
position, in which we find it ten years later, when the 
above " friendly letter " was written by the Moderator 
of the General Assembly. Everything fostered such a 
formation. The number of Scottish settlers was already 
great, greater numbers were continually pouring in, and 
many of the merchants had by this time acquired wealth 
and position. The privilege of freely enjoying their own 

1 Acts of the General Assembly. 2 See above. 


religious services was possibly extended, and thus we 
find in 1587 a body of men with a settled " ministrie," 
fearlessly discussing the crucial points of evangelical 
theology. At first, no doubt, the meetings of the 
members of the Reformed Church met in private houses 
or in a hall. We hear of a preacher named Jacob Brown, 
who alternately preached at Danzig and at Konigsberg in 
the time of Charles I. 1 Soon after him Alexander Burnet 
came to Danzig (1689) and remained there till his death 
in 1712. He was born in T654, studied at Aberdeen, 
and had been minister of Crichton near Edinburgh. 
During his time of office the amalgamation of the so- 
called English and Scottish " nations " 2 took place at 
Danzig, consequently upon the Union of England and 
Scotland at home. Through the efforts of Robinson, the 
British Consul, the Churches also were united. The Poor- 
Box of the Scots, which had been in existence since the 
beginning of the XVIIth Century, became the property of 
the new " Nation of Great Britain" (" Groszbrittannische 
Nation"). Five elders were appointed, of which three 
were always to be Scotchmen. As to the form of divine 
worship, a happy medium between the Scottish and 
the English was peacefully adopted. It was arranged 
that the clergymen should alternately be called out of 
Scotland and England, and that they should conform to 
the usages of the Church at Danzig. A new building, 
called the "British Chapel," was erected in 1706, the 
Scots throughout Prussia and Poland having most liberally 
contributed towards it. 3 

Since then the number of members of the "British Nation" 
gradually diminished, owing to the very rapid absorption 
of the Scottish into the German element, and to the 
almost entire cessation of immigration. During the time 
of the French oppression for sixteen years there was no 

1 See below. 

2 The Scottish nation was by far the more numerous one. 

3 Twenty-seven names of Scotsmen in Danzig alone are mentioned 
among the contributors. Thos. Leslie gave 1000 gulden; S. Ramsay 


English clergyman at Danzig. Previous to it the worthy 
Dr Jamieson, a Scot, had gained the reverence and the 
affection of the inhabitants, as we are told in the charm- 
ing Memorials of my Voutk, by Johanna Schopenhauer 
(i 768-1790). Now there is hardly work enough for 
an English Seamen's Missionary. The descendants of 
the old Scottish congregation have joined the Reformed 

We are better informed with regard to Konigsberg, 
the second largest town on the Baltic, although here also 
the very first beginnings of a Scotch Divine Worship are 
lost in obscurity. When the "Reformed Congregation" 
was founded in 1646, out of seven elders three were 
English, or rather Scotch, two Dutch, and two Germans. 

Very soon the want of a preacher became apparent, 
but whether the above-named Brown ever preached in 
English at Konigsberg, as he did at Danzig, must remain 
uncertain. We only know that he, during his stay in the 
city in 1658 or 1659, m "matters concerning the public 
worship and the rules of the Church," was found wanting 
and in the wrong. " His errors smacked x of the Quakers" ; 
they were chiefly manifest in his disapproval of the pray- 
ing of children, " who knew nothing about it " ; in his 
rejection of set prayers, of saints'-days and holidays, and 
of organ music in churches. 2 

In spite of this the Great Elector had appointed Jacob 
Brown minister of the newly formed Scottish-English 
congregation, after he, at the urgent request of some 
Scottish families at Konigsberg, had given them per- 
mission to have divine service in their own tongue, 
embracing its " complete ' exercitium ' with all its actibus 
catechisationis, visitationis of the sick, administrationis of 
the Lord's Supper, Baptism, and other spiritual exercises, 
appertaining there unto." 

This royal rescript was dated the 4th of December 
1685 ; it granted at the same time the use of the " large 

1 " Ubel riechend." 

2 Sembritzki, " Die Schotten und Englander in Ost-Preussen," in the 
Altpreuss. Monatsschrift, vol. xxix. pp. 3, 4. 


Hall in the Castle " for these services. In these cir- 
cumstances the congregation could do nothing else but 
acquiesce in the appointment of Brown, who, in the 
meantime, had declared his willingness to abide by the 
rules and forms of worship as adopted in Konigsberg. 
Strangely enough we know nothing of his future career 
there, except that his stay only extended to the year 
1689, wnen he preached at the Scots' Church at 
Rotterdam. 1 

In Konigsberg, as elsewhere, the Scots took the most 
prominent and active share in the promotion of the 
welfare of the congregation. Without them and their 
generosity the building of its new church would hardly 
have been completed. Three men are especially men- 
tioned in connection with this great enterprise : Thomas 
Hervie, Francis Hay and Charles Ramsay. 2 The first of 
these, born in 1 62 1 at Aberdeen, had settled in Konigs- 
berg in 1656 as a merchant. When he died in 1710 it 
was said " that without his zeal this our temple would 
scarcely have been built." 

He also promoted the establishment of a " home for 
widows " by advancing considerable sums of money. 
The two other men were the originators of the collec- 
tion throughout Scotland for the building of the church, 
amounting to over 4000 thaler, or nearly £yoo. 

After the completion of the church, to show their 
gratitude towards the Scottish brethren, the fourteen 
front seats were handed over to them and their successors 
by the members, for their free use. They were dis- 
tinguished by the letters S. B. = " Schottische B'anke " 
(Scottish seats) and by the Scottish Lion rampant. The 
latter coat-of-arms, however, disappeared after the French 
had occupied the church as a hospital. 

A school and a poor-fund existed in connection with 
the church since the XVIIth Century. After the union 
of the two kingdoms in 1707, here, as in Danzig, the 
" Scottish and English Nation " formed a " Brotherhood 

1 Sembritzki, I.e. 

2 Cp. Scottish Hist. Soc. Miscellany, i. p. 326 n. Brown died in 1713. 


of Great Britain" (" Groszbrittannische Briiderschaft "). 
Two elders (Alterleute) watched over the welfare of 
Scottish and English residents or travellers. The poor- 
fund, which was made up of the interest of an old 
capital, the amount of annual collections and the pew- 
rents, served also to support shipwrecked or otherwise 
disabled sailors, and to provide for the maintenance of 
Scottish or English poverty-stricken invalids in two sepa- 
rate rooms of the Royal Hospital. The two Scottish 
burying vaults in the churchyard now became common 
property likewise. 

The same reasons for the rapid decline of the " Briiders- 
chaft " which we adduced when speaking of Danzig were 
at work in Konigsberg. In 1819 there were no longer 
any British subjects using the pews. 1 Only six, mostly 
very old persons, four of them Scottish, received a 
monthly dole out of the Poor's Box. The British coat- 
of-arms disappeared from the English pew and went the 
way of the Scottish lion, and with the 1st of January 
1820 pews as well as church funds were taken over by 
the officers of the German Reformed Church. 

As in the two largest Baltic ports, so in many of the 
smaller towns of Eastern and Western Prussia, we can 
trace the formation of Calvinistic or " Reformed " congre- 
gations back to the Scots. 

In Memel, for instance, we hear of a Reformed con- 
gregation, consisting mainly of Scottish and Dutch people, 
since 1640. 2 Three or four families, among them Bar- 
clays, Ogilvies, and Fentons, had engaged a sort of 
domestic chaplain and teacher in the person of one 
Wendelin de Rodem, a native of the Palatinate. But 
he was obliged to leave the town in 1641 owing to the 

1 Sembritzki, I.e. p. 245. 

2 The first preaching according to the rites of the Calvinists took 
place much earlier in connection with the Scottish-Swedish garrison. 
In the Church Registers of Memel we find the following entry : " 1631, 
on the 4th of Febr. there were married in the house of Littlejohn : 
Johannes Deglarius (?), natione Scotus, the concionator (preacher) of 
the Governor" (Francis Ruthven). Cp. Sembritzki, History of Memel, 
p. 150 ff. 



complaints of the Lutheran party of the Duchy. It was 
not till twenty years afterwards that Wendelin obtained 
the permission of the Elector to come to Memel once in 
every quarter for the purposes of ministration. By de- 
grees a separate house was acquired for divine worship ; 
and finally a preacher was procured, after the receipt of a 
" Privilegium " from the prince. The person chosen was 
one Petrus Figulus, the son-in-law of the famous founder of 
our modern system of education, Amos Comenius, 1 He 
knew the English language well, and discharged his 
duties up to the year of his death in 1670. His suc- 
cessor was Paul Andreas Jurski, a native of Lithuania, 
who had married a Scotchwoman. During his ministry 
the house in which the Calvinists hitherto held their 
meetings was burned to the ground (1678). But a new 
church was completed in 168 1. The members of the 
congregation were mostly Scottish ; 2 there were, however, 
a few Dutch and French and English. The Germans 
constituted the minority, though, in later years, only 
German was used in preaching. Here also there existed 
a " Poor- Fund of the Scottish Nation," but it became amal- 
gamated with that of the German "Reformed Church." 

The Scots in Memel never ceased to show their 
attachment to the Reformed Church, even long after 
every trace of Scottish nationality had disappeared. A 
rich merchant, Ludwig Simpson, presented to it in 1802 
the large sum of 8000 gulden, the interest of which was 
to be set aside for the raising of the schoolmaster's 
stipend ; and John Simpson, a cousin of Ludwig, gave a 
large donation in 1760, when the rebuilding of the church 
had become an urgent necessity after the damage done to 
it by the Russians. 

The formation of the Reformed congregation at Tilsit 
proceeded much on the same lines. It was composed 
first of all of the Scottish ; but we are not informed as to 
the exact year in which this union of the Calvinistic 

1 1 592-1670. 

2 Sembritzki enumerates thirty Scottish names, some of them in exist- 
ence still. Hist, of Memel, p. 152. 



settlers from Scotland took place. It must, however, have 
been some time before 1667, as a Scottish Poor Fund is 
mentioned in that year. 1 The treasurer was one Alex- 
ander Krichton, but the general supervision lay with the 
whole "Brotherhood." The fund then amounted to 230 
gulden, lent out to three members : Albrecht Ritsch 
(Ritchie), Peter Kerligkeit (?) and William Schamer 
(Chalmers). There were other voluntary contributions 
besides, as well as the proceeds of a collection from house 
to house undertaken by two prominent men annually about 
the time of " Michaelmas-fair." Divine service must have 
been held before 1669, for in that year a small hall in 
the Elector's castle is set aside for this purpose. As in 
other towns, the congregation during the XVIIth Century 
increased rapidly and drew the Scottish settlers of the 
district to it, so that the appointment of a special 
clergyman soon became necessary. We are told that a 
rich Scottish merchant, a member of the congregation, 
William Ritsch, went to Berlin in order to obtain the 
requisite permission from the Elector. Falling on his 
knees before the sovereign, he obtained by his eloquent 
pleading a royal edict (16th of March 1679), which not 
only granted the Tilsiters their own preacher, but allowed 
a stipend of 200 thaler out of the Electoral purse as well. 
The first call was given to Alexander Dennis, born at 
Konigsberg, but of Scottish descent. He had been 
trained in Dutch universities and got ordained at Danzig. 
From the day of his induction by the Court Preacher 
Blaspiel on the nth of October 1679, tne Reformed 
congregation at Tilsit reckons its existence. Eleven days 
later the first communion was held. Among the 27 com- 
municants there were only two Germans and two French. 
The number, however, soon increased, there being 160 
communicants in 1680 and 206 in 1681. The firm 
adherence to their own faith, so earnestly inculcated by 
their General Assembly at home, clearly showed itself on 

1 We find Scottish settlers in Tilsit already in the XVIth Century. 
Cp. Bartsch, Skizzen zu einer Geschichte Tilsits (Outlines of a History of 
Tilsit), p. 31, where in 1592 trial of two Scotsmen is mentioned. 


these occasions, when people came from Insterburg, a 
distance of between thirty and forty English miles, or did 
not shun the long journey of ninety miles from Lyck. 
Many did this more than once in the year. In 1682 
Dennis had a service at Lyck, in which about 36 Scottish 
settlers in Masuren took part. From 1687 onward he 
visited this place as well as Insterburg annually at regular 
intervals, until at the beginning of the XVIIIth Century 
both these congregations obtained their own clergymen. 
About this time (171 1) the church at Tilsit received a 
legacy of 42,000 gulden from the Scottish member, John 
Irving. 1 

Whilst we thus meet the Scottish as the founders of the 
Reformed congregations in Eastern and Western Prussia, 
they also appear as the supporters and upholders of Protes- 
tantism in general. It is clear from this that their lives, 
opposed as they were in a two-fold way to the religious 
feelings of the people of their adopted country, must 
often have been troubled with irksome restraints and 
threatened with persecution and danger. As they were 
confounded with the Jews on account of their trading and 
money-lending, they were thrown together with the 
heretics on account of their faith. 2 

As an illustration of this we shall quote a case of 
religious persecution of the year 1620. 

On the 9th of June of that year there appeared in the 
Court House at Putzig, not far from Danzig, the 
1 Instigator ' (Public Prosecutor) of the Royal (Polish) 

1 Pastor Roquette at Tilsit some years ago delivered a lecture on "the 
English-Scottish Colony and the Reformed Congregations of Lithuania " 
before the Lithuanian Literary Society. A copy of it was very kindly 
placed at my disposal and I have largely availed myself of its contents. 
He gives a long list of members, about 84 in all, of which only about half 
a dozen are not Scottish. Added to it must be many Scottish settlers at 
Insterburg, Stalluponen, Lyck, Goldap, etc., about 60 souls at the time 
of Dennis. See also Part i. and Sembritzki, I.e., 233. During the year 
of the plague (1710-1711) many Scottish settlers died, among them 
Gerdes, Dunkan and Karr from Heidekrug, Larzell (Dalziel) from 
Ragnit, and three Muttrays. 

2 Let it be remembered always that the orthodox Lutherans were 
opponents quite as bitter as the Roman Catholics. 


House, David Schwarte, contra Jacob Dziaksen (Jackson), 
a Scot, who declared that His Grace the Woywode had 
distinctly forbidden Dziaksen to allow any religious 
meetings in his house, to preach sermons or to have them 
preached, an order in which Dziaksen at that time 
acquiesced. " But now he had, contrary to his pledge, 
made bold to have a sermon read in his house on the 
Sunday of Whitsuntide last, for which disobedience their 
book, out of which they had been reading, was con- 
fiscated by command of His Grace. On this account the 
' Instigator ' had received strict orders, inasmuch as Jacob 
Dziaksen had disobeyed the royal command and broken 
his own engagement, to accuse him before the magistrates 
and to demand his punishment. 

To this Jacob Dziaksen, present, replies that he 
acknowledges the prohibition of meetings and reading of 
the sermons. He also admits that in his presence the 
Kramers (pedlars) had read their books, but they had 
been his guests and had never been told not to do so. If 
the order was to apply to everybody the magistrates would 
have to send to every house, search it, and take the books 
away from everybody. He therefore does not think 
himself punishable." 

The following is the finding of the magistrates : " After 
having heard Jacob Dziaksen's admission that he had 
allowed the Scots to read their books in his house, in 
consequence of which their books had been taken from 
them ; confessing thereby to have acted contrary to the 
express command of the authorities ; and as it is to be 
feared that through such meetings and sermons more heresy 
might become prevalent in the town^ which must be pre- 
vented in due time, the Court decrees, that Jacob Dziaksen, 
on account of his disobedience ... be sentenced to pay to the 
church at Putzig . . . the sum^of 20 florins. He as well as 
other citizens of this town are also strictly commanded not to 
hold any meetings in their houses or have sermons read, but 
altogether to abstain from such under pain of heavy fines." 

Jacob Dziaksen, considering himself unjustly dealt with, 
appeals to the higher court. 


Examples like these could be adduced in great numbers. 
Enough has been said to show that the Scottish emigrant 
was not afraid of his religious opinions. The second 
generation, indeed, was more German than Scottish. 
Language and even the names changed. But, notwith- 
standing this, the old attachment to Scotland remained 
with very many of them, like an old legend, that outlasts 

Looking back upon the long period of religious de- 
velopment, from the foundation of the " Schottenkloster " 
to the union of the evangelical confessions in Prussia, 
here also we have to admit, that on the Catholic as well 
as on the Protestant side, Scotsmen have not been 
wanting, who have left memorable traces in Germany, 
without for one moment underrating the enormous and 
paramount influence of German thought on the world of 
letters of the Middle Ages. 



Nobody will expect, in a book like the present, a complete 
history of the foreign policy of Scotland. Our purpose is 
the less pretentious one of showing in some characteristic 
examples that Scotland did not want eminent repre- 
sentatives among her statesmen in Germany. In a second 
division we will then, from among the great number of 
Scottish scholars in German universities and high schools, 
select those that seem to be most deserving of a lasting 

And first among the statesmen mention must be made 
of Alexander Erskine, who, during the time of the Thirty 
Years' War, as Minister of War, deserved well of his 
master Gustavus Adolfus, the King of Sweden, and his 
Protestant allies in Germany. 

His parents, Walter Erskine and Anne Forest, had 
settled in Pomerania towards the end of the XVIth 
Century, and here, in the small town of Greifswald, 
Alexander was born in 1598, October 31st. He first 
entered the service of Queen Sophia of Denmark, but 
soon exchanged it for that of the Swedish Government. 
As Kriegsrath, counsellor of war, no less than in a 
diplomatic capacity, as Swedish Plenipotentiary during 
the conferences which ended in the treaty of Minister 
(1648), and, later on, as President of the Court of 
Appeal in the then Swedish duchies of Pomerania, 
Bremen and Verden, he served with such distinction, 
that he was created Baron by King Charles Gustavus 
in 1655. During the last ten years of his life he accom- 
panied the Swedish King on his invasion of Poland, 
having been placed at the head of the military jurisdiction, 
a position similar to our modern minister of war. 

When the Swedish garrison was besieged in Warsaw, 


and afterward forced to capitulate, he was among the 
prisoners of war, and the Poles removed him to Zamosz. 
Shortly afterwards he died of enteric fever, on the 24th 
of August 1656. His body was removed to Bremen, 
and deposited in the cathedral on the 6th of May 1658. 
But when in 1812a general panic seized the inhabitants 
at the approach of the French, his tin-coffin was melted 
down, lest it should fall into the hands of the conqueror, 
and his remains were reinterred in the "Klosterhof." 
The vault in the church shared the fate of the coffin, it 
was ruthlessly taken down, and all its parts removed. 1 

Whilst the Thirty Years' War was raging in Germany, 
inviting into the land countless Scotsmen, who followed 
the fortunes of " Bellona," the struggle against absolute 
monarchy in England had gradually assumed a very 
threatening aspect. To strengthen his throne Charles I 
of England had made every effort to gain allies on the 
Continent. One of his and his successor's most versatile 
ambassadors was a certain Sir John Cochrane or Cockeran. 
He had been recommended to the English King by 
Elisabeth, Queen of Bohemia, and his knowledge of 
foreign languages as well as his familiarity with foreign 
Courts apparently rendered him a proper person to act as 
diplomatic agent. In the years 1642 and 1644 he was 
sent by Charles to his nephew, the King of Denmark, to 
procure his assistance. But the war between Sweden 
and Denmark, during which Jutland was overrun by the 
enemy, did not allow King Christian to heed the pressing 
request. In the following year we find him again as 
ambassador to Duke James of Curland, who on account 
of his colonial enterprises desired the friendship of 
England, and actually furnished three men-of-war, over 
twenty cannons, and much corn and ammunition for the 
use of the English King. 2 At the same time Cochrane 
was sent on a like errand to Hamburg and to the Scots 
settled in Danzig. In the former place his offensive and 
overbearing manners on the one hand, and the firm resolve 
of the magistrates on the other, to observe a strict 

1 See Appendix. 2 Cp. Scottish Hist. Soc. Miscellany, i. 1 46 f. 


neutrality during the civil imbroglio in England, added to 
the outspoken republican feelings of most of the members 
of the English Trading Company settled there, produced 
a series of unpleasant and ruffianly actions, which cul- 
minated in the attempt, carried out on the instigation of 
Cochrane, 1 to seize the English preacher, a certain Dr 
Elburrow, on his way to the chapel. This intention 
was only frustrated by the citizens of Hamburg coming 
to his rescue. 

Nor was the other attempt of the enraged ambassador, 
to secure the persons of the republican ringleaders of the 
English Company by enticing them on the neighbouring 
Danish territory, more successful, and he had, much to 
the relief of the magistrates, to leave the city without 
having effected his purpose. 2 

In December 1649 Cochrane was at Danzig. He 
found the town " extremement affectionee aux affaires 
de mon Roy," as he expresses himself in his wonted 
exaggerating style in a letter to Duke James, and what 
was more, he met with Scottish merchants willing to 
furnish him with 1000 "tonneaux de seigle" (wheat). 3 
Early in the following year, however, his activity suddenly 
terminates. The suspicion of his dishonesty became 
almost a certainty, 4 the Duke of Curland withheld his 
aid, and King Charles II declared, in a letter to the Scots 
in Poland, that he at no time had given any orders to his 
ambassador to " extort large sums of money " from them, 
or to obtain the King of Poland's authority for it. " As to 
Cochrane's successor Croffts," continues the curious docu- 
ment, " that at his demand you are again pressed with a 
requisition of the third part of your goods and merchandise 

1 See Dr Hans Fernow, Hamburg und England im ersten Jahr der 
Republik, p. 10. This writer is not convinced of Cochrane's dishonesty. 

2 Cp. Scottish Hist. Soc. Misc. i. 175 f., where Cochrane's report is 
fully printed from the Original in the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh. 
See also Fernow, /.c, 

3 One of them was a certain Albrecht Law or Low ; possibly a 
relation of one Thomas Law of Anstruther, a lace-maker, who obtained 
civic rights in 1634. 

4 See also Part i. and Deeds of Montrose, p. 246. Cp. Fernow, I.e. 


for our use, we do admit that he was despatched by us from 
Holland to the King of Poland, our royal and esteemed 
brother, but in nowise empowered with any open authority 
to extort anything from our subjects trading in that 
Realm." The moral indignation with which he — a 
Stuart — in conclusion rejects the idea of being capable 
of ever levying taxes without the consent of Parliament 
cannot fail to provoke a smile. 1 

After Cochrane, Lord Crofts was sent on a similar 
mission. He was accompanied by Denham, the Poet 
Laureate, to whom we owe a valuable description of 
Poland. Crofts was succeeded again by Lieut.-General 
Middleton in 1656. The instructions issued for the latter 
are of a very urgent character. " We doe more especially 
recommend and intrust you to our well affected Subjects 
of the Scots Nation who now live under the dominion of 
the King of Poland or the Marquis of Brandenburg," 
they say, " the former of which have already given 
Us ample testimony of their affection (!), 2 (for which 
you shall returne Our Princely thankes to them), and 
we doubt not but they will, since We are in the same 
straits and necessitys We were then in, if not greater, 
renew their expressions of affection and kindnesse to Us 
. . . and We doe hereby authorize you to receive all 
such Summes of Monney as they or any of them shallbe 
willing to lend to Us and your acquittance shall oblige Us 
to the repayment of the same as soone as God shall 
enable Us." 

The King further instructs Middleton to obtain 
assistance in ships, ammunition, men, and arms from 
the senate of Danzig, and the ambassador found the 
town well-inclined towards his royal master. He even 
succeeded in levying a few men for service in England, 
but had to disband them again for want of means. The 
Scottish merchants were either unwilling or unable to 
contribute the desired "Summes of Money." Nor is 

1 See Appendix, and compare with it the authority given to Cochrane 
to raise money on the King's behalf in Part i., App. 

2 That is to say, the most unwillingly paid tax of 1650. See Part i. 


this much to be wondered at, since Cromwell also had 
a representative in the town, who of course did his 
utmost to render Charles' efforts ineffectual. After a 
short time Middleton himself got into pecuniary diffi- 
culties, and the King was compelled to ask the senate 
for a loan of 1000 Thaler. 1 

Thus the English embassies from the unfortunate 
Duke of Montrose (1648-9), who carried home little 
else 2 than his new dignity of Imperial Field-marschall — 
granted to him by the Emperor Ferdinand III, on account 
of his great renown, and his knowledge of the war — 
down to General Middleton, proved failures. 

Much greater skill, joined to higher qualities of 
character and more auspicious times, was shown by two 
English-Scottish ambassadors at the Court of Frederick 
the Great : Lord Hyndford, and Sir Andrew Mitchell. 

Hyndford had been sent on an extraordinary mission to 
Breslau in 1 74 1 , to try and smooth the way for a peace 
between the King of Prussia and Maria Theresa. He was 
unwearied in his efforts, and proved himself a stubborn, 
somewhat heavy, astute Scotsman, who like a good 
British bull-dog watched every movement of his master. 
After many secret diplomatic moves, and countermoves, 
and the successful removal of many obstacles, the treaty 
of Breslau was brought about on the eleventh of June 
1742. How much of this great result was attributed to 
the co-operation of Hyndford by the two Courts of London 
and Berlin appears from the bestowal of the Order of 
the Thistle upon him on the part of the King of England, 
and from the very solemn investiture held by the King 
of Prussia himself. All the generals and the high 
dignitaries of the State, two Queens, and all the members 
of the higher nobility were present at the ceremony. 
As his private gift to the ambassador Frederick added 

1 Scottish Hist. Soc. : Scotland and the Protectorate, 1899, pp. 337, 
358 f. See also Appendix. 

2 The Elector of Brandenburg had promised him " decern millia 
imperiales " as subsidy, but he excused his non-payment with the difficulty 
of raising a loan (July 27, 1649). See Deeds of Montrose, p. 506 f. 


a Silver Dinner-Service, and the right of carrying the 
Prussian eagle in his coat-of-arms. 1 

Very different again and quite unparalleled in history 
was the position occupied by Sir Andrew Mitchell, since 
1756 British ambassador to the Court of Prussia. He 
was the only son of a clergyman at the church of St 
Giles, Edinburgh, and was born on the 15th of April 
1708. The premature death of his young wife and his 
baby-daughter made him give up his reading for the 
Scottish Bar, and seek comfort and relaxation on long 
journeys through Holland and Belgium, France and Italy. 
After his return in 1 742 he was made Under-Secretary 
of State for Scotland, member of parliament for the Elgin 
boroughs in 1754, and ambassador to Prussia in 1756. 
As King Frederick was then on the point of being engaged 
in the memorable Seven Years' War, this was a service 
of no small danger, hardship and difficulty. It was in 
Berlin that the thousand and one finely spun threads of 
European policy met. Only a man of uncommon intelli- 
gence and uncommon qualities of mind could hope in the 
intercourse with such a "fiery soul" as Frederick to 
extricate himself out of the maze of conflicting in- 
terests, to serve his country, and to save his soul alive. 
Mitchell succeeded by his sound common-sense, his 
manliness, his energy, his incorruptible and straight- 
forward honesty, not to lose for one short moment the 
most complete confidence of his royal master and friend. 
He was an honour to his native country; hard-headed, 
sagacious, averse to all mere shows, but able to seize the 
fact, and stubbornly, if needs be, to hold to it ; abundantly 
polite, watchful and discreet, full of common-sense and 
a certain rugged sincerity : in short, a man, whose true 
value Frederick immediately perceived and a resource, no 
doubt, to the King in his lonely roamings and vicissitudes 
in those dark years. Thus Carlyle describes him. 

It was a matter of necessity that with a character thus 

1 Cp. Carlyle, Life of Friedrich II, vol. v. 197. Lord Hyndford's 
family-name was Carmichael. The present representative of the family is 
Sir Thomas Gibson Carmichael, Castle Craig, Scotland. 


differently constituted from and at variance with the old 
received pattern of a useful diplomatist, times of tension 
and friction with the Cabinet at London were not in- 
frequent and might have ended in Mitchell's recall, if it 
had not been for the powerful veto of the Prussian King. 
Once, when he had received a long letter from England 
reproaching him for omitting to communicate numerous 
and bitter sarcasms which, no doubt, escaped Frederick con- 
cerning the English, he replied that he considered himself 
as entrusted with the care of maintaining and strengthen- 
ing the ties that existed between his country and a valu- 
able ally ; that his desire had been to prove a minister of 
peace and union ; that if it were intended to make him a 
minister of hatred, pitiful bickerings and despicable tale- 
bearings, he wished nothing more than that the King 
would immediately name his successor. 1 " It was his duty 
to remind the Cabinet that to judge accurately of a man 
so extraordinary, or even of his utterances, it was doing 
little, indeed, to collect the mere words he spoke, if to 
these were not added a knowledge of the time, in which 
they were pronounced, under what circumstances and with 
what views." 2 Finally he added : "I was born an enemy 
to falsehood, deceit and double dealing, and have ever had 
an equal contempt and abhorrence of those that practise 
either." "Honour," he writes an other time to the 
English Minister, "Honour, my lord, cannot be bought 
with money." 3 

The same straightforwardness characterises his inter- 
course with Frederick. He was the only one who some- 
times ventured a word of reproof, and the King, who was 
possessed of a piercing insight into human nature, not 
only forgave him but valued him all the more. The plain 
man, who shortly after his arrival at Berlin created quite 
an uncomfortable sensation by his inability to play at cards, 
soon occupied the envied position as one of the King's 
most intimate friends, who accompanied him on his cam- 

1 Bisset, Memoirs aud Letters of Sir A. Mitchell, i. 142. 

2 Thiebault, Souvenirs de Frederic le Grand, iii. 271 ; and Bisset. 

3 Bisset, I.e., i. 269. 


paigns, to whom he had recourse in times of joy and 
sorrow. When in 1757 Sophia Dorothy, Frederick's 
mother, had died, and the disconsolate King for two 
days refused all intercourse with the outer world, it was 
Mitchell whom he sent for first, seeking and finding 
comfort in his conversation. To him he poured out his 
grief, initiating him into the sad history of his youth. "I 
must confess," Mitchell writes after this meeting, "that 
it cut me to the quick, how the King abandoned himself 
to his grief, pouring out expressions of the most affec- 
tionate filial love ; recalling to his mind how much he owed 
to his departed mother ; how much she had suffered, how 
nobly she had borne it all, and how good she had been to 
everybody. His only comfort now was that he had tried 
to make her latter years more comfortable. I was glad 
to prolong my visit as he seemed to be amused, and to 
forget for a time that load of sorrow with which he was 

It was Mitchell again to whom the King turned first in 
the joy of victory. "You have shared the fatigues with 
me, I want you likewise to rejoice with me," he said to 
him after Rossbach. In very many letters he expressed to 
him his unshaken confidence and love and, when he 
returned to Berlin after a visit to England in 1766, he 
made the Duke of Brunswick write to him: "Mon cher 
M. Mitchell. Le roi attend sou bon M. Mitchell et non 
le ministre. Selon ce charactere il vous recevra a Berlin." 

Whilst the King thus honoured the ambassador with 
his intimacy, England was slow to recognise his merit ; 
and whilst his successor, Sir James Harris, a much inferior 
man, was made an Earl, the other had to content himself 
with the Order of the Bath, remaining to the end of his life 
plain Sir Andrew Mitchell. Plain also is his tomb : the 
inscription only telling the dates of his birth and death. 

Let us now add some events in the life of the 
ambassador. It was the wish of King George II, that 
he should accompany the Prussian King on all his cam- 
paigns, thus sharing the dangers of the battle and the 
privations of camp-life. In his rare leisure-moments he 


loved to study German. When at Leipzig he took lessons 
from Gottsched, then a celebrated critic, and tried to 
convince him of the genius of Shakespeare in spite 
of his supreme neglect of the long adopted and 
cherished canons of dramatic composition. He also knew 
Gellert, the poet, and procured him an interview with the 

His diaries give a very vivid sketch of the Seven Years' 
War with its victories and defeats ; its diplomatic minings 
and counterminings. In the midst of all this Mitchell 
continued his straight course: to make Frederick's interests 
those of his own country. In this he succeeded in so far 
as the English subsidies continued to be paid during Pitt's 
administration, though a co-operation of the English fleet 
was found impossible. How deeply he felt the defection 
of England in 1762, when the pecuniary assistance was 
withdrawn, a letter of his reveals to his countryman Sir 
R. Murray Keith, the British ambassador at Vienna. 
" This goes by Walker," he writes on the ninth of June, 
" the messenger who has brought me an answer to my 
despatch of the 4th of May, and I will not detain him to 
give you a precis, because I imagine they will have sent 
you a copy of that most extraordinary piece. If they have 
not, let me know, and you shall, by the first sure oppor- 
tunity, have a fair account of it. The news your own 
letters will give you, and I fancy it will be as unpalatable 
to you as it is to me. We must, however, obey and do 
our best ; we are, indeed, the servi servorum, the beasts 
of burden, that must go as they are driven. Je suis las 
de mon s — metier; mais des considerations reflechies 
m'empechent de prendre encore aucune resolution subite. 
Aidez-moi, je vous prie, de vos conseils ; la sante me 
manque et la situation des affaires m'accable de tristesse. . . . 

"I have one solid comfort in the midst of my most 
distressful situation, which is, that I have done my duty 
fairly, honestly and freely, without consulting to please 
or acquire friends. 1 have sacrificed my ambition to the 
public weal. I have, in some measure, regained the 
confidence of the hero with whom I live, and he hears 


from me what, perhaps, he would not have patience to 
do from another. This is, in truth, the reason, why I 
remain here. I do not think it impossible that I may be 
recalled, though I have not asked it. I shall retire with 
pleasure, for I am well able to justify everything I have 
done. I heartily wish every man concerned in public 
business were in the same happy condition. 

" I have profited of this opportunity to pour out my soul 
to you ; it aifords me consolation, and I have only to 
desire, that when you have read this letter, you will 
commit it to the flames. 

" P.S. — When I think of our master, all the sentiments 
of tenderness, duty and affection rise up in my mind and 
I am afflicted beyond measure. 

A. Mitchell." x 

There is no doubt that the writer's health was seriously 
shaken by the bad news from England; Carlyle even 
speaks of a paralytic stroke. 2 To recruit his strength he 
obtained leave of the King and went to Spa (1764). 
Having returned to Berlin in 1766, after a visit 
to England, he remained there revered by all and 
loved by Frederick 3 in comparative retirement to the 
date of his death, the 28th of January 1771. 

The following anecdotes proving his ready wit may 
complete the sketch of Mitchell. 

"Do you never get the spleen, when the mail does not 
arrive ? ' he was asked by the King. 

"Never; but very often when it does arrive," was 
Mitchell's answer. 

On another occasion Frederik had contemptuously 
spoken of the affair at Port Mahon and Mitchell replied : 
"England must do better another time. She must put 
her confidence in God." 

1 Memoirs of Sir R. Murray Keith. 2 Friedrich, ix. 332. 

3 In that eventful year 1762 Frederik wrote to Mitchell: "Quant a 
vous, Monsieur, je ne saurais assez vous exprimer combien je suis sensible 
a toutes les marques d'affection et d'attachement eternel et reconnaissant. 
. . . Sur ce je prie Dieu qu'il vous ait en sa sainte et digne garde " ; 
and in his works he calls him the " Ministre vertueux." 


"In God?" answered the King sarcastically. "I was 
not aware England had Him for an ally ! " 

"The only ally that costs us nothing," was the ready 
reply, slyly indicating the vast sums England had paid to 
her Prussian confederate. 

It is a curious fact that, whilst England boasted of 
a representation so effective and creditable about the 
Court of Berlin in the person of a Scotsman, in Vienna 
also, the rival Court, towards the end of the XVIIIth 
Century the post of British ambassador was held by 

Already the name of Keith has been mentioned in 
these pages. It was from the same old, famous stock 
that the Murray Keiths, father and son, descended, who 
for thirty years represented Great Britain in the Austrian 
capital. They were the son and grandson of a Colonel 
Robert Keith of Craig in Kincardineshire, Robert Keith, 
the father, came to Vienna in 1747 and was a man of 
mild, conciliatory character. Maria Theresa entertained a 
peculiar regard for this Minister and testified it on every 
occasion during the nine years of his sojourn ; and even on 
the day of his departure, which took place under the 
painful circumstances of a political rupture, she proved by 
valuable gifts, 1 that she knew well how to distinguish 
between the person of an ambassador and the political 
views of the Court that sent him. There is no doubt that 
Keith had deserved this confidence. To a stubborn 
honesty he joined a certain chivalry and delicacy of 
feeling, which, more than once, drew upon him the 
censure of the British Ministry, because he refused to 
deliver certain harsh and overbearing messages to the 
Empress in person, as he was desired to do. 2 Kaunitz, 
the Austrian Premier, wrote to him on his recall, that the 
Sovereign rendered all justice to the manner, in which he 

1 They consisted in a portrait, for which the Empress had given 
special sittings and in splendid dresses, embroidered under her own 
directions by the nuns of a convent she patronized, for his three daughters. 

2 Especially on one occasion, when he knew the Empress to be in 
interesting circumstances. Cp. Memoirs of Sir R. Murray Keith, i. 21. 


had acquitted himself and that she would always recall 
the remembrance of it with pleasure. 

His new appointment to the Court of St Petersburg 
did not please him. The stiff ceremonial there contrasted 
sharply with the familiar conversations with the Austrian 
Empress. Moreover, he was surrounded by intrigues, 
and rendered obnoxious to a certain clique on account of 
his not belonging to the highest nobility. In spite of all 
this he continued to try his best to promote a good under- 
standing between Britain, Petersburg and Berlin. Filled 
like his friend Mitchell with admiration for the heroic 
qualities of Frederick he acutely felt the defection of 
England in 1762. At such a time the friendly letters of 
the " Great King " must have appeared especially valuable 
and comforting. On the 1 8th of February of that year 
the King writes from Breslau : 

" Sir, — Feelingly alive as I am to all the proofs of affec- 
tion and attachment which you have hitherto shown me, I 
have resolved no longer to delay expressing my gratitude. 
I beg you to be persuaded that I shall ever give you credit 
for them, and that I shall seize with pleasure all the 
opportunities which may present themselves to give you 
convincing proofs of my esteem. . . ." 

A second letter, dated Breslau, March 24th, is written 
in a similar strain, and adds the wish that all the Ministers 
of Britain might be animated with the same zeal for the 
interests of the King. 

The third letter, the most explicit of all, runs: "Sir 
— Your letter of the ninth gave me great pleasure, and 
I am the more obliged to you for the congratulations you 
address to me on the conclusion of my peace with the 
Emperor of Russia, that I can only attribute the success 
of this negotiation to the zeal with which you exerted 
yourself to make it succeed. It is a work due to your 
efforts alone, and I shall cherish for it a gratitude pro- 
portioned to the important service, which, on this occasion, 
you have rendered me." 1 

We can, however, not enter here upon Keith's political 

1 Memoirs of Sir M. Keith, i. 49. 


career in Russia. Suffice it to say that he died suddenly- 
near Edinburgh, where he had spent the last years of his 
life in rural retirement in the year 1774. 

The love of peace, integrity and honour which 
distinguished his father were transmitted to his son 
Sir Robert Murray Keith. But added to it were a 
cheerful way of enjoying life, a humour that would not 
be chilled by any ceremonial, and a strong military bias 
which were wanting in his father. Born on September 
2,0th, 1730, the future ambassador passed an ideally 
happy boyhood, rich in innocent fun and protected by 
the love of his devoted parents. When still young he 
entered the Dutch service, exchanging it later for that 
of Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick, in whose campaigns 
he took a distinguished part. During the year 1758 he 
stayed for some time at Munster, the garrison life of a 
dull little town being enlivened by his familiar intercourse 
with General Conway and his family. In the year follow- 
ing he was made major and commander of three newly - 
raised Highland regiments. At Eybach, Fellinghausen, 
and in other engagements, they performed " miracles of 
bravery," as the chief in command expressed himself. 
The time between the peace (1763) and his appointment 
as British ambassador to the Court of Saxony at Dresden 
(1768) Keith spent partly at home, partly at Paris. His 
letters from the gay Saxon capital are full of humour, and 
give us a most graphic and amusing description of his life 
among the high lords and ladies of the Court. "If we 
did not eat most unmercifully our town would be very 
agreeable," he writes on one occasion. Another time he 
tells his father that the Elector had expressed a wish to 
see him in his Highland uniform. "Send me," he con- 
tinues, "a handsome bonnet, a pair or two of the finest 
knit hose, and a plaid of my colours sewed and plaited on 
a waist-belt. If to this you are so good as to add a 
handsome shoulder-belt and buckle, and the hilt of an 
Andrew Ferrara, I shall be enabled to show my nakedness 
to the best advantage." 1 

1 Memoirs, i. 122. 


Twice he visited his uncle, the old Earl Marischal 
Keith, at Berlin. When on his second visit King Frederick 
sent for him and conversed with him long and intimately. 
Keith gives an account of this interview to his father, and 
writes : " The King told me during our conversation more 
flatteries than would fill a quire of paper. His questions 
were so minute that it would have surprised you. He 
asked of you, ' Si vous etiez sur vos terres ? ' and I told him : 
' Que pour des terres, vous n'en possediez pas la grandeur 
de sa chambre, et que cependant il y avait tres peu de 
gens plus heureux que vous et votre famille.'" 

He also expressed a wish that Keith should stay near 
him at Berlin ; but being already on his way to Kopen- 
hagen to fill the post of British ambassador there, this 
could not be accomplished. 

The jovial companion and the favourite of the Dresden 
Court, who understood so well how to accept the brightest 
side of life, was now destined to witness the most romantic 
and tragic events in the modern Court history of Denmark ; 
events which called the other side of his character into 
activity : energy and unflinching courage. It was the 
time, so well known all over the world, of the Struensee 
conspiracy. We can only briefly indicate the part played 
in it by Sir Robert. When he heard that Queen Caroline, 
a sister of the King of England, had been arrested on the 
atrocious charge of having poisoned her husband, and that 
the judges were then sitting to decide her fate, he quickly 
took his resolution, made his way through an infuriated 
mob to the chamber where the meeting was being held, 
and declared with a firm voice that to touch only a hair of 
the Queen meant war with England. Then he returned 
to his house, sent a messenger to London and shut himself 
up in his apartments for four weeks, anxiously expecting 
the decision of the British Cabinet, the approval or the 
censure of his entirely unauthorized proceeding. At last 
the news arrived in the shape of a parcel. When he 
opened it, he perceived the insigna of the Order of the 
Bath ! 

Keith's later activity as the successor of his father in 


Vienna, though much longer in duration than his Kopen- 
hagen appointment, and extending to nearly twenty years, 
was devoid of romantic and stirring incident. Instead 
of it, his life was frequently embittered by frictions with 
his superiors at home, who seemed to claim a right to 
neglect the embassy in Austria. For many months Keith 
received no answer to his dispatches and letters ; his 
representation, that his salary was not sufficient to satisfy 
the demands made upon him by many hundreds of English 
visitors, was not listened to. Moreover, it was foreign to 
his nature to have to exercise an incessant petty vigilance 
over the proceedings of others, not to speak of the 
political inactivity, that was forced upon him. A very 
outspoken letter of his led to his recall in 1788 ; but the 
King refused to sanction it, and Keith returned under 
improved conditions to his old post. He was welcomed 
as a friend; for all the time his intercourse with the 
imperial family, the members of the diplomatic body and 
those of the aristocracy had been of the most friendly and 
agreeable nature. The esteem which his father had 
gained before him, was transferred to him in an even 
greater measure. 

In 1 79 1 he represented England at the Treaty of 
Sistovo, between Austria and Turkey, and his influence was 
paramount. After this difficult and wearisome piece of 
work, he felt the necessity of consulting his own health 
and comfort. But he did not leave his post at the 
beginning of a new reign (1792), without having given 
a faithful and masterly summary of the state resources — 
political, financial and military — of the empire. 

Then only he retired to London, and the good wishes 
he left behind him at Vienna could only be equalled by 
the warm welcome of his friends at home. 

Unchilled in heart and unsophisticated in character — 
not a great man, but a good and loveable one — he died 
suddenly at Hammersmith on the 7th of July 1795. 1 

1 Shortly before leaving Vienna he had written the following char- 
acteristic letter : " I had the honour of receiving along with your 
lordship's dispatch on Monday last His Majesty's additional instructions 


There is a curious resemblance in the most char- 
acteristic features of these two Scottish statesmen : a simple 
directness of speech and integrity of life, obstinate per- 
severance in the pursuance of their aims, and a sound 
humour which we recognise in so many of the great men 
of Scotland. 

Frequently, indeed, the want of material prevents us 
from making any attempt of examining into the character 
of the Scots in Germany. Sources like the Letters and 
Memorials of Mitchell and Robert Murray Kieth are 
rare. In most cases we know little more than their names 
or the titles of books written by them ; now and then, 
perhaps, some fulsome Latin distichs in remembrance of 

This is especially true with regard to the numerous 
Scottish scholars, who learned and taught during the 
past on German universities and high-schools. The 
number of these men is not as large as in France, where 
from the XVth Century onward, almost every university 
boasted of one Scottish professor or more from Paris, 
to the comparatively new-founded universities of Sedan 
and Pont-a-Mousson. 1 Still Germany can point to not 
a small number of Scotsmen who proved an honour to 
their native land, either in the chairs of professors or as 
private teachers. 

Of the first great Scottish philosopher, Duns Scotus, — 
for the assumption of his being a native of Scotland 
proper does not now seem unjustified, — the great 
defender of the immaculate conception, the " Doctor 

on the subject of Foreign Secret Service Money, and I shall not fail to 
pay the strictest obedience to them on any occasion that may hereafter 
arise. In the meantime I have the satisfaction to assure your lordship 
that in the 23 years, during which I had the honour of serving H.M. in 
various foreign missions, I never charged a single shilling for Secret 
Service Money to the account of Government." 

1 No less than thirty times did Scottish scholars attain to the dignity of 
Rectors of Paris. There were besides Sedan four other Protestant 
colleges in France : Saumur, Montauban, Montpellier and Nismes. 
The last two were united in 161 7. Pont-a-Mousson was founded by 
Charles II, Duke of Lorraine. 


subtilis," whose system has not ceased to attract the 
attention of recent philosophers, it is known that he 
spent the last years of his life at Cologne, not, indeed, 
as a founder of the University there, for it was only 
called into life in 1388, but as a teacher in one of the 
schools of the great Monastic Orders. He died in 1308. 
A monument erected in his memory in 1 5 1 3 in the Church 
of the Minorites, bears the inscription : " Scotia me genuit, 
Anglia me suscepit Colonia me tenet " (" Scotland 
bore me, England received me, Cologne holds me "). 

The connection with Germany of his namesake Michael 
Scot, 1 whose scholarly attainments were soon overgrown with 
the superstitious belief by the people in his magic powers, 
is still slighter. We do not even know for certain 
whether he ever was in Germany. Still he deserves 
a word or two because of his having been the teacher 
of the Roman and German Emperor Frederick the Second 
at Palermo. As such he dedicated to his pupil on the 
occasion of his marriage with Constance, the daughter 
of the King of Aragon, following a then universal custom, 
his Physionomia, and later on, after he had gone to 
Spain for the study of Arabian Philosophy, his trans- 
lation of Aristotle's De Animalibus, a book which was 
sure to please a friend of Natural History like the 
Emperor. Another proof of his connection with Frederick 
is to be found in a note at the end of his Astronomia : 
"Here ends the Book of Michael Scot, the Astrologer 
of the Roman Emperor Frederick, ' semper Augustus,' 
which he wrote in a simple style at the request of the 
Emperor. " 2 

We are moving on firmer ground when we review 
the monastic erudition of the Scots. The Benedictines 
especially cultivated education and learning, and thus the 
Scottish monasteries in Germany, which followed, as we 
have seen, the rules of St Benedict, produced quite a 
series of eminent scholars. We have already spoken 

1 Born between 1175 and 1180 in the valley of the Tweed (?). 

2 In the copy at Oxford. Cp. Wood Brown, An Inquiry into the Life 
and Legend of Michael Scot) 1896, p. 22. 


of Ratisbon and its famous abbots : Winzet, Stuart and 
Arbuthnot, as well as of the Benedictine University of 
Salzburg. At Erfurt the position of the Scottish abbots 
with regard to the University there was a very peculiar 
one. Since the year 1427 they bore the title of 
" Universitatis Studii Erfurtensis Protectores, Privile- 
giorum Conservatores, Matriculae Custodes." 1 

Several instances are on record where these privileges 
have been exercised. Thus the abbots Dermicius in 1442, 
and Edraundus forty-eight years later, settle a quarrel that 
had arisen between the professors and the students of 
the University as : " Judices competentes per sententiam 
definitivam." In a similar manner abbot Cornelius 
relegated two " magistros," who refused to submit to 
the decrees of the Council of Basel (1485) ; and Jacobus 
exercised the same judicial office in 1 532.2 

There were, moreover, attached to the monastery at 
Erfurt four Philosophical chairs, 3 the Scottish occupants of 
which chiefly taught Mathematics, Algebra, Logic, Meta- 
physics, and Natural Philosophy. Very well known 
amongst them in his time, on account of his experiments in 
electricity, was P. Andreas Gordon, a scion of the old ducal 
house of Gordon. He was a member of the " Academie des 
sciences " at Paris and of the " Royal Academy of Science " 
at Munich. Having been educated at Kehlheim, and at 
the Scottish Seminary of Ratisbon, he started on a two 
years' journey through Austria, Italy and France. On 
his return in 1732 he became a priest, and afterwards 
Professor of Philosophy at Erfurt (about I737)- 4 In his 
inaugural address he spoke of the "Dignity and the Use 
of Philosophy." The hostility which his writings display 

1 Falkenstein, Thuringische Chronik, p. 1 064. The bull in question 
was issued by Pope Martin V "anno pontificatus sui decimo, die 13 Feb." 

2 Falkenstein, I.e., p. 1065 f. 

3 The Scottish Monastery originally only contained four monks. 

4 He wrote Phaenomena electricitatis exposita, Erfurt, 1744, and 
Philosophia utilis et jucunda tribus tomis comprehensa in usum studiosae 

juventutis, Pedeponti prope Ratisb. 1745; the 1st vol. of which com- 
prises Logic, Ethics, etc.; the 2nd, Mathematics; the 3rd. Natural 
Philosophy. Var'ia Philosophiae mutatlonem spectantia, Erf. 1749* 


against the Scholastic Philosophy involved him in long 
controversies with the clerical scholars of the day. Other 
monastic scholars famous for their learning were Marianus 
Brockie, the author of a History of the Scottish Monas- 
teries, 1 Bernhard Grant? Hieronymus Panton, Superior of 
the Monastery and Doctor of Divinity (171 1); Maurus 
Stuart, abbot (1720), and Boniface Leslie, about 1730. 
Panton was elected Rector of the University in 17 12 and 
died 1 7 1 9 ; the others were Professors of Philosophy 

Among the Scottish monks of Wurzburg mention must 
be made of the Abbot Johannus Audomarus Aslon, who is 
said to have been Rector of the University there in 1 646. 
About twenty years earlier Alexander Baillie, who later 
on became Abbot of Erfurt, was Prior of the Monastery 
(1622). He wrote a book against the heretics. 3 In 
the knowledge of the history of their Order excelled 
Silvanus Maine, and Boniface Strachan from Montrose, 
who compiled a very valuable work on the " Propagation 
of Christianity in Germany by monks of the Scottish 
Nation," the plan of which had been suggested to him by 
Maine. 4 To these must be added : Thomas Duffus 
(Duft), who died in 1636 and is called a "poeta celeber- 
rimus," a very famous poet ; and Marianus Irvin, a public 
teacher of theology. 

Besides theology, medicine and natural philosophy have 
always proved a very attractive study for the Scots, even 
so long ago as the XVIth Century. Among the Scots in 

1 Monast'icum Scoticum, Pedeponti, 1752. 

2 He was a well-known Mathematician. Born in 1725 he taught in 
various Benedictine Monasteries until he was appointed Professor at 
Erfurt. He died as Prior of Ratisbon in 1785. His mathematical 
works and those on Natural Philosophy were clearly written and intro- 
duced as text-books in many schools. Lessons in Mathematics, Erf. 
1756. Element a Philosophiae, Erf. 1762. Lessons in Nat. Phil, and 
History, Gottingen, 1779. 

3 He is called : " Zelo fidei catholicae et libro in haereticos conscripto 
conspicuus " by Wieland, I.e., p. 106. 

4 " Germania Christiana sive de plantata et propagata christ. religione 
in Germania per Sanctos et Monachos Scoticae nationis. T. iii. M. ch. 
9. 53, in the Royal University Library, Wurzburg. 


Germany we find three very eminent men in this province 
of learning : Duncan Liddel, John Craig and John Johnston. 
The first of these was born at Aberdeen in 1561. When 
about eighteen he emigrated like so many of his country- 
men in those times to the " land of promise," Poland. He 
went first to Danzig, and from there to Frankfort-on-the 
Oder, where John Craig, the Professor of Logic, became 
his friend. Under him he studied philosophy and mathe- 
matics for two years. When Craig returned to Scotland, 
Liddel went, furnished with letters of introduction, to 
Breslau, where he derived much benefit from the inter- 
course with the learned Hungarian convert Andreas 
Duditius and from the lectures of Paul Wittich, who 
initiated him into the secrets of the Kopernican system of 
astronomy. In the following year we find him again at 
Frankfort, but this time not as a student but as a teacher. 
Here he remained till 1585 when the plague scattered his 
pupils in all directions and compelled him to leave the 
town. He first betook himself to Rostock where he was 
immatriculated in the month of October. His residence 
there seems to have been rendered very pleasant through 
the kindness of Brucaeus, 1 a famous physician and phil- 
osopher, and of the learned Professor Caselius. At first 
he taught privately, but after having received his degree 
as " Magister philosophiae " in 1587, when Nicolaus 
Goniaeus was Dean of the Faculty, he read publicly on 
the motions of the heavenly bodies according to the 
various systems of Ptolemy, Kopernikus and Tycho Brahe 
the great Danish astronomer. With the latter he had 
become acquainted on a visit to the island of Hveen where 
the Dane's famous observatory had been built. Against 
the accusation of having claimed the honour of Tycho's 
discoveries for himself, he defended himself most ener- 
getically, and maintained to have independently arrived 
at the same results. He owned, however, to have 
received his first suggestions from Tycho. 2 In the year 

1 A Dutch scholar with the name of van der Brook from Alost in Flanders. 

2 Kepleri, Opera ommla, i. pp. 227 f. Cp. J. L. E. Dreyer, Tycho 
Brahe, a Picture of Scientific Life and Work in the 16th century. Edinb. 


1590 he went with his friend Caselius to the newly- 
founded University of Helmstadt where the latter had 
just been made Professor of Philosophy. He himself 
occupied the chair of mathematics and afterwards of 
geography and astromony. His mind, however, was 
chiefly inclined towards medicine. In 1596 he obtained 
his medical degree, having written a dissertation on 
"Melancholy." During his term of office he was several 
times elected Dean of the Philosophical and Medical 
Faculty. He was, moreover, physician to the Court of 
Brunswick and to many of the great country families. 
From the year 1604 onward, when he was elected Pro- 
rector, he limited himself to his medical lectures and to 
his medical practice. But the fame and the wealth thus 
acquired could not quench his desire to return to Scotland, 
especially since the political outlook in his adopted country 
seemed to become gloomier every year. Moved by these 
considerations he left Helmstadt in 1607 and went to 
Aberdeen, where he continued to reside until 161 3, the 
year of his death. In his will he left a considerable sum 
for the endowment of a chair of mathematics, whilst he 
placed the rent of some of his lands in the neighbourhood 
of the town at the disposal of the University authorities 
for the maintenance of six poor students. He lies buried 
in the Church of St Nicholaus at Aberdeen, where a 
handsome brass of Dutch workmanship, beautifully en- 
graved, shows him surrounded by his books and instru- 
ments. Of his writings the most important are : 

1. Disputationum medicinalium Duncani Liddelii Scoti, 
Phil, et Med. Doctoris in Academia Julia, Pars Prima. 
Helmstadt, 1605. 

2. Ars medica. Hamburg, 1608, 1728. 

3. De febribus libri tres. 16 10. 

After his death appeared his much talked of essay, "De 
dente aureo " (" Of the golden tooth") Its origin is the 
following. A certain doctor and professor at Helmstadt, 
with the name of Jacob Horst, had published an account 
of a boy born with a tooth of gold, explaining this curious 
fact by saying that the sun in conjunction with the planet 


Saturn in the constellation of Aries had produced such 
enormous heat, that one of the teeth of the boy had been 
melted into gold at his birth. Several other doctors 
supported this view, whilst Liddel opposed it asserting not 
without some slight humour, that the tooth in question, to 
examine which the parents of the child would not allow, 
was probably only gilded. 1 

Liddel's Artis conservandi sanitatem libri duo (" two 
books on the art of preserving the health ") also appeared 
after his death. It was published by one of his pupils at 
Helmst'adt, a Scotsman named Dun, 2 in 1651. 

A little earlier than Liddel, John Craig was Professor 
of Mathematics at Frankfurt a/O. He had taken his 
medical degree at Basel and became in time, after having 
resigned his professorship in 1 561, Physician to King James. 
He is chiefly known on account of his controversy with 
Tycho Brahe, whose book on the comet of 1577 he very 
probably received through Liddel. Tycho had published 
a lengthy defence of his books against the attacks of Craig 
(1589) and had sent a copy of it to the Scot, who some 
three years afterwards undertook a refutation of the Dane 
denouncing "nee tarn scotice quam scoptice " all those 
that dared to deny Aristotle's teaching about the comets. 
The friendship between the two scholars, however, does 
not seem to have suffered much, at least not until the 
year 1588; for in that year Tycho sends a mathematical 
book to Craig with the Latin dedication: "To Doctor J. 
Craig of Edinburgh, the most renowned and most learned 
Professor of Medicine, the very distinguished Mathema- 
tician, etc., Tycho Brahe sends this gift." Three letters, 
which he wrote to the Danish scholar, are likewise 
couched in the most friendly terms It is just possible that 
he accompanied King James VI on his visit to the isle of 
Hveen and its celebrated observatory. 

In conjunction with Liddel and Craig must be mentioned 
John Johnston, called " Polyhistor" a man of less ambition, 

1 Cp. E. H. B. Hill, Aberdeen Doctors, T893, p. 7. 

2 Patrick Dun was afterwards Rector of Marischal College, Aberdeen 



but vaster and more profound learning. He was the 
son of a certain Simon Johnston, who about the end of 
the XVIth Century, emigrated from Annandale to Samter 
in Poland, together with his two brothers Francis and 
Gilbert. A birth-brief issued at Lanark in 1596, of 
which copies exist at Vienna and Breslau, testifies the 
legitimate birth of the brothers and their descent from 
the old race of the lairds of Craigieburn, and recommending 
them at the same time to the sovereigns of Holland and 
Poland. The mother of John Johnston was Anna Becker, 
a German lady, known by the beautiful designation of 
"Mother of Alms." At the school of the Moravian 
Brethren in Ostrorog, and later at the High School of 
Beuthen-on-the-Oder, and at Thorn, the future scholar 
received his education. In 1622 he went to Danzig, and 
thence by way of Denmark to Scotland, the home of his 
father. Here he continued his studies in the College 
of St Leonard's at St Andrews University, devoting 
himself especially to the study of Scholastic Philosophy, 
" not to his great profit," as he himself confesses. 
Moreover he learned Hebrew well, and attended the 
lectures on Church History by the then Rector Glaidstone. 
At different times on the occasion of academic ceremonies, 
he delivered orations "de Passione Dei"; "de Spiritu 
Sancto," and "de Philosophiae cum Theologia consensu." 
It was of great use to him during his stay at St Andrews 
that the Archbishop John Spottiswood received him 
among the twelve royal alumni, for by one of their 
rules, three professors had to share their meals in the 
morning and in the evening, and to enliven them by 
Latin discourses on various subjects. 1 In this way 
Johnston became intimately acquainted with Hovaeus, 
Wedderburn, afterwards Bishop of Dunblane, and 
Melville, the Professor of Hebrew. He also enjoyed 
the protection of the Earl of Mar, the Marquis of 
Argyll, and Lord Erskine, as well as the friendship of 
John Arnold, the future Chancellor of the Archbishopric, 
and his brothers James, William, and George. During 

1 Elias Thoma, Life of Doctor John Johnston, Brieg, 1675. 


his stay at the University, he proved an indefatigable 
reader and mentions as a special favour, that the librarian 
allowed him to take books to his own house, and that 
he had the free use of Professor Glaidstone's library. 
After his return from Scotland in 1625, he stayed for 
some time at Lissa in Poland, where he superintended 
the studies of the two barons of Kurzbach and Zawada, 
continuing at the same time his medical researches. 
Here also his zeal for reforming the educational methods 
of his time brought him into contact with that famous 
philosopher and pedagogue Johann Amos Comenius. 
His first work, the Enchiridion Historiae Naturalis (Hand- 
book of Natural History) was very probably published 
at Lissa. Then commenced a long time of travels. 
Johnston visited the towns of Frankfurt, Leipzig, 
Wittenberg, Magdeburg, Zerbst and Berlin, not so 
much with the purpose of seeing their sights, but of 
conversing with their celebrated men. In 1629 he went 
to Hamburg and thence to the University of Franeker in 
Holland ; in the following year to Leyden and England. 
In London he held friendly intercourse with John Wilson, 
Bishop of Lincoln, Dr Primrose, and John Pym, the 
famous leader of the Commons. In Cambridge also 
he was received by all the scholars "with great polite- 
ness." Indeed so great had his fame become by that 
time, that efforts were made in various quarters to secure 
his services. Primrose wanted to send him to Ireland 
in an official capacity, Vedelius offered him a chair in 
the University of Deventer, and the Woywode Belczky 
a professorship in Poland. Johnston accepted the latter 
call and embarked for Germany in 1631 in company with 
General Leslie. By way of Wolgast and Stettin, he 
arrived safely at Lissa and at Warsaw, where he remained 
till the following year, engaged in his professional duties. 
But the longest journey of four years' duration he under- 
took in 1632, as the companion and mentor of two 
Polish noblemen : the Baron of Leszno, who afterwards 
became Chancellor of the Exchequer of Poland, and a 
son of the Marschal of Lithuania, Wladislaw Dorostoyski. 


The travellers visited the Netherlands, England, France 
and Italy. After having thus satisfied to the full his 
roving instincts, a desire for rest and rural seclusion 
took hold of Johnston which never left him. At first 
he settled in Lissa, where he married the daughter of the 
celebrated Polish Court-physician Matthaeus Vechnerus. 
But the restless and turbulent condition of the country, 
rendering the peaceful enjoyment of a country-life almost 
impossible, soon compelled him to exchange Poland for 
Silesia, where in 1652 he acquired the estate of Ziebendorf 
in the principality of Liegnitz. Here he spent his time in 
constant correspondence with the most learned men of 
Europe, 1 diligently reading and writing the last twenty- 
three years of his life. He died in 1675 aged seventy 
years, honoured by many friends and lamented in numerous 
elegies. Sinapius 2 says of him : " He was a man of 
sincere piety, old-fashioned honesty, without pride and 
frivolity, indefatigable in his industry, and in his con- 
versation always lively and pleasing." 

In connection with the above we must mention another 
doctor of medicine, the Konigsberg physician George 
Motherby, who gained great fame by first advocating 
vaccination in his city (about 1770). A namesake and 
doubtlessly a relation of this George was William Motherby, 
who studied medicine at Konigsberg and took his degree 
at Edinburgh in 1797. He practically introduced vaccina- 
tion by means of cow lymph, which he brought from 
Edinburgh. 3 In defence of his method he published two 
pamphlets in 1801. 

The passion for education, which forms such a prominent 

1 Jonston understood twelve languages. He declined a call as professor 
to Heidelberg, Frankfurt-on-the-Oder and to Leyden. 

2 In a volume of the town-library at Breslau, containing a life of 
Jonston, there are printed no less than twenty-five Latin elegies by friends 
in Leipzig and Breslau, and by the teachers of the High School at Lissa. 
Sinapius is the author of Schlesische Cur'iosiidten (Curiosities of Silesia). 
See Appendix. 

3 J. Sembritzki, I.e., p. 238 f. W. Motherby died in 1847. An 
oration in his memory is contained in the Neue Preuss. Provincial 
Blatter, pp. 1 3 1 - 1 4 1 . 



feature in the character of the Scots and earned for them the 
title of " the Germans of Great Britain," was carried with 
them to the land of their adoption. We have seen how 
eager the Scottish emigrants of the XVIth and XVIIth 
Centuries were to obtain their own places of divine worship. 
With the same eagerness we find them endeavouring to 
procure the best education for their children born in a 
strange land. In their church-records the school is con- 
tinually and prominently" mentioned. Or they send their 
children to schools already existing. At Tilsit Rector 
Dewitz in 1644 entered three Scottish boys as pupils of his 
" Provincial School " : Thomas Sumerwel (Somerville), 
Nicolaus Beili (Bailie) and Johannes Medlen. 1 

In 1699 the Scots in Konigsberg — at the instigation, 
perhaps, of their countrymen and co-religionists in Polish 
Lithuania — complain that the Reformed, i.e. Presbyterian, 
school, which in former times had boasted of such a re- 
putation as to attract even children out of Poland, now 
seemed to be on the decline. Even the towns-people took 
their children away and put them elsewhere. What was 
needed, they maintained, was a staff of new efficient 
teachers, and above all a rector well versed in the Polish 
language. 2 

The matriculation-rolls of the German Universities at 
that time likewise show a considerable number of students, 
who were either born of Scottish parents or descended from 
Scottish families. 3 

Not a few of these chose the study of divinity. Thus 
George Anderson, after having been rector, became 
pastor at Rastenburg (1699). 4 Also one G. Douglas, a 
native of the small town of Schippenbeil near Konigsberg, 
was Presbyterian clergyman of Jerichow, in the district of 
Magdeburg, from 1758-1772. 'John William Thomson, 

1 Cp. Programme of the Royal High School at Tilsit (1873) : H. 
Pohlmann, Beitr'dge zur Geschichte des Gymnasiums, II. Stuck (Contribu- 
tions to the Hist, of the High School, II. Part), p. 27. 

2 Sembritzki, I.e., p. 240 f. 

3 Cf. Appendix. 

4 D. W. Schroder, Geschichte der Stadt Go/dap, 1818 (History of the 
Town of Goldap). 


born at Konigsberg in 1704, as the son of the rector of 
the Presbyterian school, became Court-preacher in 1732, 
and died on the 21st of December 1 76 1 ; David Hervie, 
probably a grandson of the generous elder of the Scottish 
church at Konigsberg, of whom we have spoken previously, 1 
was Presbyterian clergyman at Pillau from 1738- 1775; 
D. Wilhelm Crichton, the nephew of another Court- 
preacher, a native of Insterburg, studied divinity at Frank- 
furt-on-the-Oder and at Konigsberg, and in due time 
became a chaplain himself. 

Nor does the Lutheran Church in that district want 
Scottish names amongst her clergymen. It was but 
natural that the Scots in those places, where a Presby- 
terian service could not be had, should attach themselves 
to the Lutherans. We are told of one George Anderson, 
the son of a brewer at Angerburg of that name (1648), 
who afterwards became the Lutheran pastor of Rosen- 
garten, near his native town. Andreas Murray, from 
Memel, in the first half of the XVIth Century was given 
the charge of first pastor of the German congregation 
at Stockholm ; David Stirling, the son of a Scotsman at 
Osterode in Eastern Prussia, was ordained Lutheran clergy- 
man in Konigsberg in 1740. 2 

The above list could without doubt be enlarged ; but 
enough has been said to prove that in the department of 
divinity also the Scottish have proved worthy of their 
traditions. 3 

Of other scholars among those of Scottish birth and 
extraction in Germany mention must be made of the two 
librarians of Ulrich or Huldrich Fugger in Augsburg, 
whose wealth in those days favourably compared with 
the Rothschilds and Carnegies of our times, Henryson 
and Scrimgeour. The first named was a Doctor of 
Laws and Professor at Bourges in France. He came 
to Fugger about the year 1550, dedicated several of 
his books to him, notably a translation of Plutarch, 
and received for his faithful services an annuity from 

1 Cp. Part iii. : The Church. 2 Sembritzki, I.e., p. 242 

3 Cp. Part iii. 


his patron. 1 Henry Scrimgeour was born in 1506 and 
went, after he had studied at Paris and Bourges, to 
Italy as the secretary of the Bishop of Rennes. On 
his return he received and accepted a call as Professor 
of Philosophy to Geneva. Here he had the misfortune 
of losing all he had, including his books, in a conflagra- 
tion. Under these circumstances he was only too glad 
to accept Fugger's offer of a librarianship. After a 
stay of several years in Augsburg he returned to 
Geneva in 1563, where he was elected first Professor of 
Civil Law. He was one of the most learned Scotsmen 
of his day. His name is mentioned as one of the 
witnesses of the last will and testament of Calvin. He 
died in 1572. 

In connection with these two great masters of the 
law, we may mention a third, who, though not a Scots- 
man by birth, was yet descended from an old Scottish 
immigrant and settler at Elbing in Prussia. Among 
the earliest Scottish names in that town we find, as we 
have seen above, that of Thomas Auchinvale or Achin- 
wall, as it was afterwards germanised, who died in 1653. 
His great-great-grandson, Gottfried Achinwall, was born 
at Elbing in the year 17 19. After having studied the 
law in the universities of Jena, Halle and Leipzig, he 
became public lecturer on International Law, History 
and Statistics at Marburg, and since 1748 at Gottingen, 
where he soon obtained the proud position of one of 
the most celebrated professors of the University. He 
attracted a great number of hearers, chiefly on account 
of his lectures on Political Economy, a science which 
owes its existence and scientific treatment to him. 
Almost the only remarkable incident in an otherwise 
tranquil though honoured life seems to have been a 
long journey, undertaken with royal subsidies, to Switzer- 
land, France, Holland and England. He died in 1772. 
His books on Political Economy were widely read and 
went through many editions. In all of them British 

1 He also published a Commentary on Tit. X. Libr't. sec. Inst'it. Justin. 
in 1555. 


candour and German thoroughness are most judiciously 
blended. 1 The year of Achinwall's birth was the death- 
year of another famous scholar of the law, Jacobus 
Lamb de Aberton, who was born at Elbing in 1665. 
He afterwards became Member of the Faculty of Law 
at Padua and Pro-rector. In 1701 he was made Doctor 
of Philosophy and Knight of St Mark, in 1702 Imperial 
Pfalzgraf. He died when on his home-journey in 1 719 
at Berlin. 2 

In the province of philosophy and kindred branches, 
Thomas Reid, the secretary of King James II, 
deserves a niche to himself. He received his college 
education at Aberdeen, where he also qualified for his 
degree in about 1600. Having taught as Regent in 
the University for four years, he went to Germany for 
the completion of his studies. In 1608 he was admitted 
public teacher at Rostock and three years later appointed 
Professor of the Latin Language at the same University, 
with a salary attached of 80 gulden and a free house. 
Like other scholars of his time he excelled in debate, 
and many were the so-called public disputations, especi- 
ally with Arnisaeus, a Professor of Medicine at Frankfurt, 
that made the halls resound. Some time later he im- 
matriculated at Leipzig, whence he returned to England. 
The last six years of his life were spent as Latin 
Secretary of the King. More than through his philo- 
sophical writings he will be gratefully remembered as 
the founder of the first public library in Scotland, for 
by his will he not only left his books to the city of 
Aberdeen, but the sum of six thousand merks besides 
to cover the expenses of a librarian, who was to keep 
the door "of the library patent and open on four dayes 
of the week the whole year." 3 

1 Constitutional History of the European States •, 1752; Political Science, 
1763 ; Element a juris naturae, Gott. 1750; Autobiography, 2 vols. 

2 Seyler, Elbinga litterata (1742), p. 87. 

3 Scottish Notes and Queries, vol. ix. Many of Reid's philosophical 
works were published in Rostock, for instance : De accidente proprio 
theoremata phdosophica (1609) ; Pervigilium Martis de ente (1610) ; 
Pervigilium Jovis de veritate et bonitate entis (16 10), and others. 


Besides Reid we find other Scotsmen as teachers of 
languages in Germany. There is Benedictus Ingram, of 
whom we have already spoken, one of the eight last 
Scottish monks at Wiirzburg, who, after 1803 became 
lecturer of English at the University of the town, and 
published an English grammar ; and a little later Robert 
Motherby, a brother of William, the physician, who 
lived at Konigsberg as a teacher of languages. He is the 
translator of Shakespeare's Merry Wives of Windsor 
(1828) and issued a Dictionary of the Scottish Idiom. 1 

Above all, mention must be made of Arthur Jonston, 
not in his quality as physician to King James and Charles 
I, but as one of the most excellent Latin poets Scotland 
ever produced. He was the son of George Jonston of 
Caskieben, near Keithall, in Aberdeenshire. Here, under 
the shadow of mighty "Big Benachie," in the invigorating 
atmosphere of the Highlands, he passed his youthful days. 
He was taught Latin at Kintore. When his father died 
in 1593, however, he, being a younger son, had to shift 
for himself. Like so many of his countrymen he turned 
his eyes towards the Continent, but we do not know the 
place he first emigrated to. Certain it is, that he and 
one Walterus Donaltsonus, both being then styled 
" Magistri," were immatriculated at Heidelberg on the 
nth of September 1599 ; and that two years later he had 
obtained the dignity of regens or professor. As such 
we find him presiding at a public " disputation " in the 
philosophical lecture-rooms of the University 2 (1601). 
But his stay at Heidelberg was not of long duration. He 
accepted a call of the Due of Bouillon as professor at 
Sedan. And yet, the time spent at the beautiful Neckar- 
town, the adopted home of a Scottish princess, had deeply 
impressed his mind. To the reader of his poem, or rather 

1 Sembritzki, I.e., p. 239. The title of the book runs: "Pocket 
Dictionary of the Scottish Idiom, the signification of the words in English 
and German, chiefly calculated to promote the understanding of the works 
of Scott, Robert Burns, Allan Ramsay, etc., with an Appendix containing 
notes explicative of Scottish customs, manners, traditions, etc." Konigsberg, 
Borntrager. Two editions. 

2 Cp. Appendix. 


his cycle of poems, entitled Querelae Saravictonis et 
Biomeae, i.e. "The struggle between Austria and 
Bohemia," published at Heidelberg in 1620, this becomes 
at once apparent. He passionately calls upon England 
and the whole of Europe to assist the Elector-King, and 
great is his anxiety for the fate of the Palatinate and its 
fair capital. As a Protestant Manifesto of the times the 
poem, even apart from its poetical beauties, is interesting 
and well deserving a perusal. 

Jonston returned to Scotland in 1622, became Rector 
of Aberdeen (1637), and died in 1641 when on a visit to 
Oxford. 1 

At this point of our survey we must not forget the 
grandfather of the great philosopher Emanuel Kant, 
who was born of Scottish parents. In the draft of an 
answer to a letter of the Swedish Bishop Lindblom, in 
which the Swedish descent of Kant's father had been 
started, the philosopher says : " It is very well known 
to me, that my grandfather, who was a citizen of the 
Prusso-Lithuanian town of Tilsit, came originally from 

Now this notice gave rise to various doubts. First of 
all, Kant's grandfather, Hans Kant, did not live at Tilsit, 
but at Memel, where he carried on the trade of a harness- 
and belt maker. It had to be assumed, therefore, either 
that Kant wrote by mistake Tilsit instead of Memel, 
or that he confused grandfather and great-grandfather. 
For the latter view spoke the occurrence of one Balthasar 
or Balzer Kant, in a list of Presbyterian church members 
of Tilsit, a very aged Scotsman, who received relief out 
of the "Poor Box," in the year 1682. 

Thus matters stood, when by the discovery of two 

1 Cp. Musa Latino. Abredonensis , by Geddes, New Spalding Club 
Publications, vol. ii. p. 17. Two other Latin poets of Scottish extraction 
in Germany were A. Aidy at Danzig, who published his Pastoralia in 
that city in 1610, and Andrew Leech, from Melrose, who lived for some 
time at Krakau, and whose name occurs polonised as Lechowicz or 
latinised Loechius. He wrote: Epithalamium (1595); Anagrammat. 
encomiastici, Danzig and Krakau (1609) ; Jani malifera strena, Edinburgh 
(161 7) ; Musa Priores (1620) ; a Latin Grammar, etc. 


manuscript-contracts, found at Konigsberg amongst the 
so-called "house-books" of the district of Memel, a new 
light was shed on the question. According to these 
documents, Richard Kandt, the great-grandfather, a 
publican at Werdden near Heidekrug, then, in 1667, 
an old man, gives over to his daughter Sophia, and to 
her second husband, Hans Karr, in consideration of the 
latter 's claims against him, the whole of his well-furnished 
house, together with three hides of land, on condition, 
that the sum of 100 thaler be paid to his son Hans 
Kandt, then a journeyman harness-maker " in foreign 
lands," together with "six shirts of home-spun linen, six 
collars and twelve handkerchiefs," and that he himself was 
to receive board and lodging to the end of his life, whilst 
all his debts were to be paid by the said son-in-law. 

Soon afterwards old Richard died, and his son Hans, 
returning from his travels, and feeling himself somewhat 
aggrieved by the settlement above, entered on June 
the 4th, 1670, "for the maintenance of peace and 
brotherly friendship," into a second agreement with his 
brother-in-law, which was drawn up at Memel. The 
100 thaler were increased to 150, the six shirts 
and twelve handkerchiefs changed into ten yards of 
linen, at five shillings a yard, and for this magnificent 
prospect, Hans Kandt gave up all his claims to the 
public-house and its "pertinentia" "sine dolo" for 
himself and all his descendants. 1 

Further discoveries in Memel confirmed the supposition 
of Hans Kandt's residence in that city. He married there 
in 1694, had a house and workshop on the so-called 
"castle liberties," and by his wife another house situated 
in the old town, together with some fields on the common. 
He must have lived, therefore, in tolerably well-to-do, if 
humble, circumstances. It was in Memel also, that the 
father of the philosopher Johann Georg was born and 
christened in 1682. 

The year of Hans Kandt's death cannot now be 
ascertained correctly. It is just possible that he 
1 See Appendix. 


succumbed to the plague during I/OtV, when the entries 
of deaths in the church books were very incomplete. 

We therefore arrive at the final conclusion, that the 
supposition of Balzer Kant having been Kant's great- 
grandfather can no longer be maintained, but that the 
philosopher erroneously wrote Tilsit instead of Memel. 
This error becomes all the more probable and excusable, 
as Hans Kandt or Kant had to go to Tilsit for the 
purpose of obtaining his certificate of master of his craft, 
which could not be got at Memel, because at that time 
no leather-cutters or hainess-makers existed there. 1 
This certificate, issued at Tilsit, and, no doubt, preserved 
in the family, Emanuel Kant had in his mind when he 
wrote his answer to the Swedish bishop's inquiries. 

Among the Scottish scholars in Germany, Carl Aloysius 
Ramsay occupies a prominent position. He was the 
pioneer of shorthand and was till recently believed to 
be the son of a certain Charles Ramsay, town-councillor 
at Elbing in Prussia. But this seems to be erroneous 
as the historians of this city are silent about him, though 
mentioning many members of this old and widespread 
family. 2 Certain it is that he lived the greater part of his 
life in Germany. He was in Leipzig and Frankfurt in 
1677 and 1679, which is proved by the preface to his 
Latin translation of Kunkel's German Treatises on Chemistry. 
His most important work was his Tacheography or the Art 
of writing the German tongue as quickly as it is spoken. 
It appeared first in the form of articles written for a 
Frankfurt newspaper which were collected afterwards 
and published in book-form in 1678. 

By this and his other books on shorthand in foreign 
languages, Ramsay became the most interesting of all 
early writers on the subject. 3 

1 Down to the XVIIIth Century, the journeymen of Memel were 
obliged to go to Tilsit for purposes of the like nature. Cp. Sembritzki, 
Neue Nachrichten ilber Kant's Grossvater, 1899. See Supplement. 

2 There is a noble family of Ramsay in Austria, the predecessors of 
which are probably to be found among the Scottish officers of the Thirty 
Years' War. 

3 Cp. Junge, Vorgeschtchte der Stenographic, p. 64 f. 


The last name in our gallery of eminent Scotsmen is 
that of Johann von Lamont, the famous astronomer at 
Munich. He was born at Braemar in 1805, as the son 
of an excise-officer, and spent part of his boyhood amidst 
the invigorating surroundings of his native scenery. But 
when his father died early, the boy, who showed good 
intellectual gifts, was sent by a kind priest to the Bene- 
dictine Seminary at Ratisbon in Germany, where he 
received an education well fitting for his future career. 
His strong bent for scientific research found ample scope 
and, what is more, enlightened encouragement. Prior 
Deasson recommended the young scholar to the Bavarian 
astronomer at Bogenhausen, not far from the capital, 
whose assistant he became. In 1852 the assistant was 
elected Professor of Astronomy at Munich, and soon his 
writings and discoveries brought him ample recognition 
at home and abroad. He was a member of many learned 
societies in Belgium, Sweden, Austria, Germany, England 
and Scotland. His Star Catalogue and his book on the 
Magnetism of the Earth (1849) are standard works. 
Full of years and honours he died in 1879. 

We have now followed the traces of the Scots in 
Germany to the end. Many of them succumbed to the 
crushing revolutions of the wheel of time ; many again 
have left their records in the dusty old parchments of 
German and Polish archives ; many of them have handed 
down their names corrupted but uncorrupted deeds to a 
grateful posterity, that recognises in them much that was 
good and noble in Politics and Learning, in Peace and 

The eastern and western parts of Prussia still retain 
their Simpsons, and Gibsons, and Macleans, and Murray s 
and Mitchells ; the German Army list still embodies 
Douglases, Campbells, Hamiltons, Johnstons, Scotts, Spald- 
ings and Ramsays, while the German nobility mix and 
mingle many a proud Scottish coat of arms with theirs. 

The rock of history is not a simple structure, but a 
growth. It has its testimony as well. Here also are 
embedded trilobites that delight the eye of the intelligent 


reader and puzzle the ignorant. No nation ever stood 
on its own merits alone. There has been during long 
centuries a continual fructification, a continual giving and 
taking of what is best in a nation, a continual fusion in 
peaceful rivalry. The more accurate our knowledge of 
history and its bye-ways becomes, the more enlightened 
and just our judgments upon other nations will be and 
the readier our hands to burn our war-hatchet for ever 
and to resort for glory to the quiet study, the busy 
office, the bright studio, rather than to the reek of the 

friz StSityjl, ffi*t,%. £ (/liiAA? C*vUa CfrMu/ 1-ifJull. *Ao ^* i *^ 


I. (Page 3). 

Andr. de Moravia et Willelmus Wallensis duces exercitus 
regni Scotie et communitas ejusdem regni providis viris et 
discretis et amicis dilectis maioribus et communibus de Lubek et 
de Hamburg salutem et sincere dilectionis semper incrementum. 
Nobis per fide dignos mercarores dicti regni Scotie est intimatum, 
quod vos vestri gratia in omnibus causis et negociis nos et ipsos 
mercatores tangentibus consulentes, auxiliantes et favora biles 
estis, licet nostra non precesserunt merita. Et ideo magis vobis 
tenemur ad grates cum digna remuneracione atque vobis volumus 
obligari ; rogantes vos, quatinus preconizari facere velitis inter 
mercatores vestros, quod securum accessum in omnes portus 
regni Scocie possunt habere cum mercandiis suis, quia regnum 
Scocie Deo regnaciato ab Anglorum potestate bello est recupera- 
tum. Valete. Datum apud Hadsington in Scocia undecimo 
die Octobris Anno gracie millesimo ducentesimo nonagesimo 
septimo. Rogamus vos insuper ut negocia Johannis Burnet et 
Johannis Frere mercatorum nostrorum promovere dignemini 
prout nos negocia mercatorum vestrorum promovere velitis. 
Valete. Dat : ut supra. 

II. (Page 7). See Lub. Urk. Buch, iii. 66. 

Robertus Dei gracia rex Scottorum consulibus et burgimastris 
civitatis Lubicensis, amicis nostris karissimis, salutem. Ad 
nostram noticiam jam pervenit quod mercatores civitatis vestre 
et mercatores civitatum Almannie aliunde cum mercimoniis suis 
regnum nostrum cupiunt frequentare, dummodo per nos et 
incolas regni nostri pacifice et curialiter admittantur. Quo- 
circa tarn vobis quam aliarum mercatoribus civitatum Almannie 
tenore presentium volumus esse notum, quod omnibus et singulis 
mercatoribus supradictis regnum nostrum frequentare volentibus 
per nos et nostros exhiberi volumus graciam et favorem et omnes 
consuetudines ac libertates quibus mercatores Almannie usi sunt 
temporibus predecessorum nostrorum, regnum Scocie, gratanter 
eis volumus observare. Datum apud Berevicium super Twedam, 
xxii die Aprilis anno regni nostri sexto-decimo. 

2 3 8 


Ilia. (Page 7). 

Dilectis amicis nostris consulibus civitatis de Danczik salutem 
et amorem, amici karissimi, literas vestras nobis ultimo directas 
bene intelleximus tangentem deliberacionem Johannis Lange qui 
prout scitis deliberatur. Quare vobis specialiter supplicamus, 
quatenus Ricardum de Camera faciatis ibidem quod juris est et 
racionis, quod prout nobis videtur inutile est ambabus patrie 
vestre et nostre quod non exercetis patriam nostram prout 
solebatis, necnon si placuerit aliquibus patrie vestre nobis cum 
mercimoniis venire nos ipsos conservabimus indempnos pro aliquo 
fato. Valete. Scriptum apud Castrum nostrum de Dunbar, 
xxvi die augusti. Comes Marchie. 

lllb. Names of Scottish debtors to the Teutonic Order and its 
Head Business Manager at Konigsberg. 1 


The "Grave" (Earl) von Duglos tenetur (owes) 

Item William Tuers 

Item Alan Balun (?) 

Item Ian Cragge (Craig ?) 

Item Ion Lyberthun 

Item Andris Gutswan (?) 

Item Ion Haliwel 

Item Allexander Carnys (Cairns) 

Item Ion Czerneyer (Turner?) 

Item Gryndelaw 

Item Hutczlam (?) 

Item Kastumers (customers) von Eydenburg 

Item Watczamer (Watson) 

Item Ion Leth (Leith) 

Item Oswald Makely (Maclean?) 

Item Laubalim (or Lau Balun ?) (Bailie ?) 

Item William Hinrichczon (Henryson) tenetur 

Item Iors (George) Apristun (?) 

Item Norman Goppolt 

Item William Porbas (Forbes?) 

Item Tom Forman 

Item Ionas Spens 

Item Wathalige Bortun, der herre von Drelton = 

the Laird of Drelton 
Item Allexander Hueme 
Item Robyn Craffbrt 
Item Sir John Sethym (Seaton?) 
Item Allexander Setthym 

1 Cp. Sattler, Handelsrechnungen des Deutschen Ordeus (Trade Accounts 
of the Teutonic Order), Leipzig, 1887, p. 75 fF. 

216 Pounds Scottish. 


« JJ 


„ 12 sh. 


» 19 » 


„ 12 „ 

» 17 » 


» „ 


„ 4 » 

„ 3 2 » 


„ 5 » 


„ 7 „ 


„ „ 


>» 2 „ 

„ 33 » 


» „ 

„ 38 „ 

» 3 2 » 


„ 36 „ 


„ „ 


„ „ 


» 3 6 » 


„ „ 


» 16 „ 


« „ 


j> 2 ,, 


„ „ 


>, 12 » 

























Item Sir Aczebald Stuert 8 Pounds 

Item Sir Ion Daliel 3 „ 

Item "die burger von Lettekow " (Glasgow) 17 „ 

Item der grave (earl) von Agues (Angus?) 20 „ 

Item Carithun (Carrington ?) and Dusschun (?) 13 „ 

Item Ion Lam " tenetur 2 saldir weisse " 1 7 ,, 
Item "der Herre von Delkeit (Dalkeith)" ^ zaldir 

weisse 1 o ,, 

Item Modirbil (Motherwell) tenetur 2 bollyn (?) o „ 
Item ' des losters weip von Aberdyn ' 2 tenetur 2 

bollyn o ,, 

Item Ion Abil tenetur 2 bollyn o „ 

Item Lyon tenetur quarter 3 o ,, 

Item Sir Ion Setthun tenetur 1 quarter o ,, 

Item " ein weyp " tenetur 1 bollyn o „ 

Item Tom Tormuel (Turnbull ?) |- zaldir o „ 

IV. (See Page 7). 

Jacobus Dei gratia rex Scotorum universis et singulis ligiis et 
subditis nostris ad quorum noticiam presentes litere pervenerint 
salutem. Sciatis quod suscepimus ac presencium tenore 
suscipimus dilectos mercatores nostros, cives et inhabitantes 
civitatem de Bremen eorunque servitores, intromissores et 
factores ac ipsorum naves, mercancias, victualia, res et bona 
quecunque infra regnum nostrum veniencia seu applicancia, 
sub nostra salvagardia, manutencia, tuicione, defensione et 
protectione speciali. . . . Insuper nostros confederates bene- 
volos et amicos attente requirimus . . . quatenus . . . ipsos 
et eorum quemlibet nostri contemplacione et amore favorabiliter 
et amicabiliter pertractare velitis. Datum apud Edinburgh, 
Febr. 3, I453. (Hans. Urk. Buck, viii. 167.) 

V. Letter of Danzig to Admiral Napare (Page 6). 

Magnifico et strenuo domino Alexandro Napare de Merchin- 
stone (Merchiston) militi, deputato illustris principis et domini 
domini Alexandri ducis Albaniae, comitis Marchiae, domini 
vallis Annandie (Annandale) et Mannie admirallo regni Scocie, 
domino et amico nostro sincere dilecto, preconsul et consules 
civitatis Danzik in Prusia promptissimam ad quevis beneplacita 
voluntatem. Magnifice et strenue domine et amice noster 
dilecte. Constitutus coram nobis consulatui presidentibus 
providus vir Johannes Kilekanne, nauta et conburgensis noster 

1 Two bushels and ^ bushel of wheat. 

2 The litster's (dyer's) wife at Aberdeen. Bolyn probably bales of 

3 A measure for grain. 


dilectus sua nobis insinuacione exposuit evidenter quod, cum 
ipse de anno provime preterito cum sua navi certis bonis et 
mercibus pressa et omusta regnum Scocie et precipue burgum 
de Edinburing frequentare disposuisset et frequentasset et 
quendam Wilhelmum Holeson, nautam de Amstelredamm ex 
Hollandia, tamquam nostrum et nostre civitatis prefate inimicum 
et emulum cum sua navi ac bonis et rebus in eadem existentibus 
mera justicia et racionis dictamine suadente manu atroci 
invasisset et adjuvante altissimo, devicisset, cepisset secumque 
in burgum Edinburgh prenominatum adduxisset, per dictum 
Wilhelmum Holeson coram vestra dominacione magnifica 
tractus fuit in causam ibidemque per eundem Wilhelmum, aut 
saltern suum procuratorem assertum super capcione hujus tam- 
quam violentia et spolio multipliciter accusatur, vexatus et 
inquietatus temere et de facto cum de jure nullatenus id fieri 
potuisset, ita ut demum post diversas hincinde partium prefatarum 
habitas altricaciones juriumque suorum ailegationem, eadem 
vestra dominacio navi et bonis taliter ut premittitur captis in 
manibus legis sequestratis et observatis partibus hincinde 
predictis, ad suas vereficandas allegaciones coram vobis seu 
vestris ad hec deputatis in pretorio burgi de Edinburg prescripti 
terminum, videlicet secundum diem mensis septembris anni 
presentis statuendi duxit et prefigendi, statuitque pariter et 
prefixit, quemadmodum hec ex vestrae dominacionis Uteris 
desuper emissis nobisque per dictum Johannem Kilekanne 
porrectis et oblatis sane suscepimus significata. Ouamobrem 
vestram magnificenciam presentibus volumus non latere, qualiter 
occasione dirFerenciarum quarundam inter burgenses et inhabit- 
tatores de Amstelredamme ab una et nostram civitatem ab altera 
partibus du.lum exortarum, prefati de Amstelredamme cives, 
nautas et mercatores nostros in mari et ubicunque id facere potuer- 
ant, tanquam nostri ac nostre civitatis emuliet inimici invaserunt, 
spoliarunt eisque naves, merces et bona ceperunt, retinuerunt 
atque inter se distribuerunt pluries et plerumque, prout 
adhuc invadere, spoliare, capere, retinere atque distribuere non 
desistunt neque verentur in hodiernum, quare et nos necessitate 
compulsi dictis de Amstelredamme eadem mensura remecientes 
pro talibus similia hactenus reddere non negleximus, prout 
favente Domino neque negligemus in futuris, donee et 
quousque inter ipsos et nos de contrario desuper fuerit ap- 
punctuatum, dispositum et placitum Eapropter strenuam et 
magnificam vestram dominacionem nobis plerumque com- 
mendabilem cum omni qua possumus afFectione rogamus, 
quatenus justice et nostre contemplacionis intuitu supranominato 
Johanni Kilekanne aut procuratori suo legitimo in causis 


predictis vestre promotionis suffragia pariter et auxilia dignemini 
favorosius impartiri, causarumque predictarum meritis maturitate 
debita recensitis ut navem et bona predicta aut saltern eorum 
valorem ac congruum justicie complementum omnibus molestia 
et impedimento cessantibus consequi valeat cum effectu. Id 
ipsum erga vestram dominacionem et vestrates reciproca 
vicissitudine remerebimur requisiti. In quorum testimonium 
sepedicte nostre civitatis secretum presentibus dorsaliter est 
appressum sexta decima mensis Marcii die anno Domini 1462. 

VI. Confessions of the Scots. 
Scottish Pilgrims at Breslau (ca. 1 470). 

Among the documents marked " Criminal Akten " in the 
Town-Library of Breslau, there is a folio-sheet, apparently 
dating from the end of the XVth Century, which contains the 
confessions of various Scotsmen in a trial that they had to undergo 
on the charge of unlawful vagabondage, etc. The writer, a 
rather illiterate clerk it would seem, says inter alia : 

" Item Lorentz Gren (Green) from Scotland, from Edenburgh 
thirty miles off Dondy (Dundee) has come from Rome and has 
had no shoes, and has been ill for three quarters of a year. Now 
he has found countrymen here and a [friend] at Briinn has 
advised him to move to this place and to buy pepper, worm-seed, 
white ginger for to take it in brandy with a spoon. He left 
Scotland ill days before Michaelmas and has vowed a pilgrimage 
to Rome when at sea in distress, and his father's brother has 
written to from him Dantzke, that he should come to him." 

"Item Thomas Sneider (?), 1 also a Scot from Dondy one mile 
out of a village called Boyschry (?) has left his country on All- 
Souls'-Day and has long been ill and vowed a pilgrimage to 
Rome and has been to Rome on Palm Sunday and has come 
here on the evening before Whitsuntide. . . . He wishes to go 
to Dantzke and thence towards Scotland." 

"Item Thomas Gybiscihen (Gibson) from Dondy, the town, a 
sailor, and has vowed a pilgrimage to St James (di Compostella) 
and fell ill on the journey, and has been begging and came here 
on account of strife . . . hence to Dantzke that he might return 
to Scotland." 

" Item Valterius of Dessen (Dess in Aberdeen), and has not 
been to Scotland for three years, has been at Dantzke, at Rome, 
at Meissen and had been a pedlar and wants to go thence to 

1 Possibly a " tailor " by trade, since very few Scots abroad were 
then known by their surnames. 



" Item Reichart (Richard) of Wicke, Kathnes (Caithness) in Scot- 
land, has been serving a gentleman called the Dyspan and after- 
wards four years in the service of the Queen of Hungary." 

" Item Hans Robartez (Roberts) from a village called Stewen (?) 
and left Scotland about Michaelmas and has vowed a pilgrimage 
to Rome during an illness and has now been at Rome and 
has been begging on the way and has been at Meininge, hence to 
Dantzke, from Dantzke to Scotland." 

" Item Andrea Heynersson (Henderson) from Edenburgh, is a 
tailor and left Scotland eleven years ago and was at Rome 
during Lent, went there for the sake of adventure and his trade, 
and has been begging his bread and when he got a penny, he 
stuck to it." 1 

"Item Simon of Dessart (Dysart) is a linen-weaver and has 
been working at Swebissen (Schwiebus) with one Peter Wolf 
and comes from Leipzig and has been working in the sea-ports 
at Lupke (Liibeck), Hamburgk, and has also been begging for 
a crust of bread ; if he got a penny, he stuck to it." 

The same is reported of Alexander Kar from Haringthun 
(Haddington). At the close mention is made of: 

Bartholomes Deyse (?) from Lyth (Leith) in Scotland, has been 
at Rome and at St James and has been begging and did vow 
a pilgrimage during an illness, a fever." 

VII. From a Letter of James IV of Scotland to the 
Emperor Maximilian of Germany (1510). 

. . . Superbe nimis et imperiose Lubecus omnia turbat et 
nuper interminatus mare nostris interdixisse visus est, quibus 
ut armatos debellasse gloriosum sic mercatoriam navim invasisse 
inglorium nee impune futurum credimus. Saevitum in nostros 
agunt mercatores, alios cruce, alios ense aut aquis Lubeca 
classis perdidit. (Epist. Reg. Sc. i. 1 12 f.) 

VIII. From a Letter of the Magistrate of Bremen 
to Queen Mary (1567). 

. . . Non dubitamus quin Regia Majestas Vestra ob justitiae 
et aequitatis multis praedicatam gentibus laudem vehementer et 
extreme hujusmodi detestetur Harpyas. (Reg. of Pr. Council, of 
Scot. xiv. 270 f.) 

IX. Letter of James VI (Febr. 22, 1625). 

James R. Right trustie and right well beloved Councillour, 
right trustie and right well beloved cosins and connsillouris. 

1 German : "hot er yn (ihn) auch mit genomen." 



We greete you well. Whereas the grite number of young 
boyes uncapable of service and destitute of meanis of liveing 
yearlie transported out of that our kingdome to the East seas 
and speciallie to the town of Dantzik and there manie tymes 
miserablie in grite numbers dyeing in the streets have given 
quite scandall to the people of those countreyis and laid one 
foull imputation on that our kingdome, to the grite hinderance and 
detriment of those our subjects of the better, who traffique in 
the saidis countreyis: it is our pleasoure that by oppin proclama- 
tioun yee cause prohibite all maisters of shippis to transport 
anie youthes of either sex to the said easterne countreyis bot 
such as either salbe sent for by thair friendis dwelling there 
or then sail carrie with thame sufficient meanis of meantenance 
at least for ane yeare under the payne of fyfe hundreth markis 
monie of that our kingdome toties quoties they sail offend 
in that kind. 

Newmarket, 22nd day of Feb. 1625. 

X. Collection of Birth-brieves from the Propinquity 
Books of Aberdeen. 1 

John Cheyne, 
Capt. Gairdyne, 
Will. Watson, 
Jas. Ross, 
Dav. Barclay, 

J. Mitchell, 

Dav. Ruirack (?), 
A. Malone, 

Robt. Meldrum, 
Al. Davidson, 
Th. Cargill, 
Jas. Rockemie (?), 
Jas. Ranon, 


Citizen in Zakrozin, Poland. 
Wisigrad, Poland. 


Tarnowa, Poland. 

1 An incomplete list of names has been published in the Miscell. of the 
Spalding Club, vol. v. The year in the list above always refers to the 
date of issuing the Birth-brief. The names contained in it are only 
those of natives of Aberdeen. 





in Krakau. 


,, Poland. 

Al. Ritchie, 

,, Prussia. 


Robt. Farquhar, 

,, Posen. 

W. Gordon, 

,, Poland. 

G. Williamson, 

,, Danskin. 

J. Nauchtie, 

,, Poland. 


A. Morrison, 

in Monrovia, Poland. 

W. Sillon, 

,, Poland. 

T. Smith, 

>> j » 

T. Gunter, 

Jeweller ,, Warsaw. 

Ths. Gordon, 

,, Spruce. 

David (?) 

j- at Queenisbrig. 

G. Auchinlek, 

Sugarbaker at ,, 

J. Davidson, 

in Danskin. 

Gilbert, \ ? 
Andrew, J ' 

at Queenisbrig. 


Alex. Welsh, 

in Poland. 

J. Burnett, 

»> j? 

Alex. Forbes, 

went to Poland sixteen years 

old and was killed on the 



John Simmer, 

Citizen at Belgard, Pomerania. 

D. Trough, 

,, in Spruce. 

A. Adam, 

,, ,, Poland (place illegible). 

W. Forbes, 

,, ,, Krakau. 

W. Ogilvie, 

,, ,, Pomerania. 

W. Rolland, 

,, ,, Danskin. 


John Cheyne, 

Citizen at Peterco(Petrocow), Poland. 

Patr. Gordon, 

,, in Poland. 

Jas. Coutts, 

Merchant in Krosno, later Danskin. 

Al. Innes, 

Citizen in Poland. 

1 647-1 648. 
W. Blackhall, at the University of "Bromy- 

berie," Spruce (Brom- 
berg ?) 



B. Chalmers, Merchant in Poland. 

,, Innes, 


,, Lisna, Poland. 

Robt. Meldrum, 


,, Poland. 

Alex. (?), 


,, Spruce. 

Alex. Greig, 

,, Poland. 

W. Abercrombie, 

went 16 years old to Poland. 


Robt. Gordon, Merchant in Danskin. 

Al. Nicholl, 


„ Poland. 

Rob. Tullindaff, 


,, Danskin. 

Alex. Johnston, 

,, Poland. 

Jas. Burnet, 

Citizen in Danskin. 

Jas. Ross, 

in Poland. 

Jas. Ramsay, 

f in Poland (1653). 

A. JafFrey, 

in Poland (1654). 1 

Alex. Kemp, 

in Danskin (left Aberdeen, 


W. Clerk, 

in Danskin (left Aberdeen, 


J. Robertson, 

in Zamoski. 

John Molleson, 

in Danzig (left Aberdeen, 


Robt. Ross, 

in Poland. 

J. Meldrum, 

in Spruce. 

R. Gem, 

in Poland. 

Th. Nairn, 

-j- in Posen (left Aberdeen, ] 


J. Forbes, 

j in Lublin. 

"W. Munro, 

-j- in Poland (left Aberdeen, 


P. Gordon, 

in Wilsko (?), Poland. 

Al. Fraser, 

in Poland. 

A. Alexander, 

in Poland. 

P. Livingstone, 

in Warsaw. 

A. Ritchie, 

in Queenisbrig. 


in Vangroba. 

G. Kentie, 

in Zamoski. 

W. Forbes, 

in Poland (left Aberdeen, 


when 15 years old). 

1 In 1655-56 five Gordons are mentioned in Vangroba and elsewhere 
in Poland. 



G. Cruikshank, 
A. Hog, 

W. Milne, 

Patrick Forbes, 
Robt. Dugat, 

Alex. Aidy, 
Al. Chalmers, 
,, Maitland, 
W. Gordon, 
W. Chesson (?), 


■j- in Danzig and left a fortune, 
near Danskin. 

■j- " betwixt the realms of Poland." 

in Poland (left Aberdeen, 1650). 
., ( „ „ 1639). 

in Danskin (left Aberdeen, 1637). 
in Warsaw, 
in Poland. 

Sir J. Chalmers, 
Robt. Chalmers, 
Alex. Alsyth, 
P. Baillie, 
W. Clerk, 

John Seton, 
John Keith, 
A. Rait, 

G. Buchan, 
A. Robertson, 
G. Smith, 
G. Gordon, 

Ths. Mortimer, 
Rob. Ross, 
W. Irvine, 
John Maitland, 
J. Smith, 

W. Innes, 
W. Maxwell, 

in Silesia. 

in Danskin (left Aberdeen, 1630). 
,, „ ( >, „ 1652). 

,, Poland. 
Merchant in Danskin. 


-j- at Lublin, 
in Danskin (left Aberdeen, 1658). 
in Lissa, Poland ( ,, ,, 1655). 


in Lublin (left Aberdeen, 1647). 
j - in Poland, 
in Kulm. 
in Lublin (left Aberdeen, 1647). 


•f in Westrod (?), Poland, 
■j- in Poland. 

in Danskin (left Aberdeen, 1664). 

in Jaroslaw, Poland. 

in Culm (left Aberdeen, 1674). 


in Wratislaw, Poland (left A., 

in Spruce. 


A. Farquhar, in Lublin (left Aberdeen, 1693). 

W. Farquhar, ,, Lissa ( ,, ,, 1640). 

John Innes, ,, Posen. 

A. Clerk, f in Lublin, ca. 1690. 

Gilbt. Moir, in Poland. 

G.Smith „ Danskin (left Aberdeen, 1687). 

Ch. Gordon, first at Danskin, then Warsaw 

W. Forbes, in Culm. 

1 698- 1 705. 
A. Clerk, in Krakau. 

A. Black, in Posen (1698). 

Two Gordons, in Prisnitz and Culm (1703), for 

merly Dantzig. 
J. Stuart, in Poland (1705). 

In the Reg. Magni Sig. Scot. Captain Jacob Henryson and Jas. 
Soutar (" a patre generoso"), both in Poland, obtain their birth- 
brieves. To the above list we may also add from the extract 
from the Rec. of the Bor. of Edinburgh (iv. p. 543), the names of 
John Knox, Jas. Hunter, Jas. Macmyllan, Patr. Carwood, P. 
Gilchrist, Nath. Moir, who sail to Oueenisbrig in a ship from 
Dysart (1589), as well as three Johnstones from Craigieburn 
(Annandale), who went to Samter in Poland about 1596. 1 

XI. Birth-briefs ordered by the Town-Council of 
Dundee 1606- 163 8. 

1 6th June 1606. — Alexander Abercrombie in Falkinburgh 2 in 

the duchy of Brandenburg, lawful son of Thomas 

Abercrombie of Gourdie and Grisel Sibbet, his wife. 
26th June 1606. — Robert Duncan, traveller in Pomare, lawful 

son of David Duncan in Fowlis and Katharine Lecky, 

his spouse. 
26th June 1606. — Robert Donaldson, traveller in Germany, 

lawful son of John Donaldson, Burgess of Dundee, and 

Bessie Ireland, his spouse. 
July 1606. — Robert Scot, traveller in Bern 3 in Polen, lawful 

son of John Scot, Mill of Mains, and Eliz. Neish, his 


1 Their birth-brief, dated Lanark, May 15th, 1596, recommends them 
as being of noble birth to the Kings of Holland and Poland. (M. von 
Johnston Rathen, Geschlchte der Familie von Johnston, 1891.) 

2 Falkenburg in Pommern. 

3 Probably Berent, a district and town not far from Danzig. 


13th July 1607. — John Duncan, traveller in Prussia besyde 

Danskyn, lawful issue of John Duncan, mariner, and 

Bessie Vauss, his spouse. 
22nd August 1607. — Robt. Chrystie, traveller in Louenburgh in 

Pomer, 1 son of James Chrystie in Adamstown and Anges 

Scugell, his spouse. 
2nd April 1608. — Robt. Andro, Webster in Colpenahevine, 2 Den- 
mark, son of Robt. Andro in Myreton of Brichty and 

Eupham Makie, his spouse. 
Ilth April 1608. — James Scott in Bern besyde Danskyn, son of 

Thos. Scott in Dichty and Helen Jago, his spouse. 
15th April 1608. — George Belly (Baillie), trafficquer in Skowne 3 

under the dominion of Pole, son of G. Belly at Mill of 

Melgund and Janet Sinclair, his spouse. 
20th April 1608. — John Gelletlie, traveller in MalsackMn Pruss, 

within the dominion of Pole, son of Walter Gelletlie and 

Janet Smart, his spouse. 
Ilth March 1609. — William Sowter, traveller in Germany and 

Danskyn, son of David Sowter and Elisabeth Lyndsay, 

his spouse. 
1 6th April 1609. — Patrick Teaman (?), traveller in Pole, son 

of Will. Yeaman in Rattray, and Katherine Rodger, his 

5th April 1 6 10. — James Fyiff", traveller in Tarnova in Pole, son 

of Gilbert FyifF in Forgound, and Gray, his wife. 

2 1st May 1610. — John Donaldson, traveller in Pruss, son of 

Archibald Donaldson and Christina Ferraire, his spouse. 
IOth February l6ll. — Robt. Lovell, Burgess of Rathoune 5 in 

Pole, son of John Lovell of Brunsie and Margaret 

Murdoch, his spouse. 
May 16 1 2. — Stephen Bruce, traveller in Pruss, son of Jas. Bruce 

and Gilles Will, his spouse. 
May 161 2. — Andro Thayne in Danskyn, son of Thos. Thayne in 

Gourdie and Katherine Barbour, his spouse. 
17th August 161 2. — William Burgh, now resident at Queenis- 

brig, 6 son of William Burgh of Craigy and Janet Gelletlie, 

his spouse. 
27th June 1 6 14. — William Thomson, skynner, inhabitant of Dan- 
skyn, son of Thomas Thomson and Christian Wichton, 

his spouse. 
28th April 1 61 5. — Thomas Gelletlie in Danskyn, son of George 

Gelletlie and Kath. Man, his spouse. 

1 Lauenburg in Pommern. 2 Kopenhagen. 3 Perhaps Scotscho ? 

4 Mehlsack, a town in the district of Konigsberg. 

5 Radaune ? 6 Konigsberg. 


20th May 1 615. — John Butchart, merchant in Queenisbrig, son 

of Thos. Butchart, Grange of Cossyns, and Janet Watt, 

his spouse. 
20th May 1 61 5. — James Wricht, traveller in Pole, son of John 

Wricht in Bryddeston and Margaret Turnbull, his spouse. 
16th March 16 16. — John Parker, merchant in Polone, son of 

Pat. Parker in Bandene and Beatrix Kinmond, his spouse. 
1 6th March 16 1 6. — Patrick Parker, traveller in Polone, son of 

William Parker of Ballindean and Elizab. Anderson, his 

Igth July 1616. — Andro Eraser, traveller in the town of Lutzo, 1 

son of Alaster Fraser of Glenshe and Elspeth Spalding, 

his spouse. 
22nd August 1616. — David Lanvson, traveller in Naumsburg 2 

in Prussia, son of John Lawson, merchant in Dundee. 
9th September 1 616. — Will. Durivard, traveller in Bitzo 3 in the 

Duchy of Mecklenburg, son of Charles Durward in 

Balnevis and Margaret Gray, his spouse. 
27th March 1617 John Heriot, traveller in Milhousin, 4 Pruss, 

son of Andro Heriot in Pheshemylne (?) and Helen Gray, 

his spouse. 
7th August 1618. — JohmGardyne, j- at Samoche, 5 Polone 1618. 
13th August 1633. — Alexander Brechine, traveller in Lumberg, 6 

Duchy of Pomer, son of David Brechine in Monyfeith 

and Elizabeth Duncan, his spouse. 
l6th July 1636. — William Watson, merchant traveller in Poland, 

son of Math. Watson, merchant, and Janet Bomer, his 

l6th July 1636. — James Watson, merchant traveller in Poland, 

son of William Watson and Elizabeth Walles, his spouse. 
19th September 1638. — James Strathauchin, merchant Scottisman 

in forane nations, son of James Strathauchin and Janet 

Robert, his spouse. 

John Gardiner, a Glasgow citizen, travels to Danzig in I595» 
and the son of Baillie Cunnyngham in 1654 receives a free 
passage to the same place in memory of his father. (Extr. 
from the Rec. of Glasgow, 3 1 2.) 

1 Biitzow in Mecklenburg. 

2 There are many Naumburgs in Prussia ; here probably Naumburg-on- 
the-Queis or on the Bober, both in Silesia. 

3 Biitzow, see above. 4 Miihlhausen, in the district of Konigsberg. 
5 Samostye in Poland. 6 Probably Lauenburg, see above. 

There are several other names of Scotch merchants in Denmark 
(Elsinore, etc.), Norway and Sweden given, which I have omitted here. 


XII. Letters from Scotch Settlers at Danzig and 


Gabriel Maxwell, Daniskin, to Sir John Afaxivell of Pollock. 

^\st August 1635. 

Richt honoriabile, after my very humill dewtie remembrit, 

pleas now witt that I am in good helth, presit bie God, wising 

daylie from my hert the lyk of yow, and all youris. Plis your 

worship, wit that I hef receivit my bor brief, quherin I thaink 

your hounor most humilie for the good fafour and painis ye heff 

takine concerning my bor briff; plis your hounor, caus on of 

your servandis resew fre the birar, Johne Alcoirne, one haime in 

takin off lowe. I prey your hounor to hold mie excusit off the 

wirth of it, for off a trouth at this occatione I can heff nothing 

that I can ofir in one takine off lowe to your hounor, becauis 

off the wiris (wars) ; and now, presit bie God, wie heff this 

wiek pice for sertantie : it is proclamit hir in the toune off 

Danniskeine and the King being in the toune in the myne tyme. 

Not troubling your hounor fairder, bot commiting yow and all 

your afairis to the protectione of the Almychtie God, I rest, 

your most humillie cussing to be commandit, 

G. M. 1 
Francis Craiv to his family. 
Loving dear brother 

After wishing the love and peace of God 
the Almighty to be with you and all my dear friends, I 
heartily salute you accounting it a great mercy that I have 
the occasion to show that I am in good health, wishing the 
like with you and all friends. Dear Brother I took shipping at 
Aberdeen the 29th of June and landed safely here at Dansick 
the nth day of August. We had exceeding good weather. I 
was not sick at all, bot the first day I did vomit a little after 
which I had my stomach better than ever I had at land and so 
remaining still here at Dansigk. Few or none of the men stood 
in need of prentices, bot I engagded with one William Abernethy 
from Aberdeen in Gordoven within 20 or 30 miles of 
Queensbrige (Konigsberg). He came not here himself bot a 
friend of his ane Gilbert Ramsay coming here from Queenbrig 
he desired him to find him a boy ; so William Bissat to whom 
I was recommended by Mr Andrew's friends at Aberdeen told 
him that I could not serve six or seven yeares as a boy bot if he 
would take me for four yeares I should accept. So Mr Ramsay 
told he had commission for five yeares and being a very honest 
man and a friend of Mr Bissat I have referred the writing of 
1 Fraser, W., Memoirs of Maxwells of Pollock. 


mine indentor till he and my maister meet, he promised to me 
to do as much upon my favour as upon his, so I cannot give you 
an exact account of it bot the longest will be five yeares and 
with the next occasion I shall give you a full account. But I 
expect a letter from you with the first occasion from Leith 
which I hope you will not be forgettfull to doe. You shall 
direct it to my servitor Will. Abernethy in Gordonen to be 
left at William Frippold in Dansigk ; you may show William 
Quhite that his brother is ded. I have not yet heard of Mrs 
Wilkinson's brother, I take very well with this countrey and 
have my health as well as ever I had, blessed be God. So 
presenting my love and respect to you my dear mother, brothers 
and sisters and to all my dear friends in Scotland 

your loving and dear brother 

Francis Craw. 

Dansigk, 12th Aug. 1 671— according to the Scotch Almonaks 
here in Dansigk they reckon ten dayes before us so that 
this day is the 22nd with them. 
My cosin Patrick Lauder got a maister in Poiland in a town 
called Warso with one Hog (?) whose brother came with us 
from Aberdeen with whom I sent up my aunt's letter to my 
cosine, he is bound bot for three yeares at the people where 
he quartered. John Cormack went to Poiland, you may show 
Mrs Fleming her nephew has got a maister. I gave her letter 
to William Frizell with whom he quartered. Remember me 
kindly to all friends at Aberdeen and to all Mr Cockburns family, 
to my dear friends at Gordon and to all friends in general. 
(Addr.) For Mr Patrick Craw 

of Broughhead [Ruch head] 
to be left at Mr Andrew Burns of Waristoun who lives 
in Aberdeen a little above Mr Wrights house on 
the south side of the gate. 

I have received ane letter from you with ane from my dear 
unkle the 23d Sept. 74 being the first I received from you, 
partly glad to hear of your welfare with the rest of all my 
dear friends, likewise grieved to hear of my dear mothers sickness ; 
I pray God he would preserve her, you and all friends from all 
evill inconveniences both of body and soul ; likewise being 
grieved to hear of my dear aunts death, bot inwardly rejoycing 
whereas I hope she is enjoying the everlasting joy and happiness 
in heaven, to which I pray God would accept of me, and you 
all whensoever he may be pleased to call any of us out of this 


world. Dear brother I likewise received another letter from 
you 2d of June 1675 being the fourth that you had written to 
me, wherein you refer all affaires to the bearer my old sworn 
brother Alex. Home. It grieves me that I have not yet heard 
neither more or less of him ....... 

in this country, to the which I should never have advised him. 
It is a great wrong parents doeth to their childring to keep them 
beside them till they come almost to mans yeares so that then 
they are ashamed to serve for boys especially in this countrey, 
where all must learn two or three severall languages which it is 
hard for any come to age to attain to, likewise to serve five or 
six yeares, the recompense being bot about 20 or 30 dollars with 
ane suit of new clothes, the trading degenerating, the contreys 
daily impoverishing by reason of the long continued wars in 
every place, likewise you show me that you with my friends 
have thought fitt to send over my brother David this summer, 
wherefor now I pray God would bless him with all spirituall 
blessings and mercies, wishing he may be more fortunate than I 
have been. Dear brother, my advice should rather have been to 
have put him to any tradesman, having once attained to the 
knowledge of any trade can be always able anywhere to earn his 
bread, as for to serve here, nowadays few there are that comes 
to any fortune, the proof of which I have already given. Many 
before my coming here having served ten or twelve yeares re- 
mains in ane poor condition, severalls becomming souldiers, so 
that for my own part although I have now served out I know 
not what hand to turn me to, having no stock to begin withall. 
To come home and visitt you being in as poor a condition as I 
came from thence would be a shame, for throughout this whole 
countrey of Sprussia there is bot slight service to be had except 
it be in Dansigk or Queensbrig where I was not fortunate to get 
service and for to have passed to Polland being disswaded by 
many (although the farr richer countrey) because of their great 
travellings and alwayes being in hazard of their lives, being 
almost savage people for the most part papistes, so for the 
present contenting myselfe with a little rather than have been 
in continuall jeopardy, so hopping you will accept of these im- 
perfect lines in good part, written in haste with this bearer 
Mr Chiesley (?) who came over here one harvest with ane 
Hamilton as I suppose out of the west countrey who has here 
ane unkle serving in the wars under the Duke of Brandenburg, 
he is come to great preferment being the last 2 yeares in the 
wars against the Frenches (?) ; his lady lives not far from this 
toun a Dutch woman {i.e. German) and Lutherian, his nephew 
remains with her till his unkles home comming. I never had 


the occasion to come into discourse with Mr Chieslie till a little 
before his departure, who did tell me he was acquainted with 
Mr Burnett and had been severall times at his house in Waris- 
toun, so hopping you will not be forgettfull to write to me with 
all occasions, recommending my love and best respects to you 
my dear mother, brothers and sisters and to all good friends 
wishing the love and peace of God Allmightie to be with you 
all I remain your loving brother 

Francis Craw. 

To be left at Robt. Hamiltons, merchant in Edinburgh 
at the head of the lukkin booths. 

Memel, June 23, 1 675. 

Loving dear brother 

I received a letter from you the bypast year 
which was written 22nd August 76. I wrott to you severall 
times the last yeare bot as yet I have not gotten a line from you, 
which grieves me not a little. I have gotten three letters from 
my brother David, one the last yeare in which he showed me 
he was in good health bot there was a great pest thereabouts 
in the countrey. I have written to him severall times, he 
would gladly hear from you. I hope you doe write to me 
and also to him with every occasion, although they seldom 
come to our hands. My brother David is not with Mr Inglis 
in Warso as he informed me, bot with a Nicolay Gordon, 
dwelling in Vingroba not far from Warso of which I informed 
you last yeare. So if you doe write to him, direct it to him 
serving to the aforesaid man. He is bound to serve him six 
yeares. I am sorry that he is at such a distance from me 
and also that ever he should have come over to these countreyes, 
for he could have learned any honest trade perfectly in six 
yeares time, which had been far better than to serve here five 
or six years in which time they get little knowledge of merchan- 
dizing. Prentises for the most part in all these countreyes are 
honestly entertained in meat and cloaths bot when their times 
run out they must serve for a very little fie (!) with which they 
can scarcely uphold themselves in decent cloths and other neces- 
saries. I have the by bypast week ingagded with my maister, 
again to serve him till this time 12 months for the value of 
loo pound Scotch. I would have gladly visited you, my dear 
mother and all other good friends this year, bot seeing I have 
ingagded for another year I hope God willing to visit you next 
year, for ought I know if I remain in life and health ; dear 


brother, let me know of your condition and if my dear mother 
be in life and health with my loving sisters and how all other 
good friends are, the certaintie of which would be exceeding 
comfortable and refreshing to me to know. I have as yet 
heard nothing of my dear comrade Allex Home which grieves 
me exceedingly. I have got no letter from my unkle bot that 
which I got with yours four yeares ago as he was in Scotland. 
I have got no letter from you that was dated the last or this 
year. Let me know with the first occasion how the[e] amber 
beads are bought in Scotland whither they be bought by the 
pound weight or by string wayes and whither great or small be 
in greatest esteem, and whither yellow or reddish be bought. If 
you find no acquaintance to write to me this year, I entreat you 
forget not to write to me the next spring when you write home (?). 
I entreat you to try and if you can find a sure occasion to send 
your letter to the town of Johnstone to one James Barclay whose 
son lives a long time in Queensbridge and with whom I was 
acquainted, or you can send your letter to the town of Dundee 
to one John Fairweather, a skipper, who comes every year to 
Queensbridge. He is for the present here and has brought 
letters to all the Scotsmen hereabouts who are for the most 
part from there or thereabout. I send this to you with him, 
inclosed in my comrades letter, one Robt Rollo who serves 
here in this town, who writes to the aforesaid Barclay desiring 
him to send the same to you which I hope he will doe if it come 
safely to his hand. I entreat; you again to send your letter for 
me to him who would assuredly send them to me with the 
Dundee ships, for they are the first Scotch ships that comes 
every year to this countrey. Let me know if you have heard 
of my brother William since he past for Holland and if he 
be alive and in what town of Holland he is in. Here comes 
several Holland ships to this town every year so I could have 
written to him, if I knew where he was. Let me know what 
my £cousin Lauder trades with. Show me also if you or 
Reston (?) knows where Allex. Home may be, and also how it 
is with all our good friends, the presbyterians, for I have heard 
they have been exceedingly persecuted. Now I wish the good 
God to bless you, my dear mother and sisters with all spirituall 
and temporall blessings. Thus recommending my love and affec- 
tion to you, my dear and loving mother and sisters and all other 
good friends. Longing exceedingly to hear of all your welfare. 

I rest your loving brother 

Francis Craw. 

Memell, loth July 1 678. 


Loving brother 

Having the occasion of this bearer, Mr 
Skeen, I lett you know that I am in good health wishing the 
like to you and all yours. He told me some years ago, being 
in this countrey that he did see you as he came through Aitoun 
(?) and that ye was very kind to him, and have written to you 
also with another friend more particularly and showed you 
that I did receive your letter with one from my sister Margaret, 
which was very acceptable to me, especially to hear that the 
Lord has blest you both with the bonds of matrimony. I wish 
you both again much joy and happiness. Dear brother, I 
showed you also that I would gladly have visited you this 
summer bot I was ingagded again with my maister for one year 
before I gott your letter, bot God willing the next year I 
intend to visit you if it please the Lord to preserve me in life 
and health. I would have written to you also with our next 
neighbour one Peter Morisone bot I was not at home as he 
past. I was in Memell at the Markitt. I would have written 
often to you this year for there hath been many Scotch ships 
here this year, bot I have travelled this whole summer, by 
reason my maister has been very sicke. I am also to pass for 
Tilsit within two weeks where we will keep markitt the mattei 
of three weekes. Brother, my desire to you is, if it be in your 
power, to help me with a little stock, the matter of 100 dollars 
of money or moneys worth which you could send over with 
Alexander Home if he come over the next year to this countrey 
or with some other sure occasion, if ye cannot advance it, 
labour to get so much or more from some good friends upon 
interest. I could bring with me some little partie of lintt 
or other commodities that sells best in Scotland, whereof 
I hope you will inform me, so that if I arrive safely, I should 
restore the same, so that I might bot winn my expenses. Thus 
recommending you to the protection of almighty God I rest 
presenting my love and service to your help and bedfellow 
though unacquainted, to all my sisters and there beloved, to 
Alex. Home and his beloved and to all other friends. 

I remain your loving brother 

Francis Craw. 

QuEENSBRIDGE, <\th Sept. 1681. 1 

XIII. Patrick Gordon and Stercovius the Pole. 

Patrick Gordon, the Scottish "factor" at Danzig during the 

reign of James VI, prosecuted at the instigation of the King a 

certain Stercovius, a Pole, who after a visit to Scotland had 

1 Originals in the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh. 

2 5 6 


published a libel against the Scottish nation, ostensibly because 
the inhabitants of some Scotch towns had laughed at the 
Polish national costume in which he paraded the streets. He 
was put to death, incredible as it may appear, in l6ll. Under 
this date we read in the Chronicle of Rastenburg, a small town 
in Poland : "John Stercovius circulates a libel against the whole 
Scottish nation j on account of which he was executed by the 
sword after a public recantation." 1 King James was not satisfied 
with this. We read in the same chronicle, under the date 15th 
of February 1612, that, at the request of His Majesty the King 
of Great Britain, an order was issued, to send all copies of the 
libel still extant to the magistrates, well wrapped up and 
sealed, and punishment was threatened in case of disobedience. 2 

There was a long epilogue to this sad story in settling the 
question, who was to pay for the expense incurred by Gordon 
in this prosecution. The Scotch inhabitants of Danzig were 
first thought of, but finally the costs were divided between the 
chief boroughs of Scotland. 3 

Gordon himself was accused afterwards for neglecting his 
duties as consul. 4 

XIV. List of Scottish Settlers in Krakow and Warsaw. 
XVIth and XVIIth Centuries. 

J. Alanth (Alland), 

G.Amand (Almond?), 


A. Blackal, 165 1. 

* K. Buchan, 1603. 

A. Burnet, 1607. 

Arch. Burnet, 1603. 

Gilbt. Burnet, 1603. 

Jas. Chambarz (Cham- 
bers), 165 1. 

W. Chrones (?), 1602. 

J.Clarg(Clerk), 1623. 

f Al. Czamer (Chal- 
mers), 1676. 

J. Czamer, 165 1. 


Robt. Czamer, 1620. 

Jas. Drummond (Sir 
Jas. Drummond of 
Borland), 1600. 

A. Dixon, 1607. 

Al. Dixon, 1603. 

Al. Dixon (son),i65i. 

Bonav. Dixon, 1609. 

Thos. Dixon, 165 1. 

Al. Duff, 1608. 

Ths. Dumfries, 1577. 

D. Dundas, 1576. 

Al. Duncan, 1607. 

Al. Driowski (Drew), 
from Edinburgh, 


G. Emzle (Emslie?), 

*K. Henderson, 1606. 
*W. Henderson, 1603. 
P. Englis (lnglis), 

T. Forbes, 1603. 
*W. Forbes, 1687. 
And. Fraser, 1651. 
Abraham Freude 

(Froude?), 1651. 
J. Fryer. 
Jas. Geltens (Gait?), 


1 Beckherrn, Schdfer's Chronih von Rastenburg, p. 10. See also Scot. 
Notes and Queries. 

2 See Beckherrn, I.e. 

3 Dundee, for instance, had to pay ^600. 

4 Reg. of Privy Council of Scotland, xi. Pref. cxli. fF. 



Jas. Grick (Greig?), 

W. Grim (Graeme?), 

G. Gurk (?), 1651. 
W. Hojson (Hewi- 

son), 1625. 
R. Home, 1603. 
K. Hunter, 1651. 
A. Young, 1603. 
J. Karmichael, 1625. 
*G. Kin (King), 

*K. Kin, 1603, 1 1635. 
G. Kin, 1583, 1607. 
J. Korblet (?), 16 51. 
G. Kruksang (Cruik- 

shank), 1651. 

J. Larmche (Car- 
michael), 165 1. 

J. Legent (?) 1607. 

Jas. Lindsay de Edzell, 

J. Minkhaus (?), 1607. 

J. Mora (Moir), 1610. 

S. Mosman, 1603. 

A. Oszerth (?), 1651. 

A. Pniszel (Frizell ?), 

H. Rents de Erbroth 

(• ? )> !579- 
J. Reth (Reid), 1651. 
Th. Robertson, 161 2. 
A. Rusek (Ross?), 

Scotorum Factor, 


J. Rynt (Owner of 

Sulphur Mines), 

L. Smert (Smart), 

W. Tory, 1626. 
J. Tomson, 1603. 
P. Vood (Wood), 

G. Wanton, 1603, 

"thirteen years in 

J. Whyt (White), 

W. Wier (Weir), 

P. Zutter (Soutar), 


tAl. Alon (Allan), 

f An. Auchinleck, 

fAl. Brun (Brown), 

fW. Co we, 1697. 
fP. Ennisz (Innes), 

f A. Frazer, 16 13 (in 

Krakow, 1625). 
fAl. Gern ( ? ), 

|P. Gern, 1676. 
And. Goltz (Gault?), 

Albr. Gordon, 1688. 


fW. Gorski (Gore?), 

fTh. Hog, 1669. 

fAl. Innes, 1697. 

An. Innes, 16 17. 

P. Innes, 1671. 

f A. Janthon (?), 1613. 

f J. Johnston, 1676. 

fP. Jonston, 1669. 

fP.Makalienski (Mac- 
allan), 1 61 3. 

fG. Mancos 

(Monkhouse), 161 3. 

fj. Orem, 161 3. 

f*P. Orem, 161 3, at 
Krakau from 1600- 

fSt Orem, 161 3. 

fTh. Orem, 1613, at 
Krakau 1603, and 

fAl. Ross, 1697. 

fW. Ross, 1697. 

fAl.Ryd(Reid),i6 9 7. 

fG. Rytt (Wright), 

fW. Schmidt (Smith), 

f A. Tamson, 1669. 

fW. Tamson, 1669. 

A. Vithman (Wight- 
man?), 1576, and in 

W. Wan, f 1618. 

Of other places in Poland mention is made of Thomas Dunkison 
(Duncanson) in Lublin, "thirteen years in Poland," Robert Gilbert 
Porteous in Krosna, John and William Ramsay and Richard Tamson 
(Tomson), in Posen. 

Those marked * were elders. 

Those marked f Royal or Privileged Merchants. 


2 5 8 


XV. List of Scotch Settlers in the Town of Posen. a.d. 1605, 

George Beem (Bain ?). 

John Benna (Bennie?). 

Bernh. Bellendin (Bal- 

David Burn. 

Robt. Brun (Brown). 

Dav. Dunlcer (Dun- 

Jas. Frobell. 

Jas. Kaliel (Carlyle?] 
„ Karkut (Car- 
Alex. Nielson. 
Jas. Pater son. 
John Ondron (?). 

Robt. Ramza ( Ram- 

John Robertson. 

David Skin (Skene). 

Andr. Sterling. 

„ Struders (Stru- 

John Thosse (Tawse). 
„ Veneth (?). 

The number of Scotch handicraftsmen at the same period being about 
equally large. 

In 165 1, the year when the money for the subsidy of King Charles 
II was forcibly collected, there were only eleven trading Scotch families 
left in Posen, Edward Hebron (Hepburn), James Heyt (Hyatt), William 
Huyson (Hewison), James Farquhar, James Lindsay, Daniel Mackalroy, 
Jacob and Andrew Watson, and Albert Schmart (Smart) ; curiously 
enough not one of those mentioned in 1605. This proves again the 
fluctuating character of the Scotch settlements. 1 

XVI. List of Scotch " Cramers " in the Duchy of Prussia. 

Jas. Aberkrummie. 

Al. Agnitz (Agnews). 

W. Agnuss. 

W. Agnitz. 

John Albrecht (?). 

Ch. Agnuss. 

H. Ahrnett (Arnott). 

J. Altt (Auld). 

Matth. Alt. 

W. Alt. 

Al. Andersson. 

Dan. Andersson. 

David Anderson. 

Everett Anderson. 

Jos. Anderson. 

Dav. Annan. 

Conr. Bachoun (Bal- 

quhon ?). 
B. Bailjer (Bilger?). 
G. Bain. 
Js. Baldt. 
Al. Balfour. 
M. Balfour. 


A.D. l6l 5. S 

Nich. Balfour. 

Jas. Ballentine. 

Jas. Ballwarth 

D. Balwaird (Balvaird). 

D. Bartram (Bertrom). 

Henry Bartelltt (Bart- 

P. Beel (Biel). 

John Bedderman. 

J. Beinston. 

W. Bennett (Benet). 

J. Bertrom. 

Henry Bethon ( Bea- 

St. Binston. 

W. Black. 

Hillebrant Blackhall. 

Jas. Blackhall. 

M. Blackhall. 

W. Bleer (Blair). 

H. Blair. 

Al. Bonnertt. 

D. Bontrom (Bon- 

D. Brant. 

Ch. Breede (Braid). 
S. Brinthon. 
D. Brinthon. 
Al. Bruin (Brown). 
A. Bruin. 
W. Bruin. 
Th. Brunn. 
H. Bruisz (Bruce). 
P. Bruchte. 
W. Bruch (Brough). 
G. Bunckel. 
D. Butcher. 
H. Butcher. 
H. Bussitt (Bissett). 
Js. Bysirtt. 
Ths. Bysirtt. 
Albr. Curtte. 
Al. Dahn (Dawn). 
Al. Davidson. 
Ths. Davidson. 

1 Cp. Lukaszewicz, Hist. Statist. Bild der Stadt Posen, i. p. 79. 

2 From the Royal Archives, Konigsberg. 



Andr. Deuffer (?). 

Jas. Dennister (Dem- 
ster ?). 

J. Dick. 

H. Doglasz (Douglas), 

Alex. Donaldson. 

Dan. Donaldson. 

Dav. Donaldson. 

H. Donaldson. 

J. Drum. 

J. Drummondt. 

Laur. Droun. 

Ab. Dunckan. 

Al. Duncker. 

Albr. Dunker. 

J. Duncken. 

Ths. Duncken. 

Will. Duncken. 

Dan. Dunckson (Dun- 

Albr. Dustun. 

J. Dusten. 

Jas. Eicken (Aikin). 

M. Ertzbald (Archi- 

Ths. Engels (Inglis). 

W. Erdthur (Arthur). 
Al. Erichtumb (?). 
J. Fehnricht (Wain- 
Al. Ferfoul (Fairfoul). 
Jas. Ferfoul. 
Al. Ferbrus (Forbes). 
J. Forbess. 
Js. Ferbussl /T -> , N 
Js.Ferbus j( Forbes )' 
J.Forgesse (Ferguson). 
Al. Forgesam. 
Jas. Forgrusson. 
P. Fergusson. 
H. Ferley. 
H. Fermer. 
G. Fleck. 
Th. Foster. 
Jas. From. 
Mich. From. 
Jost Fromme. 

Ths. Frank. 

And. Friesel. 

Mich. Frisill. 

W. Fyrley (Farley). 

Geo. Gall. 

P. Gall. 

J. Gallfey. 

Jas. Gern. 

Al. Gieldt. 

W. Gelletlie. 

M. Gipson. 

W. Gipson. 

H. Gleg. 

Js. Gloch (Gloag). 

Al. Glennie. 

2 Alb. Glenn. 

Al. Glennie. 

John Glenn. 

John Glennie. 

Erdtman Gordon. 

John Gordon. 

Alester Goleszy. 

G. Grax (?). 

John Grein (Green). 

W GreifF. (?). 

Al. Grey. 

Andr. Grey. 

Martin Grey. 

2 Will. Grey. 

Matth. Grey. 

P. Grieg (Greig). 

N.Grim. g) 

G. Gyll. 

L. Guthriek. 

Alex. Hail. 

J. Hammilthon. 

Albr. Hamilton. 

W. Hamilthon. 

Junker Hasz or Haesz 

(?) Hays.i 
J. Heindrich (Henry). 
Jas. Heres. 
Ths. Hering. 
J. Hey. 
J. Heyn. 
Fr. Hey. 
W. Hilston. 

Albr. Hinderson. 
Al. Hindrichson. 
G. Hoigston (?). 
Al. Horn. 

D. Huntter. 
W. Hunter. 
Hillebrant I dell. 
And. Ingelss. 

J. Ingelss (Inglis). 
And. Jairdon (Jardine). 

E. and J. Jairdon. 
H. (J.) Janson. 
H. (J.) Jordon. 
Al. Jung (Young). 
And. Jung. 

John Jung. 
Stentzel Jung. 
Will. Jung. 

Albr. Kader (Calder). 

Dan. Kair (Keir). 

Ths. Kairnegie (Car- 

Gabr. Kamer. 

Ch. Kamer. 

Albr. Kastor. 

Balth. Karmichael. 

J. Karmichael. 

Sam. Karmichael. 

Al. Kastell. 

J. Kaubrun (Cockburn) . 

Reinhold Kaubrun 

Ch. Kennitt. 

W. Kimmitt. 

Geo. Kinkeith ( Kin- 

Peter Kinkeith. 

W. Kleils (?). 

A. Kleyn (Clyne). 

W. Klein (Clyne). 

Albr. Kock. 

Al. Kock. 

Jas. Kock. 

Will. Kock. 

2 Albr. Kollier. 

Albr. Koning (Cum- 

1 Junker denotes "young squire " or " young laird." 



Alex. Patoun. 

Al. Peter. 

Geo. Petri. 

Jas. Petri. 

Will. Piatt. 

J. Philipp. 

W. Pibles (Peebles). 

Balth. Pettekrug (Pet- 

Matth. Pettekrug. 
Peter „ 

Albr. Porter. 
W. Porter. 

J. Por truss (Porteous). 
Ernest Ramsack. 
Jas. ,, 

2 Henry Ramsay. 
John „ 

Charles Ramse. 
Thos. Ramse. 
Dav. Rankielor. 
W. Ranoldson. 
W. Rattrech ( Rattray ) . 
Everett Ridt (Reid). 
Albr. Reehe (Riach). 
Bart. Reyn. 
Hillebrant Roich. 
Al. Ross. 
Henry Ross. 
W. Ross. 
W. Ronaldt. 
Albr. Rothero. 
Ths. Rothero. 
Reinholt Rubbertson 

Thos. Rubbertson). 
Ptr. Rust. 
Js. Rust. 

Al. Schmal (Small). 
Ch. Schmal. 
2 Jas Schmitt (Smith). 

1 The family name of the Earls of Strathearn. 

2 A certain Colyn Oliphant in Custorben, Poland, writes a renunciation 
of rent against the payment of ;£ioo by Sir W. Oliphant. He dates 
his letter Qweinsbrig (Konigsberg) Jan. 28, 1628, and the following four 
Scottish merchants at this place are his witnesses : — Jas. Reid, Andrew 
Inglis, W. Learmonth and Gilbert Blair (The Oliphants in Scotland, 
p. 217). 

J. Koning (Cumm- 

A. Krimbser (Scrim- 

Ulrich Kuhnheyn 

(Colqohoun ?). 
W. Krege (Craig). 
J. Lahn (Lawn). 
Js. Laing. 
P. Lamm (Lamb). 
Ths. Lamm. 
Andr. Lason (Law 

Al. Leitsch (Leitch) 
Al. and Jas. Lenge. 
Jas. Litsch. 
Dav. Linsay. 
Geo. Linsey. 
J. Lindtsack. 
Jas. Linsey. 
Jas. Linser. 
Js. Logan. 
Al. Lome. 
W. Lockardt. 
Laur. Lumsdaill. 
J. Lunden. 
Andr. Lundie. 
Paul Lundi. 
Albr. Lundi. 
John Macri (Macrie). 
Geo. Macri. 
Geo. Magall (M'Cali; 
B. Makgreger. 
H. Magkreger 


J. Mackertten(M' 

M. Mackertten. 

S. Macke (M'Kay). 

M. Mackor. 

G. Mair. 

Ch. Malcolm. 

Bartellt Maxwell. 

Hercules Maxwell. 

John Malise. 1 

2 Ths. Malise. 

J. Malison. 

Albr. Mersell. 

J. Meder (Mather). 

Dav. Meffen. 

W. Melvin. 

Ths. Meldrom. 

2 Andr. Meson. 

John Merten. 

Chs. Mettwen (Meth- 

Ths. Meyne. 
Ths. Meynich (Men- 

J. Milson. 
Js. Middleton. 
Dav. Mill. 
Abr. Moneypenning. 
Ala. Morr (Muir). 
Jas. Morton. 
N. Moritz (Morris). 
Al. Muer (Muir). 
B. Murro. 
John „ 
Jost ,, 
B. Muir. 
Bartellt Muer. 
2 Gabr Muffit. 
Ths. Mundt. 
A. Nickel. 
Dan. Nickel. 
Conrad Olipfandt. 2 
Erdtman Olipfandt. 
J. Olipfandt. 
W. Olipfandt. 
Geo. Olipfandt. 
Al. Pallmer. 
2 Andr. Paterson. 



Ths. Schmitt. 
W. Schmitt. 
J. Schmertt (Smart). 
Al Schort (Short). 
Dav. „ 

Albr. Schotte (Scott). 
Ernest ,, 
J. Schringe (?). 
Al. Schultz (?). 
W. Simpson. 
Adam Simson. 
W. Stael. 

D. and W. Steenson. 
Ths. and J. Steffen. 
Al. Stirk. 
Baltzer Strethon. 
Al. Stree-ehren ( Strath- 
Js. Strachin. 

J. Stuertt 'j /c x 
ah o • H otuart). 
Albr. Stuirt/ v I 

Albr. Stubbertson (?). 
A. Tamson (Thom- 

J. Tamson. 

J. Tellfort (Telford). 

Albr. Thery. 

Jas. Torge. 

Jas. Truip. 

J. Trummel (Turn- 

Laur. Turner. 

W. Turner. l 

D. Wadt (Watt). 

D. Venthon. 

Gill. Wallis (Wal- 

Ch. Watson. 

Dan. Wadtson. 

Laur. Watson. 

Reinhard Watson. 

Ths. Watson. 

Jas. Watson. 

J. Watt. 


W. Weylandt. 

i^.ndr. Wilson. 

2 J. Wilson. 

D. Willson. 

G. Willson. 

CI. Willke. 

Chas. Willke. 

Conrad Willke. 

Dav. Willie. 

Jas. Willkis 

Geo. Wette and Peter 

Jas. Wobster. 

B. Wischrodt (Wish- 
art ?) 

Erdtman Wischrodt. 

Al. Woodt. 

Jas. Wricht. 

A. Wrichtt. 

Henry Wrichtt. 

W. Wroudt (Froude). 

Al. Wuschrodt. 

Alb. „ 

Andr. Wultson. 

Albr. Wundrum. 

Ths. Wundrum. 

XVII. List of Scottish Settlers in Konigsberg (Queenisbrig), 
Memel and Tilsit. 

I. Konigsberg 

Allen, George. 

Anderson, Fred. 

Barclay, Will. 

Barnett, John. 

Birell, Lorenz. 

Couper, Gilb. 

Cramond, Dav. 

Craw, Francis. 

Crayge (Craig), Gilbt. 

Douglas, J. and Daniel. 

Dunckam (Duncan), Will. 

Ferwahter (Fairweather), Carl. 

Forbus (Forbes). 

Geren, Alex. 

Gordon, George, Will, Peter. 

Gray, Will, George, Alex. 

Hunker, H. 

Innes, Peter. 

(1700- 1 740). 

Irwing, Joh. Albrecht. 
Karkettel, Alex. 
Karr, John. 
Kieyth (Keith), John. 
Kiuck (?), James and two sons. 

Lessly (Leslie), George. 
Leyel (Lyall), John. 
Liwingstone, Robt. 
Maclair, Robt. 
Mill, John, David, Andr. 
Mitzchell (Mitchell), Dan. 
Mitschelhill, Jacob. 
Oufries (?). 

Ouchterlono (Auchterlonie), Her- 
Panton, H. 
Ramadye (Ramadge), Ths. 

1 In the original named " Turner's knecht," i.e. Turner's servant. 



Renny (Rennie), Jacob. 
Ross, Joh. 
Stronach, Robt. 
Stuart, Th. 
Thaw, Joh. 

Tewendeil, Wilh. (Tweeddale ?). 
Trotter, John. 
Turner, Carl. 
Watt, Will. 
Walt, Alex. 

//. Memel. (X Fifth and XVIIIth Centuries.) 1 

HansLittlesohn (Littlejohn),i6i6. 

„ Pesaller, 1616. 
George Wolssel \ 

(Welsh?), > from Aberdeen. 
Alex. Smith, J 
Jacob Mechschin (MacCheyne), 

from Edinburgh. 





Muttray (Will. 11734. Martin 

"P74O, eighty years old). 
Ogelbey (Ogilvie). 

Scrumsour (Scrimgeour). 
Simson (Andr. 1682, William 

1684); later " Simpson." 

III. Tilsit and District. 

Allen, Andr. (1679) and four other 

Aliens (1679-82). 
Arnot, Albrecht, Robt. and 

Christoph. (1679-82). 
Barclay, David (1673). 
Bennet, Will. (1678). 
Berryl, Laur. (1680), Anna, 

Christina and John. 
Berward (Bereward?) Peter, a 

journeyman coppersmith. 
Blair, Peter (1681). 
Cant, Balzer (1682). 
Coloidi, Herm. (?) (1679-82). 
Chalmer, Wil. (1667). 
Dennis, Alex., clergyman. 
Drommel, Alb. (Trumbull) 

Duncam (Duncan, 1688). 
Durham (1699). 
Fraser, Andr., soldier. 
Gordon, G. (1692). 
Gray, Peter and James (1683). 
Hamilton, Robt., sergeant (168 1 ). 
Harper, Jas., soldier (1697). 

Henderson, Alex., old journeyman 
from Edinburgh (1679). 

Irwing, John (1677). 

Karr, Richard (1688). 

Kimmond, Will. (1679), and 
John (168 1 ). 

Krighton, Alex. (1673), also 
Thomas, Friedrich, Elisabeth. 

Maclelen, J., soldier (1680). 

Marschall, J. (1680). 

Maxwell, J. (1680). 

In Angerburg (East-Prussia, S.E. 
of Konigsberg) : 
Watson, David (1682). 

In Johannisburg (on the Russian 
frontier S. of Konigsberg) : 
Gilbert, Hercules (1682). 
Durison, Peter (1682). 
Mitchelhill, Christof(i68i). 
Sander, Jacob (1682). 

In Schippenbeil (Eastern Prussia, 
8. of Konigsberg) : 
Douglas, Will. (1695). 

1 See J. Sembritzki, Geschichte von Memel, 1900. 



In Neukirch : 
Allen, John (see above under Tilsit). 

In Wischivill : 
Hurt, Miss (1695). 

In Heydekrug (North of Tilsit) : 
Dunkam, J. (before 1695). 
Ker, Jacob (1699). 

In Welunen [Willuhnen) : 
Bercelay, Albrecht, (Barclay) 

In Lych (Eastern Prussia, on 
the Russian frontier) : 
Cant, David, Trooper (1682). 
Lindsay, G. (1688), and wife. 
Ramage, J. (1688), later on the 

spelling is Rametz. 
Joung (Young) Erdmann (1682), 

and family. 
Jung (Young), Dav. (1680). 
Keith, Robert or Albrecht (1685). 
Kemper (?), Arendt. (1680). 
Kimmond, Andr. (1680), and 

Knox, Andr., soldier (1687). 
Magyll (Magill), Dav. (1687). 
Marshall, Johann, jun. (1681), and 

wife. AlsohissonRobertandwife. 
Ogyl (1680) and wife. 
Ogylbie (Ogilvie), Fourier (1687). 
Olifant, W. (1687). 
Royer (Roger), Johann (1680). 
Speed, J. (1687). 
Spottswood (1687). 
Turner, J. (1683). 
Wright, Will. ( 168 1 ), soldier. 

In Goldap : 1 
Henning, Peter (1680). 
Fletcher, Jacob (1687), brewer. 

In Oletzko : 
Watson, Johann (1682), journey- 

Drommond, Thomas (1682), 

Birrel, Joh. (1682). 

Nisbett, Jost. (1682). 

Murray, Jas. (1678). 

Maclear, Em. (1687), joiner. 

Nisbett, Alex. (1683). 

Ogelbie, John, soldier (1680). 
Also Ths. and Anna. 

Olifant, David (1674). 

Palmer, Jacob (1682). 

Pearson, „ (1680). 

Pelfor, Jacob and Samuel, abt. 1 680. 

Rash, Nicol, journeyman-jewel- 
ler (1679). 

Rennie, Alex. , and wife, abt. (1679). 

Ritsch, Albrecht (between 1667 
and '71); also Wilhelm and 

Robertson, Armer (1676). 

Skoumser (Scrimseour ? ), J. 

Stephen, Andr. (1683). 

Thau (Thaw), Joh. (1681). 

Wale, Andr., soldier (1681). 

In Stalluponen.^ 

Walker, Alex, and Andr. (1680). 
In Insterburg : 

Arrot, Patrick (1682). 

Crichton, John (1679); tw0 other 
Crichtons (1687). 

Canair (Kinnair), Dav., appren- 
tice boy with Ogyl. 

Goham (Graham) (1687). 

Hultman (1680), tailor. 

Jackson, Peter (1681), and wife. 

Thornton, David (1688). 

Wolson (?), Johann (1681), and 
his wife Sophia (1688). 

Gordon, Robt. (1682). 

Fergusson (1691), trooper. 

Anwell (?) (1691). 

Wessel, Mule (?) (1692). 

1 On the Russian frontier, east of Konigsberg ; Oletzko, south 
of it. 

2 Stalluponen and Insterburg, east of Konigsberg. 


Add to these names those occurring in Jastroiv in Western Prussia: — 
Barry or Bary, Schwan (Swan), Forbes, Sym or Sem, Hilliday (also 
called Heiligentag, Elias Dens, Jacob Krudde, Adam Darby, Johannes 
Duncker, Georgius Smedt (Smith). — Beginning of the XVIIth Century. 

XVIII. Privilegium Scotorum Bidgostiensium. 1 

"... Inprimis fraternitas mercatorum Bidgostiensium ipsa 
quotannis aliarum fraternitatum more et tempore solito seniorem 
alterum e medio sui legitime eligant, alteram vero a consulatu 
suo eligi petant atque postulent, quia ita electis et pro fraterni- 
tatis suae senioribus constitutes ea omnia . . . quaecunque in eorum 
praesentis privilegii contrarietatem et domesticum damnum tarn ab 
ipsis mercatoribus extraneis quibusvis, quam etiam dictis reven- 
ditoribus vulgo Schotowie dictis pertinere videbuntur, per eosdem 
seniores suos providere . . . volebunt atque tenebuntur, ea 
quidem ratione, ut cum mercatores extranei omnes et singuli 
revenditores ipsi Schotowie supranotati civitatem nostram 
Bidgostiensem advenerint mercesque suas quasvis et cujusvis 
generis libra et ulna tantummodo venum exponentes quibusvis 
diebus singulis extra nundinarum tempus vendere vellent et 
praetenderent, eos tales mercatores extraneos ac revenditores 
. . . fraternitatis seniores talia facere nullatenus unquam 
admittant, . . . imo adversantes huic nostro privilegio . . . ab- 
latione earum rerum venum expositarum ipsi seniores privent et 
omnio coerceant, exceptis solummodo illis mercatoribus extraneis 
qui non libra aut ulna sive mensura vetita, verum integris 
peciis (pieces) veluti panni (cloth), telae ceterarumque rerum 
sericearum (woven) et piperis, croci (saffron), ac similium in 
lapidis pondere integro vendere vellent, talibus forum liberum 
omni tempore diebus singulis reservatum esse volumus et 
declaramus. Revenditores insuper etiam omnes et singulos, 
vulgo Schoti suprascripti inhaerendo constitutionibus regni nostri 
in eosdem publice Sanctis constitutisque ne a modo et deinceps 
in eadem ipsa civitate nostra Bidgostiensi fundi haereditatem 
seu domos in usus et commoditates suos emere atque comparare 
praesumant hisce Uteris prohibemus ac omnino tanta libertate 
privamus, eos ipsos tantum circa suarum domorum possessionem 
reservantes qui antehac ibidem possessionati sunt et veram ac 
legitimam mansionem jure nacti et adepti sunt. . . . 

"Datum Varschovie die decimo septima mensis Septembris 
anno domini millesimo quingentesimo sexagesima octavo (1568)." 

This statute was confirmed by King Stephen in 1 58 1 with 
the following addition : 
"... Inprimis quod omnes et singuli mercatores cives et 

1 Bromberg = Bidgosc (Polish) : Bidgostia (Lat.). 


incolae Bidgostienses qui ulna et libra ponderare sive mensurare 
merces . . . extra nundinarum tempus voluerint, u omnes 
et singuli fraternitatem mercatorum Bidgostiensium suscipere 
tenebuntur. . . . Quod autem attinet ad quatuor extraneos 
mercatores videlicet Schotos, qui antehac possessionem fraterni- 
tatemque consecuti sumt, si unus eorum decesserit et alius in 
locum ejus successerit vel jure successionis uti voluerit, literas 
quod sit honestis parentibus ortus ostendere tenebitur. Deinde 
juramentum civitati praestare, jus civile suscipere, viginti marcas 
polonicales in cistam hujus fraternitatis mercatorum reponere 
tenebitur et alia juxta consuetudinem fraternitatis huius observare 
. . . erit astrictus. Damus et concedimus eisdem mercatoribus 
liberam facultatem pilea (hats) vulgo virilia et muliebria 
nuncupata . . . venum exponere et vendere sine ulla contra- 
dictions Datum Varschovie anno dom. millesimo quingentesimo 
octagesimo primo." 

Other confirmations followed in 1622 by King Sigismund III 
and 1636 by Vladislav IV, the latter introducing the following 
alteration : 

" . . . ea conditione adiecta ne statim post obitum unius ex 
quatuor mercatoribus Schotis alter in locum demortui sub- 
stituatur, sed prorogato unius anni et sex septimaniarum spacio 
viduae et successorum defuncti ratio habeatur. Quae vidua si 
intra hoc temporis spaciuno aut non nupserit aut alterius rationis 
homini matrimonialiter copulata fuerit, turn demum post elapsum 
suprascriptum tempus, licitum erit, contubernio huic, alium in 
locum demortui substituere. . . ." 

Datum Gedani (Danzig), 28th Jan. 1636. 

XIX. "Supplications" of the Scots in Prussia. 

The petition of the 9th of Nov. 1599 to the Duke of Prussia 
is signed by the following Scotsmen : *Elias Dunckel (Duncan), 
David Gallo (Galloway?), Andr. Mattmichel, (M'Michel), 
Will. Guttfallo (Goodfellow), *Hans Rehn (Ray), Hans 
Davidtsohn (Davidson), David Malkom (Malcolm), Jacob 
Meldrim (Meldrum), *Ths. Meldrim, Ths. Mene (Maine), 
Jacob Kock, Zander Lockert (Lockhart), Henerich Schwurdi (?), 
George Leise (Linsay), Hans Elter (Elder), *Zander Lohren 
(Laurin), *Hans Melsen (Malison), David Grinck (Grieg?), 
*Hilbrandt Blackhall, Zander Mattmichel, Balzer Rossel 
(Russell), *Hans Stiier (Stewart), Davidt Drom (Trumb ?), 
Zander Wud (Wood). 1 

1 Those marked with * occur again in the great census of Scottish 
Cramers made in 1615 by Kock. The Christian name Zander is 
Alexander (Sandy). 


The next in time is the petition of January goth, 1600, signed 
by the " elders of the Scots in the districts of Holland, 1 
Riesenburg and Preussisch Mark " : Kalin (Colin), Nieper 
(Napier), Alex. Milgrest (?), Jacob Zschopman (Chapman), 
Jacob Lange (Long). Its terms are almost the same as in 
the petition of 1599. 

The following is dated October 2 1st of the year 1600, and as it 
states the complaints and proposed remedies in a summary form 
is here given in extenso : — 

"Most serene and high-born Prince," etc., etc. Most 
Gracious Prince and Lord ; Y.S.H. and counsellors will no 
doubt well remember the petition which we foreigners in 
these lands last year about this time did most humbly address 
to you at full length, so that we only need to repeat its 
contents in a few words. Because Y.S.H. , moved by some 
envious persons, has caused to be published an order, though we 
did by no means provoke it, forbidding us, poor men, to 
traffique with our packs in the country, we have with 
all due submission prayed to Y.S.H. for God's sake not to 
forbid us such trade but graciously permit the free exercise of 
it, especially since we have never injured anybody nor do so 
now, but rather are of service and convenience to the country- 
man, who lives far from any town. Nobody has ever com- 
plained about us except the guild's people, who envy us our 
hard-earned bread. Neither are the majority of us new and 
inexperienced young men, but have been settled in this country 
for some years, knowing full well how to act and to behave, so 
that nobody, God prevent, should take any offence. And why 
should Y.S.H. not allow us our poor calling and our miserable 
bread, since all other nations, wherever they come from, are 
permitted to follow it unimpeded ? 

" Yet we have, be it said without boasting, never refused any 
taxes or absconded when they fell due, but have willingly 
contributed, and shall continue to do so, whatever is demanded 
of us according to our means. We have likewise at all times 
offered to serve Y.S.H. both with our bodies, and our blood 
and with our property as it becomes true and faithful citizens. 
For we acknowledge no other prince and master in the trustful 
hope and expectation that Y.S.H. will not oppress the poor 
handful of strangers, but take us like others under his 
gracious protection. 

" And although in the above named Edict it is among other 
things contended, that now and then deception and reprehensible 

1 Of course Holland in Prussia, about 60 miles S.W. of Konigsberg, 
is meant. 


cheatery especially in grain has been practised by some of us, 
we do hope that this did not happen in our district and we have 
likewise all of us declared ourselves willing, if any amongst 
us should do this to expel them, which offer we do hereby 

" And because we have not yet received any answer to our 
humble supplication, we are now, after waiting patiently and 
dutifully, very anxious to know our fate, especially as we in 
these hard times, have to sit still without being able to earn 
our living. We therefore pray Y.S.H. most earnestly to 
graciously attend to our request and gladden us with a favour- 
able rescript. We also offer Y.S.H. the annual payment of 
the sum of two Thalers into Y.S.H.'s treasury, said payment 
to be made now, if only we receive a favourable answer and 
each a scrip of paper in his own name for receipt and proof. 1 

" The Allmighty God may reward Y.S.H. here in time and in 
all eternity with a happy reign and a long healthful life. 

" This is the prayer of Y.S.H. faithful and obedient subjects : 

"Will. Setton (Seaton), Hans Pigott, Peter Rettrew(?), Henry 
Low (Law ?), Jacob Weilsohn (Wilson), George Schmidt (Smith), 
Jac. Koch, Hans Groll, Peter Pell (?), Dav. M'Gall, Ths. Menie 
(Menzie) and the subscribers of the petition of 1590." 

The petition of the Scots in the Rastenburg district (1628) is 
signed by: Albrecht Linse (Lindsay), Ths. Boyde, Alex. Pieper (?) 
Hans Schepman (Chapman), Wilm Kore (Gore), Geo. Moller 
(Miller), Thos. Hamiltan (Hamilton), Ths. Nickell (Nicol), Thos. 
Litt (Leith ?), Alex. Elschimmer (?), Alex. Freser (Frazer), Albr. 
Freser, Davidt Philip, Ernest Shaw, Albr. Benett, Jac. Schmidt 
(Smith), Geo. Krege (Craigie), Thos. Hunter. 2 

The proposal of the " Schutz-zeddel " or official receipt, 
which secured the owner against violent measures on the part 
of over-zealous bailiffs, seems to have been adopted in Prussia, 
and to have worked well ; for in 1 648 we have a long list of sixty 
Scotsmen, who in the month of June, availed themselves of it. 3 
Their names are : — 

Ths. Watt. 
Will. Ohley (?) 
Dav. Klarck. 
Andr. Glenn. 

Al. Hendrichson. 
H. Carmichell. 
D. Kiedt (Kid?). 
A. Krugschank. 

Js. Kreger (Crai£ 
Al. Braun. 
Andr. Grey. 
Hans Mitchell. 

1 This receipt is described in the petition of January 30, 1600, "as a 
paper which will protect us in the case of need, so that we cannot be 
taken up in such a violent manner by the authorities, but may be 
secure against it." 

2 The Original in the Royal Archives of Konigsberg. 

3 Ibid. 



Hans Lecock. 
Hans Moutrier. 
And. Furth (Ford). 
Hans Simeon. 
J. Edler (?). 

B. Davidtsohn. 
A. Krell. 

And. Hueth (Hewit). 

H. Hueth. 

J. Dohs (Daws). 

H. Linson (Lindsay). 

Th. Tellyor (Taylor). 

J. Brand. 

C. Schmal. 
G. Stohl (?). 
H. Alexander. 
J. Mitchell. 

H. Nilson. 

H. Panduhn (?). 

J. Davidsohn. 

G. Grey. 

W. Brock. 

H. Brock. 

H. Morais (Murray). 

W. Duglass. 

J. Flehman (?). 

W. Kinkeith. 

W. Ebernet (Aber- 

J. Melrosz. 
A. Hammelthon. 
A. Wattson. 
Jost. Born. 
J. Elleson. 

W. Moray. 
W. Moray. 
D. Tomason. 
H. Laury 
H. Merschell. 
D. Rabb (?). 
J. Marten. 
P. Marisson. 
H. Bely (Bailie). 
W. Wach (Waugh). 
A. Bely. 
A. Bely. 
H. Mackmoran. 
H. Dorndon (Thorn- 
P Stiven. 

XX. List of Contributors towards the Restoration-Fund 

Marischal College, Aberdeen. 

Patrick Forbes in Danzig (1684), ^280. 
John Turner „ (I685), ^"666, 13s. 

Al. Aedie, „ (1686), ^535. 

J. Walker, collected in Elbing and Queensbridge (1687), ^97> 
Robt. Davidson in Danzig, ^28. 
„ Gordon „ ^112. 

Low (Postmaster) in Danzig, ^"290. 
Thomas and Walter Leslie ,, ^203. 

W. Miller, collected in Konigsberg (1701), ^595. 
J. Robertson „ Poland (1701), ^957. 

Js. „ _ „ Danzig (1702) ^159. 

Al. Ross in Danzig (1703), ^26. 

The names of the fifty-four contributors belonging to the Scottish 
Brotherhood or Nation at Queenisbrig were (1701 ) : — 

Thomas Hervie. Ch. Ramsay. W. Watt. 

William Hervie. P. Murison. Js. Rainy. 

David Hervie. I John Murison. G. Coupar. 

Jas. Kuick. D. Mill. G. Gray. 

Will. Gray. W. Mill. J. Trotter. 

Robt. Stronoch. Fr. Hay. H. Panton. 

Al. Smith. G. Allan. W. Mercer. 

Al. Menie. W. Allan. Gilbt. Craigie. 

Js. Ritchie. And. Ramadge. Dav. Cramond. 

A. Fuller. John Rait. „ Miller. 

G. Gordon. Al. Watt. Geo. Lessly. 
John Gordon. 



Thos. Hervie. 
John Birrell. 
Laur. Birrell. 
Jas. Tam. 
Francis Craw. 1 
John Johnstone. 
Ths. Ramadge. 

Young Men and Servants 
J. Lyel. 
Js. Mitchelhill. 
H. Hunter. 
W. Tevendel. 
G. Gordon. 
W. Gordon. 
F. Filleman. 

G. Gross. 
Dan. Mitchel. 
E. Winster. 
D. Bailie. 
Ths. Hay. 
W. Douglas. 

Collected in Poland by Robt. Gordon in Warsaw. 

P. Watt, gulden 100. 
Al. Paip and son, Danzig, dollars 20. 
A. Majoriebanks, dollars 30. 
G. Buchan, „ 30. 

G. Moyre, gulden 100. 

Ths. Mashall, gulden 100. 
G. Paip, „ 30. 

Rob. Lowe, Warsaw, dollars IOO. 

„ Gordon, „ „ 60. 

G. Gordon, ,, ,, 2. 

XXI. Kabrun and Gibsones at Danzig. 

The part of Jacob Kabrun's will referring to Danzig runs as 
follows : — 

"I have sought from my youth up food for the mind not 
only in my main profession as a merchant but elsewhere also, 
and I have found it in the arts and sciences, to which I owe many 
a pure joy during my life. This being my opinion and having 
had the occasion of making purchases on my travels, a collection 
of paintings, drawings, prints and books has been formed, which 
cannot indeed, be pronounced unique, but is still not quite un- 

" Amongst many proposals, which I considered beneficial for 
my native city, I had once formed the project of endowing an 
educational establishment for those youths, who were to devote 
themselves to commerce and the sciences connected therewith. 
I was then counting on the patriotic assistance of my fellow- 
citizens. But I experienced again that he who expects the ful- 
filment of his well-meant proposals from others in undertakings 
aiming at the common good, and setting aside all private ad- 
vantages, is mistaken. Thus in this case also, partly from the 
want of public spirit, partly by reason of the unfavourable 
political aspect of the times, these my proposals had to remain 
amongst the list of unfulfilled wishes. Nevertheless I shall not 
doubt that success will ultimately obtain, if only after my death. 
I rather do hope that later on men will be found with the same 
good intentions but more good fortune, who amongst a band of 
public-spirited contemporaries, will be able to realise those ideas 

1 This is the author of the four letters given in the Appendix ; though 
Craw can scarcely be called a young man then, his first letter being 
dated 1671. 


which I have already thrown out and which I need not repeat 
here at length. 

I therefore do bequeathe all my paintings, drawings and prints 
and my whole library (together with the book-cases), of which 
special catalogues will be found after my death, for the founda- 
tion of an educational establishment, which has been wanting 
in my native city for so long a time, and I leave the sum of 
100,000 gulden Danzig money in City shares, as a fund, out 
of which all expenses necessary for the most profitable working 
of this institution shall be defrayed." 1 

The Gibsons or Gibsones were another family of rich merchants 
of Scottish extraction at Danzig. They derive their title of 
nobility from one William Gibsone, who was employed by King 
James V on various diplomatic missions, amongst others to the 
Pope at Rome. By him he was ennobled, and received as 
coat-of-arms the three keys and the motto: " Caelestes pandite 
portae." A descendant, named Alexander Gibsone, was living 
at Danzig during the reign of Frederick the Great. There he 
was considered a clever, honest, well-to-do, if somewhat eccentric 
merchant. Towards the end of the year 1776 he submitted to 
the President of the Province, von Domhardt, his plea to settle 
in the territory of the King of Prussia and to buy the estates 
known as the Neustridter or Przebendowski estates for the 
sum of 150,000 thaler (ca. .£23,000) for the benefit of his two 
nephews the young Counts Keyserling. In this document, which 
was duly forwarded to the King, Gibsone sets forth that he 
wished to prove himself a faithful vassal and a useful citizen of 
the kingdom by erecting factories at Neustadt for the manufacture 
of woollen cloths, stockings and hats ; by improving the breed- 
ing and rearing of sheep and by settling Scottish colonists on his 
estates. At the same time he begged of the King to grant him 
the title of "Freiherr" (Baronet), which would enable him to 
live amongst the Polish noblemen, his neighbours, as one of their 

By an order of the King, dated Potsdam, January 7th, 1777, 
the patent as Baron von Gibsone was duly forwarded not with- 
out an additional note of Frederick insisting on his keeping his 
promise and buying the estates. 2 

The purchase was not completed without considerable diffi- 
culties and delays, first of all on account of disagreement 

1 Volkel. 

2 It seems that the Patent never reached Gibsone, but remained in the 
Seal Office of Marienwerder. Gibsone had refused to pay the stamp- 
duty amounting to only ^180. 


amongst the heirs. Gibsone again applied to the King and the 
later replied: 

" Wellborn, most dear. Your settlement in my lands is by no 
means restricted to the purchase of the Przebendowski Estates. 
There are others in plenty, and you can attain your ends by 
purchasing those. I do not doubt that the sooner the better you 
will cause me to call myself your sovereign and feudal lord. 
Your gracious King. 

" Frd." 

"Potsdam, April 2nd, 1777." 

It was only in the year 1782 that the above-named estates 
were in the market for the sum of 220,000 gulden. Gibsone 
was not only ready to buy but to expend a further considerable 
sum on the repairs. On the other hand, he expects several 
privileges to facilitate matters and these the King grants with 
the exception of a reduction of taxes. The royal decree says : 

" His R.M. of Prussia, etc. Our gracious Sovereign is well 
pleased that Alexander Gibsone in Danzig intends to settle in 
his lands and permission has already been granted to him. All 
privileges granted by royal edicts to strangers, colonists, their 
workmen, furniture, etc., shall also be accorded to him and his 
at his request. Only the common taxes, which compared with 
English taxes are a trifle, can not be remitted, much less can 
the permission be given to establish factories on his estates 
against the clear tenor of the laws of the kingdom. Their 
proper place is in the towns. He may settle weavers if he 
likes, but otherwise the common law can not be changed for 
the sake of one man, but each subject, just as in England, must 
duly obey it. This His M. did not wish to conceal from the 
said Gibsone in reply to his letter of March 26th. 


"Potsdam, April ^rd, 1782." 

Gibsone's importunities finally roused the anger of the King. 
" You trouble me too often with your affairs," he writes on 
May 28th, 1782. " A foreigner must absolutely obey the con- 
stitution and the laws of the kingdom." 

At last the purchase was concluded. Gibsone swore the oath 
of allegiance at Marienwerder on the 12th of June of the same 
year. But far from trying to live at peace now, he entered 
into a series of conflicts and law-suits partly with his govern- 
ment, partly with the magistrates of Neustadt, where he assumed 
the right of appointing the members of that august body. These 
quarrels lasted till 1796 ; and even then new dissensions arose 
between Gibsone and the Count Otto Alexander Keyserling, to 


whom the estates had been transferred in that year. Keyserling 
refused to give up his own patrimonial estate and solely to farm 
the Neustadt property. 

Embittered and disappointed the hard old man retired at last to 
his office at Danzig. Here he carefully drew up his will, leaving 
the bulk of his fortune, amounting to over ^70,000, to a nephew 
from Scotland, whom he had taken into business, reserving the 
small sum of ^3000 only for his recalcitrant nephew Keyserling. 

No blessing seems to have rested on Gibsone's money. 
There was trouble and vexation in store even after his death 
in the year 181 1. It was Napoleon, who under the pretext 
that the deceased was an English subject, caused his fortune to 
be seized, and only released it after the representations of the 
Courts of Vienna, Berlin and Dresden. In the mean time, how- 
ever, it had diminished considerably, because it had become 
mixed up with the unsettled debts of war of the former free- 
state of Danzig. 1 

It is not quite certain in what year Gibsone's nephew 
Alexander 2 arrived in Danzig. He was a man of many excellent 
qualities,, and so efficient was his assistance in the defence of 
of his adopted City in 1 807, that General Kalkreuth, the 
Commander, publicly thanked him and appointed him his aide- 
de-camp, that he might be included in the capitulation, which 
the French insisted on confining to the garrison for the express 
purpose of depriving Mr Gibsone of the benefit of it. His 
Majesty, the King of Prussia, afterwards wrote to Gibsone, 
thanking him in the strongest manner for his services and 
subsequently conferred upon him the Cross of the Order of 
the Red Eagle. During the dominion of the French, Gibsone 
was indefatigable in his endeavours to rouse the patriotism, 
and having become associated in these exertions with General 
Gneisenau, a warm friendship commenced, which only termin- 
ated with the death of that Commander. Gibsone was appointed 
British Consul at Danzig in 18 14 and Consul General of 
Hanover some time later. His death was viewed by the whole 
community of Danzig as a general calamity. To the business- 
talent and the energy, which he shared with his uncle, he added 
a kindness of heart which gained him the love of everybody, 
and an ardent Prussian patriotism, which made the interference of 
the German courts on his behalf a natural expression of gratitude. 

1 The direct descendants of Gibsone's nephew are still alive in Danzig 
and have again acquired great wealth. One Gibsone is President of the 
Steam Navigation Co., Weichsel. 

2 He was a younger brother of Sir James Gibson-Craig of Riccarton ; 
old Baron Gibsone belonged to a branch of the Durie family. 



Gibsone's connection with Stein, Gruter and the other principal 
actors of the Prussian rising against the " Corsican Tyrant" is 
mentioned in many memoirs of the time. His co-operation 
seemed especially valuable on account of his being a native of 
Great Britain : the idea of British auxiliaries in German pay, 
who were to land in Prussia, just then engaging the attention of 
the Prussian patriots. 

Of his friendship with Gneisenau the following letter of the 
famous Prussian general gives an interesting account. It is 
dated Berlin, Nov. 2 1st, 1819, and runs: — 

" My dear and honoured Friend, 

"It is only now, that my son-in-law has sent 
me the cup of Bonaparte, taken from his carriage during the 
night of the 1 8th of June 1815 and which I left with him at 
Coblenz. I now fulfill my promise of presenting it to you, that 
were never tired of the struggle against the victorious general 
even when the greater part of Europe bowed before him without 
hope of redemption. If all the ministers and all the generals 
had opposed him with the like zeal, we should certainly never 
have been conquered by him. 

" I was very sorry to hear that your brother John died so 
unexpectedly and prematurely. When I saw him last he never 
appeared to have enjoyed better health of body and greater 
peace of mind. His death held out to me the hope of your 
visit, but you have not been able to come. 

" Like so many others you will have been puzzled at the 
intentions of our government published in the papers, but he 
who is tolerably well acquainted with the history of all this, 
is not amazed. It is only the natural development of certain 
premises. Once the incident terminated and all the documents 
being published, people will perhaps perceive among the motives 
of the procedure of government a certain fear needlessly increased 
by the circumstances ; but at the same time they will be con- 
vinced, that serious measures against unseemly acts, punish- 
able plans and, in part at least, detestable principles had to be 
taken by the crown. 

" I can only say this much, knowing only the smallest part of 
the progress of the investigation, all the rest and the latest being 
ac yet concealed from me. 

" Baron Schbn will be satisfied with the steps taken for the 
restoration of our Northern Alhambra — as Prince Hardenberg 
calls the ruins of the Marienburg. 1 Schinkel 2 is delighted 
with the plans. 

1 The ancient seat of the Teutonic Knights. 2 A famous architect. 



** What you say about the pleasures of a life in the country finds 
an echo in my heart. It seems quite incomprehensible to me, 
how I could exchange the slavery of town-life for the country. 
But I thought it right to sacrifice my wishes to duty. Since you 
can do as you like and have tasted its pleasures you ought surely to 
give it the preference. If I could get you in our valley an estate 
with good shooting, I should like you to buy it. But such a 
thing is not to be had here. Another plan would be for you 
to buy the lands over which your present shooting extends, and 
for me to acquire an estate in your neighbourhood. As it is I 
am parcelling out part of my Magdeburg property. May God 
keep you, and may you remain my friend as I shall always remain 

" Yours most affectionately, 
" G." 

Gibsone sent this letter together with one of his own, in which 
he modestly deprecates the praises given to him by Gneisenau, 
to his sister, who was at that time living at Leith. The cup also 
went to her as a contribution " towards her museum." 1 

XXII. Frederick II and Anderson. 

Frederick the Great everywhere promoted the commercial en- 
terprise of the Scots in his countries. In the year 1748 he 
concluded an agreement with George Anderson, who had pro- 
posed to erect large tanning-works at Berlin with a capital of 
.£6000. Anderson, however, made the condition, that not only 
should the travelling expenses of himself and six workmen be 
paid, but also that the latter and every other workman of his 
should be exempt from military service. The King granted 
these requests, and offered moreover to erect the buildings for 
preliminary trials with certain kinds of skins. The document 
concludes with these words: " Toutes ces conditions ont ete 
accordees a Mr Anderson." 

1 Cup and letters are now in possession of Sir Thomas Gibson 
Carmichael, Castle Craig, Dolphinton, N.B. Much of the above is 
taken from communications kindly sent to me by Professor Schulz at 


A. — The Death of Douglas. 

I. Scottish Sources. 

I. Forduni Scottichronicon (ed. Goodall), ii. 4 1 6. 

Isto anno proditionaliter interfectus est ab Anglis nobilis 
Wilelmus de Nithisdale super pontem de Danskin in Spruza, 
qui tunc amirallus electus fuit ducentarum et quadraginta navium 
ad oppugnandum paganos, qui eo tunc, pras caeteris ad mensam 
honoris magistri de Spruza ab herellis praeconizatus est Dominus 
de Clifford Anglicus, invidens probitati ejus, mercede conduxit 
Anglicos ad delendum memoriam ejus de terra : ob hoc, quod 
propter simultates inter eos, nescio qua occasione exortas, Clifford 
appellavit ipsum dominum Wilelmum de duello, et die de se 
defendendo constituto, interim dictus dominus Wilelmus trans- 
tulit se ad Franciam, ad securiora arma sibi componenda. Quo 
audito Clifford credidit dictum dominum Wilelmum subterfugere 
ut at terminum belli constitutum in loco non auderet comparere ; 
et propterea improbe Clifford ipsum scandalizavit. Quod com- 
periens Douglas conductum petiit et obtinuit et ad locum et 
terminum statutos comparuit. Sed et Clifford, excusationibus 
chlamydatus, ob ingentem fortitudinem Douglas comparere re- 
cusavit ; et abhinc recessit in Spruzam dictus dominus Wilelmus 
et ibidem ab Anglis circumseptus in multitudine extinctus est. 
Ob cujus mortem, illud sanctum passagium interceptum est. 

2. Boethii, Scotorum Historia. Edinb. 1 5 26, fol. 247. 

Eodem anno (1390) Wilelmus Douglas, vir nobilis virtuteque 
apud exteras etiam nationes clarus a Prutiae magnatibus dux 
ducentarum quadraginta navium ad oppugnandos fidei hostes 
electus, quum ad Dansicam pervenisset, per fraudem ab Anglo 
quodam nobili Clifford, a quo ad singulare certamen provocatus 
erat, in ponte Dansicensi confossus est. Ita magni optimique 
principum conatus fortunae invidia frustra fuere. 

3. Georgii Buchanan, Scoticorum Historia. Edinb. 1 582, fol. I02. 

Eodem anno (1390) Gulielmus Duglassius Nithiae regulus 

(quern diximus virtutis ergo generum a rege ascitum), Dantisci 

ad Vistulam occisus fuit percussoribus a Cliffordo Anglo in eum 



submissis. Duglassius enim rebus domi tranquillis, ne in ocio 
languesceret, in Borussiam ad bellum sacrum profectus, tale 
specimen virtutis detit, ut universae classi, quae maxima et orna- 
tissima erat, praeficeretur. Orta vero altercatione cum Anglo 
ex antiqua gemulatione eum honorem moleste ferente ad certamen 
singulare ab eo fuit provocatus. Provocator, secum cogitans, in 
quam ancipitem Martis aleam se demissurus esset, hominem per 
sicarios tollendum curat. 

4. Metrical translation of Boethius. 1 

William of Douglas in that samin yeir 
Into Danskine throw tressoun of ane freir 
Efter in weir greit worschip that he wan, 
With Inglismen that same tyme wes slane than. 

Syne on the morne as he wes wont to pas 
Onto ane kirk into the town that was, 
With twa servandis he passit and no mo, 
On to that kirk as he was wont till go, 
Than Inglismen into his way did lig 
As he come hame at the end of ane brig, 
In his passage cjuhair that he suld over pas 
Ther Inglismen, into his gait that was, 
Accusit him and shairplie he than did speir 
Quhat wes the caus that he troublit their freir ? 

After an altercation the English suddenly fall upon him. 
Douglas himself unarmed snatched the sword of one of his 
servants and wielded it mightily against his assailants. 

Quhill baith his servandis slane war in that tyde 
Him self also buir deidlie woundis wyde 
And weill he wist the woundis he had tone 
Wald be his deid, thairfoir lyke ane lyoun 
To keip his corse that tyme he tuke na cuir 
Amang his fais with sic force he fuir 
That fyve he slew. . . . 

The wounded Douglas then drags himself to his house, sends 
for a priest of his nation, and having confessed receives absolu- 
tion. Then he dies forgiving his enemies. The poet concludes 
the episode with the following lines : 

" In Danskene sen as that citie stude 
Wes never none, shortlie to concude 
Better lovit baith with wyfe and man 
And more menit no wes the Douglas than." 

Here we plainly perceive the instincts of the poet ; the friar 
1 Added for the sake of completeness, not for its historical importance. 


is introduced ; the number of ships is raised to two hundred 
and fifty j Clifford himself is present at Danzig and escapes 
from there after Douglas had challenged him before the 
assembled Lords, etc. 

5. Book of Plus car den {Hist, of Scotland, vii. 3 2 5)* 
William Douglas, being very high spirited, served in repeated 
campaigns with the chivalry of Prussia on the borders of the 
heathen enemies of Christ. At length, one day, he was by 
chance found by the English taking a walk on the bridge of 
Dansekyn and killed. (Transl. from the original Latin.) 

6. In the edition of Fairbairn of John Major's History 
(1521), it is said that Douglas was slain: "super pontem 
de Dansken in Sprusa, 1 390." 

This seems to have been an unsurmountable difficulty to the 
English editor, who translated the work for the Scottish Hist. 
Society. In a note, he welcomes the extraordinary emendation 
of the above into : " Dunglas over the Pease (!)." 

II. German Sources. 

(a) The Chronicle of Wigand of Marburg. 
1 391. Interimque fit dissensio ex parte Anglicorum et 
Schotorum. Nam dominus Wilhelmus de Duclos Schotus 
interfectus fuit in ponte juxta summum, 1 qui cum uno pede 
ad foramen corruerat et viriliter se defendit ut eciam unus de 
familia sua cum eo occideretur. Hirsch, Scriptores Rerum Prussi- 
carum, vol. ii. 644.) 

(b) The Chronicle of J. von Posilge. 
Auch wart eyn Herre von Schottlant, der von Duglas, 

Also there was a Lord of Scotland, he of Douglas 

czu KSngsberg von den Engelschen geslagen, das czwetracht 

at Konigsberg by the English slain, so that discord 

wart undir den von Frankrich und Engelschen, das der 

arose among those of France and the English, so that the 

eryntisch czu Kongsberg nicht gehalden wart j und also 

table of honour at Konigsberg not kept was; and thus 

irhub sich der Meister 2 mit den gesten und czog in reysze. 
arose the Master with the guests and went for crusade. 

{Ibid. Scriptores Rerum Prussicarum, vol. iii. 172.) 

III. French Sources. 

Le livre des Faicts du Mareschal de Boucicaut. Comment 
Messire Boucicaut alia la troisieme fois en Prusse et comment il 
voulut venger la mort de Messire Guillaume de Douglas. 

Et ainsi comme il s'en retournait et ja estait a Konigsberg, 

1 Hirsch supplies : " altare." 

2 Hochmeister, the head of the Teutonic Order. 


advint telle advanture que comme plusieurs estrangers fussent 
arrivez en la dicte ville de Konigsberg, lesquels alloient pour 
estre a la susdicte guerre, un vaillant chevalier d'Escosse appele 
messire Guillaume de Duglas, fut la occis en trahison de certains 
Anglois. Quand ceste mauvaistie sceie, qui desplaire debvoit 
a tout bon homme, messire Boucicaut, nonobstant que a celuy 
messire Guillaume de Duglas n'est nulle acquointance ; mais 
tout par la vaillance de son noble courage, pour ce que le faict 
luy sembla si laid qu'il ne deust estre souffert ne dissimule 
sans vengeance, et pour ce que il ne fut la nul chevalier ni 
escuyer qui la querelle en voulust prendre nonobstant qu'il y 
eust grand foison de gentilshommes du pays d'Ecosse, ains 
s'en taisoient tous, il fist a scavoir et dire a tous les Anglois 
qui la estoient, que s'il y avoit nul d'eulx qui voulust dire 
que le diet chevalier n'eust este par eulx tue faulsement et 
traistreusement, que il disoit et vouloit soustenir par son corps 
que si avoit et estoit prest de soustenir la querelle du chevalier 
occis. A ceste chose ne voulurent les Anglois rien respondre, 
ains dirent que si les Escossois qui la estoient leur vouloient de ce 
aulcune chose dire que ils leur en respondroient : mais a luy ne 
vouldroient rien avoir a faire. Et ainsi demeura la chose et Bouci- 
caut s'en partit et fut tout a point en Prusse a la guerre qui fut 
la plus grande et la plus honorable que de longtemps y eust eu. 
(Michaud et Poujoulat, Collection des Memoires, I ere Serie, 
Tome ii. p. 232.) 

IV. Obligatory Note of James Douglas 1 (1390?). 

"Noverint universi presentia visuri seu audituri quod ego 
Jacobus de Douglas miles agnosco publice per presentes, me 
unacum meis heredibus teneri et obligari famoso militi Roberto 
Stewart 2 et suis heredibus decern . . . Prutenicalis monete, 

quas decern promitto sibi solvere hie in Dantzic super festum 

Paschae nunc proxime affuturum, quod si non fecero ex tuto 
promitto in bona fide et honore nulla arma militis induere nisi 
cum illud fuerit cum suo. 

" In huius rei testimonium sigillum meum presentibus est 

" Datum Dantisci anno millesimo tercentesimo." 3 

B. — The Craffters (Crawfords) in Augsburg. 
James Crawford, the youngest son of David, the third Earl, 
accompanied the Scottish Princess Eleanor Stuart to Germany in 

1 Of Dalkeith. 2 Sir Robt. Stewart of Durisdeer. 

3 Only this copy of the document has been preserved. The year 1300 
is a mistake of the copyist instead of 1389 or 1390. See Report of the 
Royal MSS. Comm., vol. ix. 


1449, where she was married to Archduke Sigmund of Austria. 
On the journey he remained at Augsburg in Bavaria, where 
he himself marrying a rich heiress became the founder of a 
prominent and very wealthy family, the Craffters, as they were 
called. Raphael Gustos, 1 a writer of the XVIIth Century, has the 
following rhymes referring to the Scottish descent of the family : 

" Als eine Konigin aus Schottland kam When a queen came from Scotland 

Herauss, Ertzhertzog Sigmund nam, Forth, Archduke Sigmund to take, 

Kam mit ihr aus dem Konigreich There came with her out of the kingdom 

Auch einer von Crawfurdt zugleich, Also one of the Crawfords, 

Adelichen Stammes aldort, Of noble family there, 

Diser blieb in Deutschland hinfort, He remained in Germany henceforth, 

Auch desselben Posteritet Also his posterity 

Sich hernachen gen Augsburg tet, Afterwards went to Augsburg, 

Da, als mit den Geschlechten von There, when with the race of patricians 


Sie sich verpflicht zu heurat's ehren They had bound themselves to the 

honour of marriage, 

Seinsnachaltemgebrauchundgewohn They according to old custom 

Der ehrbarn GesellschafFt zugethon." Were added to the honourable guild. 

The four great-grandsons of this Crawford were ennobled by 
the Emperor Charles V in 1 547, and admitted amongst the 
patricians of the city as so-called " Mehrer der Gesellschaft " = 
patrons of the Society. One of these brothers, Hieronymus, is 
mentioned in an epitaph formerly in the church of St Anna. 2 


HiERONymi Filius lavrentu Nepos 
jacobi . de . crafordia . NOBilis scoti . Pronepos 


ioANnis henrici . hoerwarti . Filia. 

M. P. 

1 Patriciarum stirpium ... in Augusta . . insignia (1613). 

2 Daniel Prasch, Epitaphia Augustana, Aug. Vind. 1624, i. 176. 
Hieronymus (the first named) seems to have first accumulated riches. 


C. — Letters from Gustavus Adolfus to Donald Mackay. 

We, Gustavus Adolfus, by the Grace of God, King of the 
Suedes, &c, Sec. 

Be it known to all by these presents, that we have appointed 
the noble and highly beloved Donald, Lord of Reay, to be 
our Colonel over a Regiment of foreign soldiers which he is to 
raise and equip, conduct and command for our service, which 
Regiment, the officers as well as the soldiers, shall at all times 
fulfil this letter of agreement, and, participating in our advan- 
tages, shall not turn away from us in times of misfortunes, and, 
as becometh such honourable and brave cavaliers and soldiers, 
they shall always be ready cheerfully and indefatigably to 
venture body and life, whether in presence of or away from the 
enemy, in battles, in skirmishes, and on watches, in attacks, in 
sieges, and in garrisons ; and on all occasions, whether with the 
whole army, or on any special service to which they may be 
ordered by us or our generals, they shall, by day or night, by 
water or by land, fulfil our articles of War, and thereby attain 
to honour and renown ; also, the soldiers, wherever they may 
be, on the march or in quarters, shall do everything that is 
necessary in approaches, sieges, trenches, or strongholds of the 
enemy ; shall throw up earth-works, and when attacked, defend 
same ; and shall also repair and build any necessary field-works 
with all despatch wherever they may be needed. In fulfilling 
this engagement, we hereby agree to give to the Colonel and the 
Regimental Staff, the following allowance or monthly pay, 
reckoning the month at thirty-one days. 

The Colonel, 300 Rex-dollars, Swedish. 

Lieut.-Colonel, I go ,, ,, 

Quarter-master, 5° >> >> 

2 Chaplains at, 30 ,, ,, 

4 Surgeons and 4 Provosts, 20 

I Regim. Clerk, 




I Court Martial Clerk, 




I Regim. Judge, 




Court Martial Beadle, 




2 Orderlies, each 




The Executioner, 




And to each company there shall be given 1 


each : — 


100 R< 









family d 

Towards the end of XVIIth 

isappears from 



2 Sergeants, 



I Quarterm. Serg., "j 

I Armourer, !- 


> » 

I Muster Clerk, J 

Drummers, Pipers, 



6 Corporals, 



15 heads of sections, 



21 Under-Sergeants, 



90 Pikemen and Musket., 



4 Scouts, 



40 Reserve Men, 



Then follows a list of further considerable remunerations amount- 
ing to almost half of the regular pay. After this the King 
continues : — 

" And we undertake and expressly agree always to provide a 
sufficient monthly allowance, and to make a settlement twice in 
the year, and to pay at that time whatever balance may be then 
found due for the preceding six months ; also that we shall not 
reduce the soldiers' pay ; but if any of the men shall have care- 
lessly damaged or broken their accoutrements, the cost of same 
shall be deducted from their pay, and they must at all times 
undertake to keep and deliver them to us again in good order. 
. . . Also, that the Regiment shall without demur be bound to 
muster in whole or in part at any time or place we may be 
pleased to appoint ; and further, that no officer shall venture to 
draw the balance due to any dead, disabled or absent soldier, for 
the balances due to all such shall in every case revert to us and 
our kingdom of Sweden. ... If any officers or soldiers should 
be taken prisoners by the enemy, while in our service, we shall 
ransom them at our own cost ; and if any officers or soldiers 
. . . shall be bruised or in any way disabled, so that they are 
incapable of taking part in warlike operations, we shall provide 
a temporary home for them in our own dominions ; but should 
they prefer going beyond our kingdom, a month's pay shall be 
given to each. In testimony whereof we have subscribed this 
with our own hand and attested the same with our Royal Seal. 
Done in the Camp of Marienburg, June 17th, 1629." 

" Gustavus Adolfus." 

Of the two Latin letters of the King to Mackay the first 15th 
March 1631, refers to the sack of New Brandenburg by Tilly, 
and expresses a regret that nearly the whole of the soldiers had 
been massacred. The King hopes that the three regiments may 
be filled up by levies from Scotland. The second Latin letter 



dated 4th July, 1631, from the Camp at Werben is addressed: 
" Illustri Tribuno nostro, nobis sincere dilecto ac iideli Domino 
Donald Macquei, Domino de Reay et Streinever." In answer 
to a letter from Mackay, who was then in England, endeavouring 
to procure new recruits for His Majesty, the King says : — 

" It is very agreeable to us to learn that the levies of the 
Marquis of Hamilton are favoured both by the King himself and 
the English States ; and as we have undertaken the burden of 
this war not only to be avenged for injury done and for our own 
security, but also for the relief of our oppressed friends in the 
afflicted Evangelical Religion, so we wish his Serene Majesty, 
the English King, our brother and friend, to be quite convinced, 
that if he will help us we shall not be unmindful of the King of 
Bohemia and the oppressed House of the Palatine j but we shall 
vindicate his dignity and former state as the Divine favour shall 
help us. For this purpose there is now the most favourable 
opportunity, seeing that the enemy has been expelled from the 
whole of Pomerania and nearly all the Electorate of Brandenburg. 
... It is pleasing to us that the Marquis of Hamilton raises his 
levies with so much ardour; and although it has been reported 
to us that the munitions of war which we were sending him 
have been intercepted near Dunkirk, we do not doubt that our 
agent, Eric Larson, has provided for the promised amount." 

The King then urges the Marquis of Hamilton to hurry and 
bring his troops into Germany without delay, and explains that 
he has given orders to Larson to pay Mackay the sum of 9600 
Imperial dollars for the expense of enlisting. He concludes 
with promised proofs of his favour and recommends him to God. 1 

D. — List of the Principal Scottish Officers employed by 
Gustavus Adolfus in Germany. 2 

Three Field- Mar s halls : — 

Sir Alex. Leslie, Governor of 

the Baltic Provinces. 
Sir Patrick Ruthven, Governor 

of Ulm. 
Sir Robt. Douglas, commanded 

the left wing of Torstensohn's 

Army at lankowitz. 
Four Generals : — 

James, Marquis of Hamilton. 
Sir James Spence. 

George, Earl of Crawford- 

Andr. Rutherford, afterwards 
Earl of Teviot. 
Lieutenant- General : — 

Alex. Forbes, tenth Lord Forbes. 
Majors-General : — 

Sir James King, Governor of 

Sir D. Drummond, Governor of 

1 J. Mackay, An Old Scots Brigade, p. 234 f. 

2 From various sources. 



Sir James Ramsay, Governor of 

Alex. Ramsay, Governor of 

John Rentoun. 

W. Legge, Governor of Bremen. 

John Leslie. 

Th. Ker, f at Leipzig. 

Sir G. Douglas. 
Colonels : — 

Sir J. Hepburn. 

Robt. Munroe, Lord of Foulis f 
at Ulm. 

Sir Donald Mackay, Lord Reay. 

G. Lindsay, f at Neu-Branden- 

Lord Forbes, f at Hamburg. 

Sir Hector Munroe f at Bux- 

Lord St Colme. 

Lud. Leslie. 

Will. Baillie. 

W. Bonar of Rossy, in Fife. 1 

A. Ramsay. 

Sir J. Ruthven. 

Sir Jas. Lumsden, Governor of 

Sir J. Hamilton. 

Sir J. Innes. 

W. Ballantine. 

Henry Lindsay, f at Hamburg. 

Alex. Lindsay. 

Jas. Macdougall (called Dew- 
battle. He stormed Lands- 
berg, defended Schweinfurt 
and beat the Imperial troops 
at Liegnitz). 

Henry Fleming. 

W. Bruntsfield, f at Bux- 

William Stewart, brother of the 
Earl of Traquair. 

Seven other Leslies, amongst 
them George Leslie, Gover- 
nor of Vechta in Oldenburg. 2 

Six Hamiltons. 

Two Lumsdens. 

John Sinclair, son of the Earl of 
Caithness, f at Neumark in the 

Robt. Munroe, f at Witten- 

Fr. Sinclair. 

J. Lindsay, f at Neumark. 
Captains : — 

— Annan. 

— Armin, wounded at Stralsund. 

— Beatoun, wounded at Stral- 

A. Gordon. 

W. Gunn, afterwards Colonel 

and Imperial General. 
John Gunn, afterwards Colonel. 3 
G. Heatley. 
Rob. Hume. 

John Innes, f at Stralsund. 
P. Innes, f at Niirnberg. 
G. Learmouth, f at Boitzenburg. 
W. Mackay, f at Lutzen. 
Three other Mackays. 
Moncrieff, f at Brandenburg. 
Three Stewarts. 
Alex. Tulloch. 
And many others. 4 

E. — Colonel Robert Munro and his Death at Ulm. 

In the minute-books of the Town Council of Ulm in Wiirtem- 
berg we read (Feb. 20. 1633) : — 

1 He settled in the Duchy of Bremen, where he bought the Castle 
of Gnadenfeld. He died in 1674. One of his sons became a Danish 
General. See Gauhen, Adels Lexicon, i. 141. 

2 He died in 1638. See Pufendorf, Schtved. Kriegsgeschickte, ix. § 42. 

3 Buried at Ohlau in Silesia. He had married a Miss von Arnim, 
■j* 1649. See Supplement. 

* J. Mackay, An old Scots Brigade, Appendix. 


" Michael Rietmuller, the surgeon, has permission to have 
Colonel Munroth (!) in his house, until the time of his recovery. 

May 2nd 1633. 

" Received by me Paul Held, secretary to the Board of Works 
of the Church from the Brother of the late Robert Monroth a 
Scottish Baronet and Colonel to H. M. the King of Sweden the 
sum of 100 Reichs Thaler, which had gratefully been left to the 
said Board ad pias causas, because the Magistrates had the above 
named Robert interred in the Franciscan Church and his 
standard, armour and spurs hung up there j for which the 
Swedish Mayor again thanked the Board and begged to express 
his gratitude to the Council. 

Contin.fol. 1 59. 

" According to a decree of the Council, dated Friday, May 3, 
of the loo Reichs Thaler left by the late Swedish Colonel 
Robert Monro, because of the permission to be buried in the 
Franciscan Church, one half, namely 75 Gulden or 25 Ducats at 
3 fl. shall be given to the Hospital, and in future, when such 
donations shall occur again, it shall be held likewise." 

In the Register of Deaths of the Church mentioned above we 
find the following entry : — 

" I, Magister Balthasar Kerner have done my 96th Funeral 
Sermon for Robert Monraw, Baron of Failis (!), late Colonel of 
H.M. the King of Sweden of two regiments of foot and horse, 
on the 29th of April hor. 3. He lies buried in the said Church." 

The Latin Poet Joannes Narssius, who lived at Hamburg in 
the beginning of the XVIIth Century and wrote a long Latin 
Poem on the Thirty Years' War, which he called " Gustavis," 
dedicates the following epithaphium to the memory of Munro : — 

Ingenti clarus Robertus robore Munro 

Qui Baro de Foullis, Munroidumque caput : 
Bina cui legio peditumque equitumque ministra 

Quam sociat Patriae ac Religionis amor. 
Lipsiacis postquam certavit gnaviter oris, 

Et passim Austriacis Martia damna dedit, 
Hostili tandem prostratus vulnere multo, 

Ulmiaco liquit membra caduca solo. 
Spiritus exsuperans ingenti robore mortem 

Heroum in superis praemia digna capit. 
Discite, Germani, grataque evolvite mente, 

Pro vobis, fortes quot cecidere viri ! 
Pro vestra Heroes quot libertate necantur, 
Gente Caledonia Munroidumque sati ! ( 1633). 1 

1 Munro, His Expedition. 


Another Munro, whose Christian name was John, was killed at 
Bacharach on the Rhine and lies buried in the Church of St Peter. 
But there is neither stone nor inscription to indicate the spot. 

F. — I. Letter of General James Ramsay relating to the 
Treaty of Mayence. 

James Ramsay, Major General of the kingdom of Sweden and 
its allies also Governor of the fortress of Hanau is constrained, 
with regard to the Chief-Points of the Treaty handed to him by 
the Hessian Ambassadors, to remark as follows : — 

" Firstly, that the above-mentioned six points do not relate to 
the common welfare but chiefly to the person of the General 
himself; although he by force of his office aimed in all his actions 
military and civil, above all things, at the common good of the 
County of Hanau and especially of this fortress and its sovereign. 
To turn aside from such a scope and simply to deal with personal 
matters would cause prejudice and grievance with my superiors 
and disreputable rumours with friend and foe. 

" Secondly, that it is apparent from the document signed by the 
Emperor at the Castle of EbersdorfF on September 14th of last 
year that the "peace-accord" concluded at Mayence on the 31st 
of August eodem anno was not inserted in its entirety, but only 
some paragraphs of it, which had been in consideration up to the 
2 1 st of August, but which had never been signed by the General. 

" Thirdly, the treaty is a patched up work. The clear letter, 
however, showeth that certain stipulations took place as to 
the pardon and reconciliation of Count Philip Moritz and the 
eventual surrender of this town ; likewise some paragraphs 
were agreed upon and signed and then sent to His Imp. Maj. the 
late Emperor ad ratificandum, which ratification took place at 
Regens Purgk on Dec. 5th Ao. 1636. 

" Therefore the public interest requireth, that both the stipula- 
tions settled as well as the Imperial ratification concerning these 
first points should without any delay be brought to hand, con- 
sidering that the Crown of Sweden can not rest satisfied with 
the present Imperial Document de dato Sept. 14th, far less accept 
its many discrepancies (Lit. B.). 

"To this must be added, that, as may be seen both from the 
treaty itself and from the Salvoconduct dated Laxenburg, May 
8th, 1637, this fortress was to be handed over to the Count of 
Hanau, but that in the Imperial letter of intercession to the Duke 
of Mecklenburg of the 4th of September, "the surrender shall 
take place into the hands of His Imperial Majesty" 

"It is likewise a grievous alteration, that the General with all 
his soldiers and belongings was to have a free pass and a convoy 


and enjoy every futherance and support, nevertheless in the 
forged Imperial confirmation this is tacitly omitted ; also that 
the hostages refer to the person of the General alone instead of 
the officers and soldiers on foot and horse and to all persons in 
the service of the Crown of Sweden and other good friends 
staying with him. 

"Now because the foundation of the treaty is not properly estab- 
lished, and because common faith and truthfulness require a ' con- 
summation ' free from any blame : let the Hessian ambassadors 
duly co-operate that such defects be remedied and word for word, 
a just agreement (of the documents) be obtained. Expecting 
Your written communications, signatum, the 2nd of Feb., 1638." 

II. Duke Bernhard of Weimar and Ramsay. 

Ramsay never neglected his duty towards his superior officers. 
He informed the Duke immediately of the treaty of Mayence ; 
but the latter had already heard of it through a different channel. 
He wrote on the nth of Sept. 1637 : — 

..." We have been told for certain, that you concluded a 
treaty with the enemy concerning the surrender of the town and 
fortress of Hanau. Considering that by your great industry and 
perseverance, you have held the place up to this time, which not 
only earned you immortal glory, but our own gratitude, we can 
fancy only, that extreme necessity and adversity compelled you 
to give up such an important place." 

In a second letter the Duke expressed his surprise to the 
General, that he had obtained such favourable conditions, add- 
ing (Nov. 20th) that he had sufficient proof of Ramsay's constant 
and true affection for the Crown of Sweden and for the whole 
evangelical cause, and that he had no doubt whatever, that to 
his immortal honour and praise, he would persevere in it un- 
shaken and do his best as hitherto. 

In another letter the Duke recommends Ramsay to observe 
the paragraphs of the treaty carefully with the express order to 
see to it, " that all articles of the contract be fulfilled, because to 
promise much is nothing, the keeping of the promises is the 
principal thing." 1 

III. Ramsay's Will. 

The General, who left an extremely large fortune, exhorts his 
wife in the introduction to his will " to educate their son David 
in the fear of God," at the same time recommending her not to 
mourn for him longer than six weeks, and after that to marry a 
gentleman of good family for the best of her child. The new 
husband was to receive one third of the money left by him, the 
1 Wille, p. 450. 


second third belonging to her and the third to their son. In 
case the latter should die without heir, the money was to go to 
the General's cousin, Lord William Ramsay, and his male heirs. 
A part of the interest on the property was set aside for the 
support of five students of divinity. 

Finally it was ordered that immediate payment should be made 
for 500 pairs of shoes, bought at Elbing for the regiment. 1 

G. — Scottish Officers under Frederick the Great. 

Too late to be incorporated into the text, the following 
additional information regarding Scottish Officers under Frederick 
the Great, chiefly derived from Charles Lowe's delightful tale, 
A Fallen Star, 2 must find a place here. 

Major General Grant mentioned in the text, Frederick's 
favourite aide-de-camp, belonged to the Grants of Dalvey, and 
was designated of Dunlugas, " an estate on the pleasant banks 
of the Deveron, a few miles above the port of Banff." At first, 
being a cadet who had to push his own fortune in the world, he 
took service under Elizabeth, the Empress of Russia, where his 
countryman Keith procured him a commission. After a time, 
however, he exchanged it after the example of his general, 
to whom he was devotedly attached, for the Prussian army. 
Frederick the Great quickly discovered his great force of char- 
acter, his blunt honesty 3 and his excellent capacity for hard 
riding. As the King's messenger, he performed feats of horse- 
manship which seem incredible. Shortly before the outbreak of 
the Seven Years' War he covered the distance between Berlin 
and Vienna and back again, including a delay of three days in the 
Austrian capital, that is close on nine hundred miles, in ten days. 

By these and other performances he contributed much to the 
well-known readiness of the King against all surprises, and 
therefore, if indirectly, to the victorious issue of the war. 

One of Grant's eccentricities was his great love for his dogs. 
His two intelligent Scotch collies accompanied him everywhere, 
and he is said to have trained and used them for military purposes 
where the services of scouts were required. 

When the war was over in 1763 his grateful King made him 
a Major-General and Governor of Neisse, an important fortress 
on the frontier of Silesia. But a life of peace and quiet monotony 

1 Wille, p. 489. It is very doubtful if the widow ever entered into 
possession of Ramsay's wealth. The 1 50,000 marks deposited for him at 
Amsterdam by the Imperalists, as an equivalent for the surrender of Hanau, 
by some means or other found their way back into the Imperial Exchequer, 
although Ramsay had distrained the money (Wille, p. 491). 

2 Downey & Co., London, 1895. 3 See De Catt's Memoirs. 


did ill agree with this man of daring. He died about 1 764, and 
lies buried in the churchyard of the Garrison Church. 1 Of two 
other officers under the great Prussian King, Colonel Drummond 
and Quartermaster Spalding we know little more than the 
names. A third one, however, named Gaudy or von Gaudy, 
obtained no little fame. 

The Gaudys were originally Goldies or Gowdies, and hailed 
from Ayrshire and Dumfries-shire. One Andrew Gaudie from 
Craigmuie, a parish adjacent to Craigenputtock, the temporary 
home of Carlyle, entered the service of Prince Ragozzi in 
Hungary (1641), who sent him as ambassador to Hamburg and 
employed him in various military capacities. He was present in 
several of the later battles of the Thirty Years' War. In 1650 
he bought estates in Eastern Prussia, and in 1660 exchanged into 
the service of the Elector of Brandenburg as Major- General. 
From this Gaudy sprung quite a number of famous Prussian 
military leaders. One of them is mentioned by Frederick the 
Great in his Memoires de Brandenburg in connection with the siege 
of Stralsund, then occupied by the Swedes under Charles XII., 
as the Prussian officer who facilitated the attacking of the 
Swedish trenches. It appears that Gaudy recollected having, in 
his school days at Stralsund, bathed in the arm of the sea near 
the ramparts finding it neither deep nor muddy. To make 
sure of the matter, however, he sounded it in the night " and 
found that the Prussians might ford it, turn the left of the 
Swedish trenches, and thus take the enemy in flank and rear." 
This was successfully done, and the merit of defeating such 
a renowned soldier as Charles XII was due, or in part at least, 
due to a man of Scottish origin. 

Another Gaudy, a son of the above, was attached to the staff 
of Field-Marshal Keith. He was a most intelligent officer and 
wrote a Diary of the Seven Tears' War, in ten folio volumes of 
manuscript still preserved but unpublished in the Archives of the 
" General Stab" at Berlin. He also wrote treatises on fortification. 

A third Gaudy was Fred. W. Leopold von Gaudy, Lieutenant- 
Colonel of Infantry and Knight of the Order Pour le merite in 
1809. His son again became the famous soldier-poet, Franz von 
Gaudy, who has been called, though not very aptly, the " Burns 
and Beranger of the Fatherland rolled into one." The simplicity 
and sweetness of his lyrics is still much admired in Germany. 1 

Descendants of old Gaudys are still to be met with in the 
Prussian Army List. 

1 See Lowe, I.e., p. 364. 

2 Lowe, A Fallen Star, Appendix (reprinted from the United Service 
Magazine} . 



I. List of Abbots of St James' Monastery S. B. at Ratisbon. 

Marianus, f 1080. 

Donellus (1111-1121 ?). 

Dermitius (1 121-1 149 ?). 
Christianus (115C-1172). 
Gregorius I (1172-1204). 
Joannes I (1204-1211). 
Matthaeus I (1211-1214). 
Gregorius II (1214-1223). 
Jacobus I (122 3- 1233). 
Joannes II (1233-1240?). 
Paulinus (1240 P-I243). 
Deocarus (1243 ?-i247). 
Matthaeus II (1247-1250). 
Jacobus II (1251-1257). 

Gelasius (1257 ?). 

Marianus (1261-1277). 
Macrobius (1277-1278 ?). 
Christian II (1282-1287). 
Macrobius II (1 287-1 289) 

vere prodigus." 
Matthaeus III (1290- 1293). 
Mauritius (1293- 1296). 
Marianus II (1296-1301). 
Donatus I (1301- 1 3 10). 
Joannes III (1310-1326). 
Nicolaus ( 1 326-1 332). 
Matthaeus IV (133 2- 1337) 

Joannes IV (1337-1343). 
Gilbertus (1343- 1347). 
Nicolaus II (1347-1354). 
Eugenius (1354- 1369). 
Matthaeus V (1369-1380). 
Gelasius II (1380-1384). 
Matthaeus VI (1 384-1 396). 
Philippus I (1396- 1 401). 


Philippus II (1402-1418). 
Donatus II (1418-1431). 
Cormacus (1431-1436). 
Alanus (1437-1442). 
Benedictus (1 442-1 444) "multa 

mala fecit." 
Carolus or Rovicus (1447 ?). 
Mauritius II (deposed 1452) "pro- 
Thaddaeus (1457). 
Otto (145 7- 1 464 ?). 
JoannesV(i<(.65-i479) "prodigus." 
Matthaeus VII (1479-1484). 
David I (1484- 1 499) "subdolus." 
Walterus (1499-1515) "delapi- 

Joannes VI (151 5- 1523). 
Andreas (Ruthven) (1523-1525). 
David II (Cuming) (1525-1548). 
Alexander (Bog) (1 548-1 556). 
Balthasar (Dawson) (1556 1566). 
Thomas Anderson (1566-1576). 
Ninian Winzet (1 577-1 592). 
Joannes VII ( Whight) (1592- 

Benedictus Algaeus (1623- 1630) 

" prodigus." 
Alexander II (Baillie) (1640- 

Macarius Camerarius (165 7- 167 2) 

" deposed." 
Placidus Fleming (1672-1720). 
Maurus Stuart (1720). 
Bernard Baillie (1720- 1742). 
Bernard Stuart (1742-17 55). 
Gallus Leith (1756-1775). 
Bened. Arbuthnot (177 5- 1820) 




Serenissim. Elector Bavaria, Maxi 
mil. Emanuel (11726), 

II. Syllabus Benefactorum Monasterii Sti. Jacobi Scotorum, 
Ratisbonae, 1678. 1 

endowed the monastery with several 
villages and gave "mille quadrin- 
gentos florinos " in 1681, 1684, '87. 
Two hundred in 1702. 
Augustiss. lmperator Leopoldus I donavit Placido Flaminio mille flor. 

f misit abbatem Viennam ad solli- 

citanda Serenissim. S. negotia et 

pro expensis dedit 600 fl. item 

pelvim argenteam et dua candelabra 

k argent. (1701). 

Sereniss. Princeps 

Wilhelmus a 

Illustr. Dom. Ludov. de Crecy," 
Regis Plenipot. ad Comitia Im- 
perii, qui per no vein annos et 
aliquot menses fuit in hoc 
monasterio (fi70i), 

- gave embroidered vestments, etc. 

f fundavit altare Stae Annae, donavit 
-J 800 fl. pro missis, vestim. et 6369 

I fl. post mortem in Monast. 
gave vestments and 1200 fl. for the 
boys' seminary ; books and mathe- 
matical instruments, and a legacy of 

■ 3000 fl. 
200 Imperiales for the erection of 
Fraunhqffer f built the altar of St Dismas and 

\ endowed it with 700 fl. 

{legavit multa beneficia et 250 fl. 
pro aedific. altare Beat. Virg. 
f gave iron stoves to the value of 

Illustr. Dom. Georgius Etheridge,\ 
eques, auratus, Seren. Jacobo II I 

Regi a consiliis et ad comitia I gave political and historical books, 
imperii hie Ratisbonae (1685) ora- 
tor Plenipot. Discedens 1688 (?), 2 J 

Dom. Leichnamschneider, Proto- f , r a 

« , ' { left 1000 fl. 

not. Apostol. Canonicus, ^ 

Baro de Imsland (11723) 

///. Dom. de Puts (fi7i8) 

///. Dom. Jac. de Leslie (f 1 691) -J 

Dom. Balthasar 
( tl7l9) 

Praenob. et magnus Domin. 
Andreas Bauman (11725) 

Bishop of Eichstetten 

1 From the original in the Monast. S. B. at Fort Augustus. 

2 This was the famous dramatist. His life at Ratisbon, where he 
spent his days in gambling, protecting actresses and drinking, was little in 
accordance with the German dignified ideas of an ambassador. The 
above list shows us what became of his books after his flight from 



Praenob. Petrus Montmedy, Lux-'i 
emburgensis (71709). Sepultus 
est in Capella nostra parochiali - 
Stae Annae prope Baptisterium, I 
cum Epit. in pariete. J 

Honestus et Devotus Vir Georgius 
Zieler, Pistor in Nieder Motzing 

Rever-diss. Dom. Albertus Ernst, 
Coloniensis Archidiaconus major, 
Senior Cathedralis Ratispon ; 
Comes de Wartenberg, 

Rev. Praenob. Dom. Joannes 
Dausch, Theol. Doctor et Cathedr. 
Ratisp. Decanus (11684), 

Illustr. Dom. D. Stephan Comes , 
de Taaffe in Exercitu Caes. 
Colonellus (11699), 

Admod. Rev. Doct. D. Joannes 
Georgius Sartorius, Canonicus 

Perillustr. Franciscus Hay, Baro 
de Dalgetty (f Pettaviae in Styria, 

Peril/. D. Thomas Strachan, 
Colon, in legione Comitis de Leslie 

Die edle u. tugendhaffie Frau 
Maria Anna Stegerin, Wittib zu 
Straubing, 1 

Not. et praec. Dom. Joannes 
Georgius Haas, granarius sive 
oeconomus ins. Collegii Eccles. S. 
Mariae (f 1712), 

Excell. et III. Dom. Robertus de 
Gravel, Dom. in Marli, Plenipot. 
Sacrae S. Majest. (fParisiis 1689). 

Honor. Vir Joann. Matth. EibleA 
lupulorum mercator de Einsiedl in [■ 
Bohemia, J 

Plur. Rev. D. Michael Adam\ 
Kerling, Parochus in Stamesried, / 

Celsissima Domina Francisca de\ 
Freidenberg, Abbat. Ratisb, / 

Dom. Jacob. Gordon, Consiliarius^ 
Sacrae Caes. Maj. (11787), / 

The monast. residuary legatee. 
8000 fl. 

For mass 300 fl. ; altar cloths and 
700 fl., besides a legacy of 50 fl. 

statues, relics and chalices. 

50 fl. for the school and a legacy 
of 100 fl. 

100 Imperiales. 

500 Imperiales and other presents. 

legavit 2000 Imperiales. 

100 fl. pro reparatione templi. 

endowed mass at the Probstei Kirche 
at Kehlheim in honour of the Corpus 
Christi Festival with 300 fl. 

for images, 50 fl. 

gave statues and 40 Imper. 

2 masses and 50 fl. 

legavit 100 fl. 

2000 fl. 

2000 fl. for the seminary. 

1 The noble and virtuous lady Maria Anna Steger, widow, at Straubing. 


Foundations for eight youths at the 
seminary, 16,000 fl. 

Seren. et Potent. Maximilianus 
Emanuel, Elector, ex hereditate 
Seren. Maximil. Philippi, patrui 


Rev. et Cels. Princeps Joannes} n r , . . . . 

Knob! Enisc Eichstettenf (fiize) f IO °° fl * f ° r annUaI scholarshl P s - 

Rev. D. Georvius Sinsm. de\ n r , , 

D 7 r> J 1 o Tv/r ..• 2 73° »• f° r the maintenance of a 

Kass/er, L-anon ad o. Martinum, >- '. J . . c , , 

du • r u- /• \ missionary in ocotland. 

Khemfeldiae (t 1723), J J 

Rev. Godufred. Langivert de\ 5oofl. for the purchase of the ground, 
Simmern, Episcop. praecip. nostril 2200 for the building of the 
Semin. autor ( f 1 741 ) , J seminary, and legacy of 3320 fl. 

Rev. Capitulum Eccles. Cathedr.\ 150 fl. annually for the seminary; 
Ratisb. (1682), /abolished in 1749. 

Perill. Domina Eva Elis., nobilis-1 

sima Baronessa de Lewenstock, nata J- 2000 fl. for one foundation. 

de Seldner (71717), ) 

Abbot of the Monast. S. B.\ „ r , 

77-. J > 1 CO annually tor the seminary. 

yiennae, J 

Praenob. D. Georg. Schtuaiger,\ 

Ecclesiae Joan. Baptistae Canon, in I for a mission in Scotland, 4000 fl. 

Vilshofen ad Danubium, J 

Dom. Francisca Novelle, Gube-| , . n r ... 

£I . . j rr-i, • , • Jegavit 2300 fl. for a mission in 
matrix hi. L-onntis de I nierheim V c ° , , J 
, , N ocotland. 

(Ti724) J . j 

Plur. Rev. Ericus Sadler,} , . c . . n 

r , ,, . t> J- iegavit oeminans COO n. 

Kehlkeim JJecanus, j 

Dom. Christoph. Johnstone et\ r n 

■r* ■ y, n< j j I for masses 3000 marcas ocot. = 

Domina Anna Lroraon, nata de V r ,, J 

Cluny (TI754), j * 

III. Catalogus Religiosorum in Monasterio S. Jacobi Scotorum 


F. Adamus Macallus, Edinburgensis. 
„ Bened. Alges, Plascetensis. 

„ Hugo Wallasius, Dioc. Glascu. postea Abbas Erf. 
„ G. Wedderburnus, Dioc. Aberd. 
„ M. Camerarius, Dioc. Aberd. postea Abbas Erf. 

deinde Ratisb. 
,, Bened. Reith, Aberd. f in monast. Herbipol. 1 684. 
„ Erh. Alexander, Dioc. Aberd. 
„ Nin. Jhonstone, Dioc. Aberd. 
1641, March 21. „ An. Grajus, de Deidon. Dioc. Brechin, f m 

Polonia 1965. 
1663, April 15. „ Ath. Camerarius, Edinb. fin Italia. 

1 From the original MS. in Fort Augustus. 












i 6 55> 






1663, April 15. F 

1667, Feb. 
1667, „ 
1669, Nov. 



167 1, Oct. 

1674, July 

1681, March 

1682, Jan. 
1682, „ 
1682, March 





1684, „ 


1687, „ 


1689, Feb. 
1691, „ 


1692, Aug. 


1694, June 
1698, May 
1704, Feb. 
1708, „ 
1708, „ 



1709, Nov. 


i7°9» » 


i7°9> » 
1720, Nov. 


i7 2I > f» » 

1724, Oct. 5. 

1726, Sept. 26. 

I7 26 > » » 

I7 z6 > » » 

Ephr. i?«V, ex oppido Tania, Dioc. Rossene. 

t 1712. 

,, Fiacr. Colinsonus, Aberd. f 1686. 
„ Hyac. Gordon, Dioc. Aberd. f excasu 1674. 
„ Plac. Fleming, de Capella S. Oswaldi (Kirkos- 
wald (Ayr), Dioc. Glascu. factus sacerdos 

167 1, electus in Abbatem 1672. Natus 1642, 

Oct. 15. f 8th Jan. 1720. 
„ Andr. Cooke, de civ. et dioc. Aberd. f 1721. 
„ Ehrh. Dunbar, de civ. et dioc. Argillensi. 
„ Joan. Dunbar, ex opp. Neribus, dioc. Argillensi. 
„ Jac. Brusius, de civ. Clackmannan. 
„ Jos. Falconer, de civ. et dioc. Edinb. f 1732. 
„ August. Gordon, fil. Dom. Alex. Gordon in 

Kinquidy, Dioc. Aberd. f 1702. 
„ Gregor. Crighton, de Auchingowell, Dioc. Aberd. 

Prior Erfurtensis. f 1748. 
„ Hier. Pantoune, de civ. et dioc. Aberd. Obiit. 

1 7 19. Erfurti, S. Theol. Doctor, Prof. Publ. 

et Universitatis Rector Magn. 
„ Columba Maclenanus, de Stornovia, Dioc. Sod. 
„ Bern. Baillaeus, de prov. Sterling, electus in 

abbatem. f 1743. 
„ Maurus Stuart, de Ainia, Dioc. Aberd. Abbas. 

f 1720. Professor in Prag, 1697. 
„ Mac. Finny, ex Buchan. 

„ 7ac.^roww,aliasConstable,Eastfortunensis. 71720. 
„ Aug. Morison, de civ. et. dioc. Aberd. f 1734. 
„ Ambr. Ross, ex prov. Ross, f 1714* 
„ Mar. Brockie, de civ. Edinb. Philosophiam docuit 

Erfurti. Dr Theol. f 1739. 
„ Bonif. Leslie, fil. Alex. Leslie de Pitcapple, Prof. 

ord. Erfurti. 1743 Prior Mon. Erfurt. 
„ Kil. Grant, Strathpegensis, fil. Domini in Glen- 

brunn, docuit Phil. Erfurti. 
„ Plac. Hamilton, fil. Domini in Boghead. 
„ Erh. Grant, Strathdounensis, fil. Dom. in Tam- 

breck, Prof. Publ. in Univers. Erfurt. Mission- 

arius in toto ducatu et aula Weimarensi ex 

decreto Ser. Ducis Ernesti Augusti anno 1733. 
„ Columb. Grant, Strathd. fil. Domini in Ruven. 
„ Maurus Grant, „ „ „ in Auchlichny. 

„ Anton Stuart, fil. Dom. in Lismurden. 
„ Bern. Stuart, „ „ „ Boggs. 1 
„ Andr. Parkins, fil. Isaac Parkins, ex Anglia et 

Annae Wauchopia fil. Domini in Netherby, 

prope Edinb. f 1728. 

1 About him see above. 



1726, Sept. 29 F. Gallus Leith, fil. Dom. Alex. Leith in Collithy. 

1756 electus in abbatem. 

1731* ,, Wilib Macdonel, novitium induit. 

1732, Feb. 24. „ Andr. Gordon, docuit Phil. Erfurte, 1737. 

I734> ■>■> Jos. Roll and. 

1736, Sept. 8. ,, Aug. Duncan. 

1739, Oct. 4. „ Joach. Gray, natus in Fochaber, 17 15. 

1 739, ,» ,, „ Ans. Gordon, fil. Wilhel. de Minmor. 

1742, „ Joann Menzies. 

1742, Sept. 24. „ Ildephonsus Kennedy. 


Joann. Henderson, Relig. Prof. 
Patr. Stuart, studiis juridicis operam 
dedit uxorem duxit filiam Dom. 

Joannes Cruickshanke, Doct. Med. 
Will. Grant, major, degit in Scotiam 

Robt. Grant, Prof. Relig. 
Will Gordon, abiit in Italiam. 
Will. Grant, minor, Prof. Relig. 
Walter Abercromby, In Scotia 

Joannes Leslie, Prof. Relig. 
Robt. Grant, minor, „ 
Jac. Hamilton, Abbas Herbipol. 
Joann Stuart, degit in Scot. 

Jac. Masson, abivit in Angliam. 


Ludov. Grant (Strathdown), Rel. 

Alex. Gordon, in Scot, maritus. 

Joann. Abernethy, ad parentes rediit. 

Jac. Stuart, Relig. Prof. 

Georg. Lieth, Cisterciensis in 

Robt. Leith (Gallus), Rel. Prof. 

Alex. Grant, „ 

Alex. Stuart, „ 

Dom. Patr. de Letterfury, qui 
logicam Ratisbonas unum annum 
et jura civilia 2 annos Erfurti 
absolvit. Vixit suis sumptibus. 

Robt. Gordon. 

Alex. Gordon (Dorleathers), re- 
divit ad suos. 

de Tun berg, 1733. 
Columb. Macgregor, sac. secul. 
Alex. Abernethy, redivit ad suos. 
Carol. Stuart, redivit in Scotiam. 
Hugo Auchinleck, Prof. Rel. 
1723 duo juvenes. 
I73 1 6 » 

Guil. Menzies, ] filii Dom. de Pit- 
David „ V foddels, omnes 
Alex. ,, ) revocati 1738. 
Jacob. Menzies, jun. frater venit 

Cosm. Falconer. 
Geo. Crichton. 
Jas. Ravenscroft. 
Thos. Kennedy, Prof. Rel. 
Robt. Grant. 
Joann. Macdonel. 

I 739- 
Alex. Grant. 

Alex. Gordon de Licheston. 
Carolus, Alexandri pictoris fil. 

Arthur Gordon, fil. nob. Dom. 

Donaldus Macintosh, fil. patris 

montani (?). 

Joannes Stuart, 





Joannes Farquerson. 
Petrus Weingardin (?). 

Joannes Grant de Blair- j revers ^ 

find y' , ( sunt. 

Alex, r orsyth J 

Jo. Anderson de Teinet. 

Car. Gordon de Beldorny. 

C. Arbuthnot, Prof. Rel. 

Charles Drummond, ex fam. ducum 

de Perth. 
J. Macdonel. 
Car. Fraser. 
Jac. Carmichael. 
Joa. „ 


Jac. Hamilton, Prof. Rel. 
Alex. ,, ,, 

Alex. Macdonel. 
Car. „ 

Joa. Grant. 
J. Duguid. 

Alex. Young. 
Jac. Moir. 

Alex. Horn, Prof. Rel. 
Car. Roy. 

Dav. Drummond, Prof. Rel. 
Will. Rolland. 
Jac. Robertson, Prof. Rel. j 1820 

Ths. Graham, Prof. Rel. 

Henry Clint. 
Car. Graham. 

Jac. Horn, natus 1765 at Montrose, 
t 1833 

Petrus Sharp de Mertlach. 
Ths. Moir. 

Ernest Leslie ) filii Dom. J. Leslie 
John Leslie J de Balquhain. 
Alex. Reid, in seminario mortuus. 
John Deasson, Prof. Rel. 

Robt. Macpherson. 
Angus Macdonald. 
Arch. Maciver, Prof. Rel., f Dean 
of the Cathedral at Ratisbon. 

Lud. Reid. 

Jac. Cruikshanks, f in Germany. 
Car. Fraser. 
Alex. „ 


Ths. Carmichael. 

Jas. Macnaughton, f 1862 in 

John Lamont, natus 1805, abiit 

Monachium. Observator Obser- 

vatorii Regii, Prof. Astron. 

Jas. Reid, reversus est in patriam. 

Jac. Russel. 
Alex. Scott. 

Mark Diamond, Prof. Rel. 
Jac. Bennet, „ 

Joa. Macdonald, „ 

Angus „ „ 

Rob. Cameron, rev. in patr. 1844 

ob infirmam valet. 
Joa. Stuart, missionary. 
Will. „ rediit 1845. 
Guil. Robertson, Prof. Rel. 
Joa. Garden, red. 
Guil. Hepburn, red. 
Hugo Macswain, Passionist in 

England (1855). 
Allan Macdonald, j 1840 hie. 
Alex. Reid, mission, ord. red. in 

Scotiam (1844). 

Alex. Gordon, de Upper Clachan 

(Enzie) rediit 1844. 
Alex. Macrae, (Strathglass) rediit 




Arch. Macnavish (Moydart), rediit 

Col. Macdonnel, apud Inch, rediit 

Dav. Macdonald (Fort William), 

Rel. Prof. 

G. Jos. Mitchell, Aberdon. rediit 

John Wiseman (Buckie), f Leith 

Joa. Shaw (Gollachie), red. 1848. 
Jac. Davidson, ,, „ 

„ Duncan, % „ „ 

„ Kelman (Portsoy), „ „ 
Joa. Miller, red. ob inf. valet. 
Alex. Gall, sent home. 

„ Bennet (Blairs), Rel. Prof, 
f 1865. 
Jac. Shaw (Portsoy), red. 
Joa. „ (Buckie), Rel. Prof. 

John Macdonald (Glasgow), red. 

Geo. Wilson (Aberd.), Rel. 

Geo. Davidson (Letterfurie), Rel. 

John Macgowan (Glasgow), sent 

off 1855. 
Joa. Carlin (Glasgow), ord. 

Jos. Connaghan (Glasgow), ord. 

priest, f 1877. 
Sam. Docherty (Glasgow), f San 

Joa. Hardy (Glasgow), sent home 

" ob inf. val." 

Joa. Macinnes (Linwood), Rel. 

D. MacColl (Fort William), Rel. 

D. Macintosh, Rel. Prof. 

V. Letter of Queen Mary to the Emperor Rudolf II 


After complaining of her sad fate the Queen continues : . . . 
" Sunt nonnulla monasteria in Germania ex lege et conditione 
in favorem Scotorum olim erecta ut in iis Scoti homines educar- 
entur, Scotique itidem praeficerentur. Jus ipsum a nostratibus 
longissima possessione retentum est ab aliis proxime propter 
Scotorum absentiam usurpatum. Hinc a Sacra Caes. Maj. 
Vestra vehementer peto, ut idem jus velit ipsis Scotis tueri, et 
in monasteria quae sub imperio et ditione sua vacaverint, jubeat 
illos recipi qui pro Religione Catholica et pro fide erga me 
exilium aliaque omnimodo patiuntur. Imprimis illi commendo 
Ninianum Winzetum, Theologiae Doctorem, Confessorem meum 
cui non ita pridem de Ratisp. Monasterio legitime provisum est." 
(State Papers, Scotland, Mary, Queen of Scots, xi. 8. King 
Hewison, N. Winzete's Certane Tractates, I. cix. f.) 

VI. Diploma Rudolfi II Imperatoris in favorem Scotorum. 

..." Cum Serenissima Princeps Domina Maria, Regina Scot- 
orum, Consanguinea et soror nostra carissima, Oratorem suum, 
reverendum et devotum Joannem Leslaeum, Episcopum Ross- 
ensem, certis de rebus ad nos destinavit, inter alia Serenitatis 


Suae nomine exposuit, ejusdem praedecessores, imprimis, vero 
Guilielmus, 1 quondam Achaii Regis Scotiae fratrem, post multa 
a se praeclare gesta, pio quodam zelo in pluribus Germaniae 
locis Monasteria Ordinis S. B. solis Scotis erexisse eademque 
praediis et agris opimis dotasse simulque sanxisse, ne ullus alius 
nisi Scotus monachus aut Coenobiarch : ibidem admitteretur. 
Secutum inde esse, ut et plerique Germaniae Principes ejusdem 
Ordinis monasteria erexerint, solis Scotis conferenda. Id 
quod multa a Scotis passim per Germaniam continua successione 
possessa, vel saltern Scotorum adhuc nomine appellata monasteria 
abunde testentur. 

Verum temporis iniquitate factum esse ut pium hoc institutum 
paulatim neglectum ac complura hujusmodi monasteria aliis 
quam Scotis commissa fuerint. Cum autem hoc tempore multi 
ex Scotia se offerant, qui turn more, probitate vitaeque integri- 
tate turn singulari eruditione praediti parati sint fundatorum piam 
voluntatem sustinere omniaque praestare, quae ad ritus et mores 
Ecclesiasticos componendos ac juventutis institutionem pertinent, 
idcirco praescriptus Episcopus Rossensis tarn dictae Serenissimae 
Reginae quam Nationis Scoticae nomine a Nobis obnixe petit, 
ut privilegiorum a longo tempore Scotis in Germania quaesitorum 
conservation! nostro favore et auctoritate benigne consulere 
dignaremur. Cui tarn piae petitioni cum deesse non potuerimus, 
Dilectiones et Devotiones vestras . . . benigne . . hortamur 
ut erga praescriptum Episcopum Ross, hac de re cum Dilec- 
tionibus . . . acturum, tarn benevolos vos exhibere velitis, ut 
in iis, quae ad hujusmodi privilegia tuenda ac dictos Scotos in 
pristinam possessionem restituendos spectant, nostram hanc 
communicationem sibi haud parum profuisse intelligat, in quo 
Dilect. et Devot. nobis rem gratam facturi estis . . . Datum in 
arce nostra Reg. Pragae. 2 


(Transl.) Your Imp. Maj. will doubtlessly remember how for 
some time past, the worthy, much respected and very reverend 
Abbot of S. James' Monastery at Ratisbon is trying most 
anxiously, not only to recover the Scottish Monastery at Vienna 
for his nation but also to fill it with good and suitable monks, 
striving to redress any disorder that may have been prevalent in 

1 According to Major's chronicle (1. 2 cap. 13), William, brother 
of King Achaius, built fifteen monasteries for the Scottish Benedictines 
on the Continent, two of them in Cologne. 

2 Reich's Archiv at Munich, Baillie MSS. Compare K. Hewison, 
I.e., I. cxi., II. 17 f. 


it of late and to restore it to its old dignity ; Your Imp. Maj. 
will also be aware that His Holiness the Pope as well as the 
Queen of Scotland have written on his behalf and taken the 
Abbot under their protection. Y. M. will have an opportunity 
to grant the humble request and prayer of the foresaid Abbot ; 
to further which I did not hesitate most submissively to pray 
Your I. M. to listen to him graciously and to vouchsafe, what in 
the end would result in the satisfaction of Y. M. and in the 
honour and profit of the monastery. For I have no doubt, he, 
the Abbot, would make great efforts and improvements in the 
service, the schools and other matters pertaining to the monas- 
tery, just as he did in a short time in the poor deserted monastery 
at Ratisbon, where he not only restored the daily religious 
services, but started schools out of which an important Catholic 
Seminary may yet grow up. Y. I. M. will also by doing so 
earn the gratitude of the whole Scottish Nation, the pious efforts 
of which on behalf of our Holy Faith have benefited our Empire 
so much in ancient times ; and You will not be deterred by 
anything unjust and punishable that may have happened at 
Vienna in times of a general decay of ecclesiastical institutions, 
and which furthermore may be owing more to other nations 
than to the Scots. Y. I. M. has moreover all the more cause to 
grant the Abbot's request, as he has now been installed at 
Ratisbon by Imperial rescript, a monastery, which is the most 
renowned of all, and the mother of all Scottish Monasteries in 
Germany, including that at Vienna, and has so well improved it 
even with scanty means. I recommend the above-mentioned 
Abbot and myself most humbly and obediently to Y. I. Majesty's 
grace and good-will. 

Given in my town of Munich, July 23rd, 1583. 

William, Duke of Bavaria. 1 

VIII. List of Scottish Pupils at the Jesuit-Seminary of Braunsberg 
(Silesia) (1579-1642). 2 

Ingellus Gellonius (1579)5 dismissed because unfit for the clerical pro- 
David Young (1580), sent home in 1583. 
Andr. Jack (1582), sent to Vienna to continue his studies. 

1 Reich's Archiv, Munich. Cp. Hewison, I.e. II. xxiii. f. The original 
is difficult to decipher and not always quite clear. 

2 The list is printed as it was sent to the author by the Rev. the 
Regens of the Seminary at Braunsberg. Names undoubtedly Scottish 
have been distinguished by bolder type ; the others, owing to the difficulty 
of deciphering, present a somewhat " unscottish " appearance. 


Jonnnes Tamson (1582), died at Braunsberg in 1588. 

David Lobeck (1582), returned home; juvenis petulantissimus. 

Joannes Varrus (Karr?) 1584, sent to Olmiitz to continue his 

Jacobus Anordt (?) 1 585, 1 returned to his people in Scotland. 

Petrus Grinnaeus (Green ?), 1586, became a Jesuit and taught philosophy 
at Graz. 

Archib. Anderlonius (1587), became a Jesuit. 

David Beaton (1596), was sent "in Germaniam." 

Joannes Buttery (1596), sent to Scotland in 1 600, a good Catholic. 

Patricius Abercrombaeus (1596), f 1611. 

Wilhelmus Duglasius (1596), sent to Vilna to continue his studies, but at 
his own expense, "quia non fuit capax disciplinae." 

Jacobus Lindsay (1596), f 1624 in Scotland as Jesuit. 

Thomas Abircrombaeus (1599), went to Vilna to continue his studies. 

David Kinard (1599), entered the Order. 

M. Georgius (1600), educated in Denmark, became a convert, "nunc 
Brunsbergae exercet medicinam." 

Georgius Sessaeus (Leslaeus?), 1606, f 1608. 

Patricius Stichelius (1607), 2 entered the Order. 

Wilhelmus Duglasius (1607), kft tri e school and became a soldier. 

Jacobus Leslaeus (1608), entered the Order at Rome, leading a blame- 
less life. 

David Setonius (1609), Syntaxista. 

Jacobus Setonius ,, „ 

Thomas Dujfaeus (1610), went to Pelplin, 3 but was dismissed "ob inepti- 

Wilh. Abircrombaeus (1610), Rhetor. "Missus est in patriam ubi fructi- 
ficavit inter catholicos." 

Archib. Hegeck (Haig?), 1613, went away to enter another Order. 

Alex. Ingram (1613), went away on account of illness and dis- 

Joannes Leslaeus (161 3), sent to Rome to continue his studies. 

Andr. Leslaeus (161 3), went to Rome „ „ ,, „ and after- 

wards settled in Scotland as priest. 

Rob. Gareochus (?) (1617), 4 went to Rome. 

Thos. Camerarius (1619), a convert, sent to Rome and Scotland. 

Pair. Kinart (1633), a convert; dismissed. 

Alex. Minnesius (Menzies), 1641,! 1671 whilst attending the plague- 
stricken at Braunsberg. 

Wilhelmus Minnesius (1641), Fugit. 

Alexander Hajus {Hay) 1642, returned home ill. 

Joannes Hajus (1642), Fugit. 

1 Probably Arnott. 2 Probably Stitchel. 

3 Pelplin was a monastery not far from Danzig. 

4 Probably Garioch, a district in Aberdeenshire, and a family 


IX. Inscription on the Tombstone of Ninian Winzet. 1 

D. O. M. 2 

Ninianus Winzetus Sacro Sanctae Theologiae Doctor, vir pius 
et zelosus Monasticam hie disciplinam restauravit, multaque 
verbo, scripto et vitae exemplo ad aedificationem proximorum 
praestitit, qui postquam huic Monasterio sexdecim annos summa 
cum laude praefuisset ac successorem canonice et legitime sibi 
prospexissed, tandem XXI Septembris anno Christi mill, quin- 
gent. nonag. sec. aetatis vero suae septag. quarto pie et placide 
obdormivit in Domino. 

X. Abbot Benedictus Arbuthnot. 

The tombstone of Arbuthnot, which has been removed from 
the churchyard to the cloisters of the formerly Scottish Monas- 
tery of St James at Ratisbon, shows the following inscription : 

In pace Christi 

Sepultus heic quiescit 

Ilustriss. ac Reverendiss. Dominus 

Benedictus Arbuthnot, 

Monasterii ad S. Jacobum Scotorum 

Ratisbonae Ordinis S. Benedicti Abbas. 

Natus est 5. Martii 1737. 

Professus 21 Nov. 1 756. 

Sacerdos 14 Febr. 1 76 1. 

Abbas electus 4 Junii 1776. 

Mortuus 19 Aprilis 1820. 

R. I. P. 


Viri omnibus summe venerandi, 

Suis desideratissimi 


in proximo S. Jacobi templo erectum 


The Cenotaph mentioned above consists of a red marble-slab 
on the inner wall of the church, south side. It has the follow- 
ing inscription : 


Siste viator gradum. Memoriam piam sibi merito 

exposcit illustris Vir ac Revmus D. 

Benedictus Arbuthnot 

hujus Monasterii Abbas. 

1 In the Church of St James at Ratisbon. 2 Datur omnibus mori (?). 



Natus fuit in Scotia die 5. mens. Martii anno MDCCXXXVII 
in bono paterno Rora comitatus Aberdonens ; puer 1 1 annor. 
Ratisbonam venit ibique in hujus Monasterii seminario studiis 
humanior. absolutus vota solemnia emisit S. Benedicti regulam 
professus die 21 Nov. anno MDCCLVI, presbyter die 14 Febr. 
anno MDCCLXI ordinatus susceptam Seminarii directionem non 
minore diligentia ac militate gessit, simulque confratres atque 
exteros Philosophiam et Mathesin docuit per 16 fere annos, 
donee die 4 Junii MDCCLXXVI Abbas eligeretur. Quo in 
munere maxime rerum gerendar. dexteritate, miraque in tantis 
temporum periculis prudentia omnium, quos subditos aut super- 
iores habuit, animos in Sui venerationem et amorem attraxit, sincera 
pietate, vitae integritate, morum candore, modestia et afFabilitate 
devinctos tenuit, multimoda doctrina scriptis etiam in vulgus editis 
probata nominis celebritatem, quam ipse nunquam quaesivit, ab 
aliis meritus dignusque habitus, quem Academiae Scient. Socium 
eligerent. Tandem coelo maturus venerandus Senex ex hac 
mortali vita discessit die 19 mens. April anno MDCCCXX. 
sepultus in communi cemeterio extra portam S. Jacobi. 

Grati animi indicem et sanctae memoriae testem isthunc 
lapidem posuerunt fratres desolati. 1 

XI. List of Abbots of the Scottish Monastery at Erfurt. 

time of 22. David (about 1520). 

23. Jacobus. 

24. Andreas Hunter. 

25. Guilielmus. 

26. Johannes II Hamilton. 

27. Richardus II Irwinus 


28. Joannes Walkerus 
1603), from Dysart. 

29. Jacobus II Winzetus. 

30. Wilhelmus III 

31. Hugo Wallasius (1617-1634). 

32. Alex. Baillie (1 634-1646). 

33. Mac.Camerarius(i646-i655). 

34. Plac. Fleming (1672), Prior. 

35. Hier. Panthon (1711-1719). 

36. Maurus Stuart (1720). 

37. Bern. Baillie. 

38. Mar. Brockie, Prior 1727. 

39. Greg. Crichton, Prior. 

40. Bonif. Leslie, Prior. 

1. Erhardus, at the 
Marianus, the founder. 

2. Henricus I. 

3. Henricus II (about 1285). 
Wilhelmus I. 
Nicolaus I. 

Gelasius (about 1390). 
Rupertus (1405-1433). 
Thadaeus I (143 3- 143 8). 

12. Thadaeus II (about 1450). 

13. Ricardus (1458-1464). 

1 4. Matthaeus. 

15. Cornelius (1479). 

16. Donatus (resigned 1485). 

17. Edmundus (1485-1494). 

18. Nicolaus II (1494). 

19. Alanus. 

20. Joannes I, fled 1507. 

2 1 . Benedictus. 




1 1. 



1 The Abbot's remains were transferred to the cloister in 1890. 

3° 2 


XII. List of Abbots of the Scottish Monastery at Wurzburg. 

i. Macharius (i 139-1 153). 1 

2. Christian (1 153-1 179). 2 

3. Eugenius (fi 197). 

4. Gregorius (abt. 1206). 

5. Matthaeus (f 1215). 

6 Teclanus (?) (1215-1217). 

7. Elias (1217-1223). 

8. Colestinus (1223-1234). 

9. Gerhardus (11242). 
IO. Johannes (1242-12 53). 
1 1. Johannes II (11274). 

12. Mauritius (1274-1298). 

13. Joel (11306). 

14. Elias II (1318). 

15. Johannes III (1" ! 335)- 

16. Michaeus (1335-1341). 

17. Rynaldus (about 1342). 

18. Philippus I (11361). 

19. Donaldus (11385) ? 

20. Henricus (about 1379). 

21. Mauritius II (about 1385). 

22. Timotheus (t T 399)- 

23. Ymarus (about 1409) 

24. Rutgerus (11417). 

25. Thomas I (1417-1437). 
(26. Laurentius). 3 

27. Roricus (f 1 4.47). 

28. Alanus (f 1455). 

29. Mauritius III (f 1461). 4 

30. Johannes IV (I1463). 

31. Otto (1463-65). 

32. Thadaeus (1465-1474). 


33. David (1474-1483). 

34. Thomas (1483-1494). 

35. Edmundus (11497). 

36. Philippus II (f 1497). 

37. Kilian (1504-1506). 

38. Trithemius (1506-15 16). 

39. Matthias ("fi 535)- 

40. Erhardus Jani (fi 542). 

41. Michael Stephan 


42. Reinhardus ( 1595). 

43. Franc. Hamilton (1602- 

44. Guil. Ogilvie (16 15- 163 5). 

45. Robertus Forbes ( 163 5- 1637). 

46. Joannes Audomarus Asloan 

47. Maurus Dixon (1661-1679). 

48. Bernhard Maxwell (1679- 

49. Marianus Irvin (168 5- 1688). 

50. AmbrosuisCook (1689-1703), 

51. Augustinus Bruce (1713- 

52. Maurus II Strachan (1716- 

x 737)- 

53. Aug. Duffus de Fochaber 

(^737- I 753)- 

54. Placidus Hamilton (1756- 

XIII. List of Monks at the Scottish Monastery at Wurzburg. 
(From about 1 500-1 803). 

Franciscus Hamilton,"! 

Johannes Sancton, ) 
Johannes Macallen, / 497* 
Antonius de Hardwick, 1529 

Johannes Stuart, 
Johannes Ultonus, 


1 His life has been written by Ludewig and Gropp. 

2 According to Trithemius, the chronicler. 

3 There is some doubt as to Laurentius. He is called " Prelate " in 
a MS. 

4 Also Abbot of Ratisbon (Wieland, I.e., p. 122). 



Johannes Bogg, j g _ 

Guilelmus Oginius,/ ^ 

Hugo, "j 

Robertus, |j 

Adamus, It6ic 

William and Thomas, ' 

Gabriel Wallasius, 
Alex. Baillie, 
Audomarus Asloan, ,£,< 
Jakobus Brun, 
Thos. Duffus, 
Wiescemuss (?), 16 18. 
Silvanus Maine, 1622. 
Twelve Monks in 1625. 
Andreas Urquhart, ^ 

Alex. Armorgh, 
Rich.Todens (Todeus) 
Hugo Wallace, 
Andr. Maclen, 
Will. Gordon, 
Ben. Asloan, 
Ed. Maxwell, 
Rob. Forbes, 
Will. Maxwell^ 
And. Jachaeus (Jack), 1637. 
Bonif. Strachan de Monte rosarum, 

Maurus Dixon, \ 
Plac. Baillie, / 
Placid. Schaffdoe (English),"! 
Ans. Dovechett ( „ ), J-1661. 
Will. Dunn, J 

Plac. Kietus (Keith), 1662. 
Alanus Crisholm "I 

(Chisholm),! 1665. 
Bern. Maxwell, 
Mich. Mackintosh, \ 
Ninian Graham, J- 1674. 
Columb. Fraser, | 
Ninianus Ghiainus (?), 1 
Jacob. Blair, 



J 1679. 



'J 1689. 


Aug. Bruce, 1 

John Alexander from 

Aberdeen, an excellent 

Kilian Herris, 
Greg. Seaton, 
Mar. Irwin, 
Macar. Brown, 
Bonif. Mackie, 
Isid. Ogilvie, 
Christ. Aberkrombie, 
Plac. Blair, 
Bern. Douglas, 
Maur. Strachan, Buchan, 
Plac. Crichton, 
Bened. Hay, 1701. 
Gregor Cheyn, Marrensis, 
Ansel Gordon, 
Kil. Macgregor, Bremar, 
Mac. Somerville, 
Ben. Callender, Edinb. ) , 

Georg. Duffus, / ' 

Mar. Gordon, Banff, 17 19. 
Aug. Duffus de Fochaber, 1727. 
Bonif. Burnet of Banchory,) 
Plac. Strand de Moray, / ' ■"* 
Bern. Grant de Desky, 1737. 
Ign. Gropp, 1 741. 
Maur. Stuart de Boggs, 1744. 
Alex. Grant, 1744. 
Ant. Pfirsching (a German), 1744. 
Willibaldus, \ 
Jac. Stuart, / '* 
Bened. Mackenzie, 2 1755. 
Bern. Wilson de Edinb., 1755. 
Plac. Hamilton, 
Matt. Roth. 

Bern. Stuart, Glamis, - 1756. 
Mak. Cutts, 
*Kil. Pepper, Crieff, 
Thad. Roy, de Kenneth-) 

mont, \ ir 15%- 

*Col. Macgowen, Balquhain,J 

1 From Gigha, the island in Argyleshire ? 

2 Comes de Sexfort = Seaforth. The title was forfeited in 1 7 15 and 
not restored till 177 1. 


Ottmar (a German), 1760. 
*Gallus Carmichael, Prior, 1785. 
*Plac. Geddes, Edinb., ^ R 
*Andr.Geddes,Cairnneld,/ I7 *>" 

*Maur. Macdonald, 1 

Hedrides, >• 1791. 

*Joh. B. Anderson, ( 

*Ben. Ingram de Ruth (Rothes), 

Those marked with an asterisk were in the Monastery in 1803, the 
year of its secularisation. Wieland, pp. 103- 117. 

XIV. Extract from the " Syllabus Benefactorum " 
(Wurzburg). 1 

1 167. Henry of Gougrichsheim, Knight, leaves all his property in 

the said village to the Monastery of the Scots. The 
monks on their part had to read three masses for him 
during the week. In the course of time Henry trans- 
ferred his two serfs or bondmen Adalbert and his brother 
Burkard as well as their sister Jutta for services in the 

1 168. Gottfried v. Urhusen and his wife Lucardis hand over their 
bondman Henry to the Scottish Monastery, who has to 
pay three pence annually on St James' day. 

II74- Hartroh and his son Berthold, etc., give to the Monastery 
two bondmen, Gotefried and Hartmann, who are to pay 
3 pence annually on St James' day, in return for their 

1 176. Adalbard, a citi-zen of Wurzburg, presents 3 parts of his 
estate and 9 acres of vineyard to the monastery, pro- 
vided his younger son Richard died childless. He also 
gives a stone house on the Maine, a quarter of wheat or 
30 loaves annually, as well as half a tun of wine and 
two candles on Michaelmas-day to the Scots. 

1 1 86. Heinrich von Altorf and his spouse Hiltegardis liberate 
their bondman and all his goods on condition, that all 
his present and future property shall be owned by the 
Monastery after his death. 

1 2 16. Gerung, a rich office-bearer under Bishop Otto, leaves a 
House on the Maine to the Scottish Church for the 
maintenance of two lights. 

1 2 18. Conrad of Wolfgiseshusen transfers the ownership of his 
bondman Sifrid to the Monastery, in such wise as to 
liberate him against the annual payment of 3 pounds of 
wax or its value. 

1287. Heinrich Waldeber, Knight, makes over to the Monastery 
his house rentable at 6 shillings annually and the orchard. 

1474. Hans Konrad of Winterhausen and his wife, who under 

1 Wieland, I.e. 


Abbot Thadaeus had bought for 100 gulden the 
third tub of grapes of 4 acres of vineyard, make this 
over to Abbot David and his monastery on condition 
that after their death a mass be said or two " as God 
shall direct them." 

1606. R. D. Nicolaus Greijf legavit monasterio 400 fl. pro cujus 
anima singulis 4 temporibus unum sacrum celebrare 
tenemur cum Vigiliis defunctorum. 

1636. Antonius a Wildberg, Cath. Eccl. Herbip. Can. legavit 5 
plaustra vini et loo flor. et 20 Malderas frumenti pro 

1721. Ivan. Ignat. Kopp, fusor celeberrimus, qui in vita multa 
bona ficit monasterio in testamento 100 flor. pro anni- 
versario reliquit nee non 70 pond, metalli pro camp, 
parva ut iterum fundetur. 1 

XV. Scottish names in the Album of the University of 
Wittenberg (15 19- 1 544). 

Joannes Nutrison, Oct. 18, l5 IO « 
Nicolaus Botwynni, Scotus, I5 2 4« 
D. Alexander Alesius, Scot. Edinb. Mag. Sti. Andrae, 7 Oct. 

Joannes Scotus, 1539- 

D. Joannes Maccabaeus, Scotus, Nov. 1 540. 

Gualt. Spalatinus, Scotus, 1544- 

Vilhelm. Ramusius, Scotus. Artuim mag. Sti. Andr., Sept 1544. 

Jacobus Balfurius, Scotus, Sept. 1 544. 

XVI. Catalogus Scholae Marpurgensis anno Domini 


Illustrissimus simul et pietissimus princeps Philippus, Land- 
gravius Hessiae, etc., unicus et pietatis et literarum vindex, quum 
quasque liberales disciplinas, partim sophistarum invidia, partim 
temporis difficultate, ruinam haud reparabilem minari videret, ad 
instaurandas eas animum appulit, et doctissimos quosque sub 
anno Christianae salutis MDXXVII, liberalibus stipendiis in- 
vitatos, Marpurgum vocatatque in Neacademia ilia sua Trilingui 
recens instituta sacras literas, jus civile, utramque medicinam, 

1 The Monastery also derived [the emoluments of a canonry at the 
Cathedral. They consisted in a daily supply of bread and wine, meat 
on Martin's day, fish on Ash -Wednesday, 2 pounds of mustard, about 14 
quarters of grain, and a share of tithes. Besides this it received rent in 
kind from 20 villages (1560). 


3° 6 


tres linguas atque adeo omnes bonas literas sinceriter doceri 

Joannes Ferrarius Montanus, juris civilis Professor et judicii 
Hessiae, quod curiale vocant, consiliarius, quum primum 
Academiae apud Marpurgum per Philippum principem recens 
institutae magistratum III. Kal. Junias MDXXVII iniisset, hos uti 
ordine scribuntur, in ejus Album, Deo Opt. Max. auspice retulit. 

Then follow the names of the Professors : Lambert, Schnepf, 
Buschius, etc., and of the students. Amongst them are mentioned 

37. Patricius Hamilton, a Lithgov. Scotus. Mag. 


38. Joannes Hamilton, Scotus. 

39. Gilbertus Winram, Edinburgens. 

In 1533 : Petrus Banckbeus (Begbie ?), Scotus. 
In 1537 : Joan. Crom, Scotensis. 1 

XVII. Wedderburn and the German Hymns. 

For the sake of comparison we subjoin the following speci- 
mens of Wedderburn's translations together with their originals : 

Weisse. Wedderburn. 

i. Nun lasst uns den Leib begraben ; 1. Our brother lat us put in grave, 

Daran wir keinen Zweifel haben, And na dout thairof let us have, 

Er wird am jiingsten Tag aufstehn Bot he sail ryse on Domisday, 

Und unverweslich herfurgehn. And have immortall lyfe for ay. 

2. Erd ist er und von der Erden, 2. He is of eird and of eird maid 

Wird auch zur Erd wieder werden, And maun return to eird through 

Und von der Erd wieder aufstehn deide, 

Wener Gottes Posaun wird angehn. Syn ryse sail fra the eird and ground 

Quhen that the last trumpet sail 

Luther. Wedderburn. 

1. Vom Himmel hoch da Komm ich her, 1. I come from heuin to tell 

Und bring euch neu und gute mahr ; The best nowellis that ever befell, 

Der guten Mahr bring ich so viel; To zow thir tythingis trew I bring, 

Davon ich singen und sagen will. And I will of them say and sing. 

2. Euch ist ein Kindlein heut' geborn 2. This day, to zow, is borne ane childe 
Von einer Jungfrau auserkonn ; Of Marie meik and Virgin milde, 
Ein Kindelein, so zart und fein, That blessit bairne bening 2 and 
Es soil eur Freud und Wonne sein. kynde, 

Sail zow reioyis s baith hart and 

3. Der Sammet und die Seiden dein, 3. The Sylk and Sandell 4 the 5 to eis, 6 
Das ist grob Heu und Windelein, Are hay and sempill sweilling clais, 
Darauf du, Konig, gross und reich Quharint how gloris, greitist King r 
Herprangst als war's dein Himmel- As though in heuin war in thy 

reich ! Ring. 8 

1 Cp. Lorimer, Life of P. Hamilton, p. 232. 

2 benign. 8 gladden. * velvet. 5 thee. 6 to ease. 

7 clothes. 8 kingdom 


Nic Deciut (abt. 1527). Weddcrburn. 

1. Allein Gott in der Hoh sei Ehr I. Only to God on hicht be gloir 
Und Dank fiir seine Gnade, And loving be unto his grace, 
Darum dass nun und nimmermehr Quha can condempne vs ony moir 
Uns riihren kann kein Schade. Sen we are now at Goddis peace? 
Ein Wohlgefalln er an uns hat, Intill his favour we are taine. 1 
Nun ist gross Fried ohn Unterlass, Throw faith in Jesus Christ allaine 
All Fehd hat nun ein Ende. Be quhome his wraith sail end and 

seace. 2 

2. Wir loben, preis'n, anbeten Dich, 2. We wirschip and we love and pryse 
Fiir Deine Ehr wir danken, Thy Majesty and Magnitude: 
Dass Du, Gott Vater, ewiglich That Thou, God Father, onlie wyse 
Regierst ohn' alles Wanken. Ringis 3 ower all with fortitude: 
Ganz unermessn ist Deine Macht, Na tung can tell Thy strength nor 
Fort g'schicht, was Dein Will hat mycht, 4 

bedacht. Thy wordis and thochtis, all are 

Wohl uns des feinen Herren ! rycht, 

And all Thy warkis just and gude. 

XVIII. Melanchthon and Alesius. 


" Alesius, the Scot, has left the University of Frankfurt, and, 
although he did so against my advice, some other position must 
be found for him." (Corpus Reform, iv. 760.) 


"... as to the Scot [Alesius] I do not think that the 
University of Leipzig will allow him to renew the controversy. 
Not only have I exhorted him to give up these quarrels, but I 
have asked other friends also to restrain him, and they have 
promised to do so." (Corpus. Reform, iv. 77 1.) 

In another letter to Camerarius, dated Nov. 1 8, 1 542, the 
Reformer expresses a hope, that Alesius will not precipitately 
print every controversial matter, but restrain his "stings" 
(aculeos). (Corp. Reform, iv. 893.) 


"I have commissioned this Scot (the bearer) to see you in 
order both to hear you dispute and to tell of your native country. 
I expect a letter from you concerning the synod. Maccabaeus, 
the upright man, praises the learning, the character and piety of 
this James [the bearer ?] (Corp. Reform, iv. 793.) 

XIX. Letter of Grotius to his Friend Bernegger 5 
at Strassburg. 
"What Duraeus plans is difficult, especially at the present 
time. But other matters no less difficult have had a successful 

1 taken. 2 cease. 3 rulest. 4 might. 

5 Hugo Grotius, the famous Dutch Scholar and Statesman, was born 
in 1583, died in 1645. Bernegger was Professor of Philology. 


issue. The striving after what is noble, even when it remains 
without success guarantees the fruit of a joyful conscience. . . . 
I do approve of Duraeus' idea to promote the Union of those 
that are now disunited to the greatest detriment and an ever 
increasing danger. But I also assent to what you say, that 
the malady has not reached the point where medicine could 
be administered with safety. May the day appear at last, 
which after so many wounds inflicted will always appear 
too late. 

At nobis casso saltern delectamine 

Amare liceat, si potiri non licet." 



I. King Charles II to his Scotch Subjects in Poland. 

Fidelibus nostris atque dilectis salutem. Nonnullorum 
Vestrum ex Gente Scotica subditorum nostrorum in Regno 
Polonico habitantium mercaturamque exercentium relatione 
accepta, quomodo tribunus militiae Cochrovius (Cochranius) 
mandati nostri obtentu ingentes pecuniae summas a vobis 
exigere easque colligendi publicam potestatem a Rege Poloniae 
Regio et Honorando Fratre Nostro contendere sustinuerit, 
non possumus non sancte affirmare, nihil ipsum ejusmodi a 
nobis in mandatis accepisse. Et quod Crafftium spectat, ad 
ejus (cujus ?) instantiam vos denuo ad tertiam bonorum 
vestrorum et mercium partem in usus nostros erogandam 
urgeri, fatemur quidem ex Batavis iJlum a nobis ad Regem 
Poloniae expeditum fuisse, neutiquam vero potestate munitum, 
a subditis nostris isthoc in regno negotiantibus publica authoritate 
quicquam extorquendi. Etenim nobis de fide et observantia 
Scotorum subditorum nostrorum, ut domesticorum ita ut 
exterorum, ubicunque terrarum fuerint, bene securis, sic uti 
haud integrum est nostris in hoc regno subditis, ulla nisi 
praevio parlamenti consensu tributa imperari, ita nee exteris 
invitis quicquam imponi. Ea propter exemimus et praesentibus 
his ipsis exemptam Crafftio volumus omnem potestatem seu 
mandati nostri, quod praetexit, authoritate ab ullo unquam 
Scotorum in Regno Poloniae aut quovis in loco alio com- 
morantium vel minimum exigendi, seu eum in finem a Regibus, 
Principibus aut aliis magistratibus impetralem libertatem 
exequendi. . . 

Data insula nostra Perthana Anno 1650 regni vero nostro 
secundo, die mensis Decembris nono. 1 

1 In spite of all these insurances Lord Croffts is further employed in 
diplomatic missions. See Scottish Hist. Soc. Misc. i. 201 f. 



II. King Charles II to the City of Danzig. 

We are informed by our trusty and well-beloved servant, 
Lieutenant-Generall Middleton, of the very great affection and 
esteeme you have shewed to Us in your reception of him, and 
in the good wishes you have professed to him for our successe 
against our rebellious subjects, and he hath likewise informed 
Us, that being disappointed of the present receipte of those 
moneys which We had hoped would have been payed to him, 
he should have found himselfe in very great streights, if he had 
not been supplyed by you with the loane of moneys, for which 
We render you Our hearty thankes, and doe desire you will 
respite the repayment of it for some time, and that you will 
likewise to the end he may discharge some debts he hath 
contracted in that Citty for Our service, further supply him with 
the loane of one thousand dollars ; all which We doe promise 
you upon Our Kingly worde to cause justly to be repayed to 
you 5 and We doubte not but God will so blesse Us that We 
shall in a short time be able to expresse the sence We have 
of your affection by performing those good offices and acts of 
freindship to you, with which Our predecessors have alwais 
prosecuted that Citty, for the safety, liberty, and priviledges 
whereof We shall alwais be very sollicitous. And so We 
committ you to God's protection, who, We hope, will defend 
you against your enemyes. Given at Our Court at 
Bruxelles, etc. 

The Towne of Dantzick (i6^7). 1 

III. Inscription on the Tomb of Erskine. 

According to the Manuscript Records of the Librarian of the 
Cathedral at Bremen, Gerhard Meyer, the coffin of General 
Erskine bore the following inscription : 

F. v. E. 2 
"Der Wohlgeborene Herr Herr Alexander Freyherr von 
Erskine, der Konigl. Majest. zu Schweden Geheimbder Rath, 
Kriegs- und der Bremischen Etats Praesident, auch Erb- 
Cammerherr des Herzogthums Bremen, uf Erskeins, Schwinge, 
Schblisch, Rolfeshagen und Hohen Beringen Erbherr. 3 
Anno 1598 den 31st October gebohren. 
1656 ,, 24th Aug. gestorben. 

1 Clarendon MSS. lv. 240. Scottish Hist. Soc. Publ. xxxi. 

2 Freiherr von Erskine = Baronet E. 

3 Lord of the Manor. Erskine had evidently received the above- 
named estates as gifts from the Swedish Sovereign. 


Erskine was twice married. His second wife was a widowed 
lady with the name of von Maltzahn, nee von Wartensleben. 
Descendants are said to be still living in or about Bremen. 

IV. Arthur Jonston in Heidelberg (1599-1601). 

The title of the above named invitation for the public 
" disputation" is as follows : 

Theoremata Physica 

De Motu 


D. O. M. A. 

In antiquissima et celeberrima 

Academia Heidelbergensi 

Spectabili Dn. Decano 

Theophilo Madero Philo- 

los (!) et Medicin. Dr. et Physic. 

Professore Ordinario, 

Sub praesidio 

M. Arthuri Jonstoni, Aberdo- 

nensis, Scoti, Collegii Cas- 

mirani Regentis 

Abrahamus Eccius Geo- 

goviensis Silesius 

Addiem Augusti 

publice in auditorio Philosophorum defendet. 

Horis, locoque solitis. 


Typis Vogelinianis 

Anno 1 60 1. 

V. Catalogue of the Writings of Dr John Johnston, 

THE POLYHISTOR (1603-I675). 

Thaumatographia Naturalis, Amsterdam 1632. 

Sceleton historiae Universalis, Ley den 1633. Amsterdam 1644. 

Naturae constantia, Amsterdam 1634. 

Enchiridion ethicum, Ley den 1634. Brieg 1658. 

Horae subcisivae, seu rerum toto orbe. . . gestarum idea, Lissa 

Idea universae medicinae practicae, Amsterdam 1644, 1648. 
Historiae naturalis libri A. De quadrupedibus. Frankfurt a/m. 

B. De piscibus et cetis. ,, 1649. 

C. De avibus. ,, 1 650. 

D. De insectis ; de ser- 

pentibus et draconibus. ,, 1653. 

E. De arboribus. ,, 1662. 


De communione veteris ecclesiae syntagma, Amsterdam, 1658. 
Polyhistor, seu rerum ab exortu universi ad nostra 

usque tempora. . . gestarum series. Jenae 1660. 

Polyhistor continuatus. ,, l66j. 

Idea hygienes recensita. ,, 1661. 

Notitia regni vegetabilis. Leipzig 1661. 

Notitia regni mineralis. ,, 1 66 1. 

De festis Hebraeorum et Graecorum schediasma, Jenae 1670. 

Syntagma universae medicinae practicae. Breslau 1673- 

Johnston's tomb in Polish-Lissa has the following inscription : 
" Hie ossa composita Polyhistoris et Medici Summi Johannis 
Jonstoni e generosa Scoticae familia oriundi, de Literatura sacra 
et profana nonnisi praeclare meriti qui vivit annos LXXII, de- 
cessit A. O. R. LXXV, suis et erudito Orbi perenne desiderium 
Posteritate admirationem reliquit. Abi, Lector, et Cineribus 
bene precare." 1 

VI. Agreement between Hans Kant, the Grandfather 
of the Philosopher, and Hans Karr, his Brother- 
in-law. June 4th, 1670. 

"... Whereas the late Richard Kant, father and father-in-law 
of the two contracting parties respectively, in consideration of 
considerable debts, the payment of which Hans Karr took upon 
himself alone, did by a last disposal ordain that his son, the 
above-named Hans Kant, should receive as his share of the 
public-house at Werdden and all its moveables and immoveables 
no more than the sum of 100 Reichsthaler, whilst Karr as the 
son-in-law should retain the inn and everything pertaining to it, 
and whereas the above-named Hans Kant traversed this, main- 
taining his right to a son's portion in full ; the contracting 
parties for the sake of peace and brotherly love have agreed, 
that Hans Karr should pay to Hans Kant 150 Thaler in all, 
together with ten yards of linen, at five shillings a yard, in 
return for which Kant resigns all and every claim to the public- 
house at Werdden, its moveables and immoveables, its privileges, 
rights and titles sine dolo for himself and his descendants for 

A fine of ten thaler is fixed in case of breach of contract, 
payable to the church at Werdden or to the Presbyterian 
(Reformed) Church at Memel. Among the four witnesses, who 
signed the paper, we find two Scotsmen : Wilhelm Murray and 
Thorns. Sckrumsor (Scrimgeour). 

1 Geschichte der Familie von Johnston (History of the Family of 
Johnston), 1891, p. 11 (privately printed). 


3 l 3 

VII. List of Scottish Students at the University of Helmstadt 


M. Joannes Johnstonus, Scotus, 

M. Joannes Murdisinus (Morrison?), 

M. Duncanus Liddelius, 1591. 
Alexander Arbuthnot, 1591. 
Gilbertus Burnat (Burnet), Scotus, 

Marrensis, 1 59 1 . 
Joannes Skinaeus (Skene), Scotus, 


Gilbertus Graoy (Gray), Scotus, 

I 593» 

Georgius Lister, Scotus, 1 593- 
Duncanus Burnot (Burnet), Scotus, 

Abred. 1 599. 
Arturus Jonstanus (Jonston), 

Scotus, Abred. 1599. 
Richardus Andersonus, Scotus, 

Patricus Dunaeus, Scotus, 1603. 
Joannes Cragius (Craig), Scotus, 

nobilis, 1605. 
Georgius Forbesius, Scotus, 1606. 1 

VIII. List of Scottish Students at Frankfurt-on-the-Oder. 

Joannes Fidelis, magister, Doctor 

Theolog. et Professor Franco- 

furd, 1547. 
Andreas Lowson, Scotus, 1549. 
Joannes Fidelis, egregii doctoris . . 

filius, 1555. 
Patricius Dayrs (Dyce?), Scotus, 

Duncanus Liddell, Scotus, 1579. 
M. Jacobus Turnebus (Turnbull), 

Scotus, 1 582. 

M. Jacobus Helbron (Hepburn), 

Scotus, 1587. 
M. Joannes Uddvart ^ 

(Edward?), I Scoti, 

M. Alexander Raedus f 1589. 

(Reid), J 

M. Robertus Henrisonus, pauper 

Scotus, 1598. 
David Lindse (Lindsay), 1656. 

„ Plenderleith, nobilis Scoto- 

Brittannus, 1699. 

IX. List of Scottish Students at the University of Rostock 

M. Guilhelmus Low, Scotus, Nov. 

M. Johannes Johnstonus, Aug. 

M. Robertus Hovaeus, Aug. 

M. Archibaldus Hunterus, Scotus, 

Aug. 1588. 
Patricius Gordoneus, 1 Scoti, 
Alexander Arbuthnot, J Sept. 1589. 

Scoti, Aug. 

David Camerarius, 
Thomas Monguno- 

raeus (?), 
Johannes Schrinaeus, Abred. Sept. 

Jacobus Faber, Scotus, Feb. 1593. 
Andreas Jacchaeus, Scotus, Nov. 

Franciscus Gordonius, Scotus, Nov. 


X. List of Scottish Students at the University of Greifswald 

Alexander Russael (Russel), 

clericus Aberdin. 1519. 
Alexander Du me ( ? ),pietate 

et doctrina praestans liberalium 
artium magister, Divi Jacobi 
Pastor, 1545. 2 

1 Extract from the Matriculation Rolls at Wolfenbuttel. 

2 Afterwards Professor of Theology at the University. 

3 J 4 


Alexander Sinapius (Mustard ?), 
doctissimus vir, ingenuarum 
artium magister, 1545. 

Richardus Melving 1 c 

(Melville), L bcot *' 

David Pedi (Peddie), J I 54 6 - 

XT. List of Scottish Students 

Johannes Menteyt (Menteith), 

Scotus, 1568. 
Guilielmus Silvius (Wood ?), 

Scotus, 1570. 
Olivarius Colt, Scotus, 1570. 
M. Johannes Johnstonus, Scotus, 

Jacobus Robertsonus, Edinbur- 

gensis, 1589. 
M. Robertus Uimierus, exul et 

pauper, 1593. 
Thomas Moranius (Moray), 1593. 
M. Alexander Arbuthnot, 1594. 
M. Thomas Landelus, Glascouien- 

sis, 1596. 1 
David Duramensus (Durham), 

Bacholdensis, 1 597.2 
M. Gualterus Donaltsonus, Abre- 

donensis, 1599. 
M. Arturus Jonstonus, Abredon- 

ensis, 1599. 
M Guilielmus Jonstonus, Scotus, 

M. Andreas Aidius (Aedie), 

Abredonius, 1603. 

Robertus Henrisonus, Scotus, mag. 

art. 1596. 
Alexander Person (Pierson), 

Scotus, 1622. 
Robert Kunigem (Cunningham), 
Scotus, 1649. 

at the University of Heidelberg 

Alexander Forbosius, Scotus, 1603. 
Patricius Lyndesius (Lindsay), 

Scotus, 1603. 
Alexander Anderson, Abredon- 

iensis, 1605. 
Patritius Kymerina (Cameron?), 

Germanemis- Scotus, 1605. 
Alexander Ramsaeus, Scotus, 

Baronis de Banff filius tertio 

genitus, 1606. 
Patricius Dunaeus, Scotus, 1607. 
Joannes Camero „ 1607. 

Thomas Sincerf, ,, 1609. 

David Nerneus (Nairn?), Andrea- 

politanus, 1609. 
Joannes Hogesius (Hog), Scotus, 

Joannes Forbesius, Scotus nobilis, 

Thomas Knoxius (Ramberlaeus), 

Scotus, 1615. 3 
Thomas Cumingius, 161 4. 
Rodericus Maclennan, Scotus, 


1 "Die 15 Septembris 1596 ex senatusconsulto M. Thomas Landelus, 
Glesgouiensis Scotus (jam quadragenarius et pauper), testimonium habens 
a senioribus et ministro ecclesiae at Pfalzburg (et nominatim commendatus 
a quadam dexteritate in curandis aegrotis), receptus fuit per hyemem in 
domum Casimirianam hac lege, ne faciat medicinam (in urbe), sed 
theologiae del operam." 

2 Bacholdensis = Badcall near Edderachyllis ? 

3 Ranfurly. 



Page l8«. The names mentioned in ^connection with the 
Scottish Brotherhood at Greifsivald are : — David Gipson, Hans 
Leveston, Witton, Ths. Murray. It was mainly a charitable 
institution. In 1624 the society possessed a house in the 
Fischstrasse, but already in 1674 it was sold for 600 gulden 
and the company dissolved in consequence of the losses and 
ravages sustained in the Thirty Years' War. The money was 
handed over to the Church of St Mary. In the Stadtbuch 
(Burgh Records) 26, foil. 1 16, a Schottenstrasse is mentioned. 
(I557)- (See Gesterding, Beitrag zur Geschichte der Stadt 
Greifsivald, 1827-) 

Page 50. The family of Spalding is still flourishing in 
Germany. The ancestor Andrew, who emigrated to Plau 
in Mecklenburg about 1600, became a member of the Senate; 
his son a Burgomaster. His grandson, Thomas, removed to 
Giistrow in the same country, where he likewise obtained the 
dignity of a " Senator." Here he and his family remained for 
almost two hundred years, inhabiting the same house, an old 
monastery of the mendicant Friars. In its gable the following 
verses were read : 

Die mich nicht konnen leiden, 

Die sollen mich meiden, 

Die mich hassen, 

Sollen mich lassen, 

Die mir nichts wollen geben, 

Sollen mich mit Gott doch lassen leben ; i.e. 
" Those that cannot bear me, let them avoid me ; those that hate me, 
let them leave me alone ; those that will not give me anything, must yet 
with God let me live." 

Other Spaldings emigrated to Pomerania. Many of them 
followed a professional career ; x others became officers. 2 

1 We find a John David Spalding " Syndikus " of Rostock, Andreas 
Friedrich, founder of the firm of G. H. Kaemmerer and a member of 
the Senate, in Hamburg, where a street is called after him. Another 
Spalding died as merchant and " Geheimer Commercienrath " at 
Stralsund (i860). 

2 For two hundred years we find Spaldings in the Prussian and 


The most eminent of the family was Johann Joachim Spalding, 
born at Triebsees (Pomerania) in 1 7 14 as the son of a clergy- 
man. He studied divinity, and was appointed "Probst" (Arch- 
deacon) and member of the consistorial board at Berlin (1764). 
Here he continued to write and to preach with much acceptance 
for twenty-five years. He was a great favourite with the 
Queen, the consort of Frederick the Great. His writings, 
some of which have been translated into English, bear the 
rationalistic stamp of his time. His piety and uprightness 
were acknowledged by everybody. He died in retirement at 
Charlottenburg in 1804. Visitors will see his bust in the 
Hohenzoller Museum at Berlin. His son George Ludwig also 
was an author. He was a member of the Academy of Sciences, 
and Professor at the High School. He wrote, among other 
works, a biography of his father. 


In Gauhen's Adels Lexicon are mentioned : — George Ogilvie, 
who settled in Germany during the Thirty^Years' War and became 
Commandant " of the Fortress of Spielberg, near Brunn, in 
Moravia; George Benedict, hisson, died asPolishandSaxon General 
and Field-Marshal in 17 10 ; Carl Hermann, his son, was a general 
commanding in Bohemia and Governor of Prague (abt. 1740). 

Page 112. Another Colonel Gunn was Governor of the town 
of Ohlau in Silesia (1638). He fortified the place, which had 
been destroyed by the Imperialists, with walls and moat. A 
Swedish garrison remained till after the Peace in 1 648. Colonel 
John Gunn, lamented by the grateful citizens, died on the 9th 
of April 1649. The inscription on his tombstone in the Evan- 
gelical Church at Ohlau says of him : " Col. Johann Gunn, who 
laid the foundations of the fortifications of this town, was born 
in 1608 in the month of October. He was the descendant of a 
very old noble family, of the house of Golspie in the Kingdom 
of Scotland. He died aged forty years and six months. God 
grant him a peaceful rest until the joyous resurrection. 

" His remains were deposited in this vault by his wife, nee von 
Arnim, on the 14th of July, according to the custom of the 

Gunn's coffin was removed in 1825 to a place near the vestry ; 
his mail-armour is hung up in the High School ; two of his 
rings are preserved in the church at Ohlau. 1 

German army. (See E. Spalding, Geschichtliches, Urkunden der Spalding, 
1898, privately printed, 1280.) 
1 Communicated. 



Statesman and Scholar. 

Pages 201-202. Erskine, also called Eskin or Esken in 
German documents, was twice married, his second wife being 
Lucie Christine von Wartensleben, the widow of a Baron von 
Maltzahn in Mecklenburg. In 1631-32 he was Swedish Pleni- 
potentiary at Erfurt, where he gained the gratitude of the 
inhabitants by suggesting and actively promoting the arranging 
of the City Records. In Motschmann, Erfordia litterata, iv. 
305, we read : 

" Der Rath der Stadt Erfurt verordnete Commissarios aus 
seinen Mitteln, die mit den von der Universitat hiezu erbetenen 
Personen die Privilegia, Statuten und andere hieher gehorige 
Documenta mussten durchgehen und liber die vorseiende 
Restauration deliberiren ; worauf dieselben dem schwedischen 
Rath und Residenten alhier, Alexandro von Esken, Erbherrn in 
Ludershagen, dessen Vorspruch und Hiilfe man sich hierinne 
sonderlich bediente, ein Memorial unter dem 3 1 ten August 1632 

i.e. The Magistrates of the City of Erfurt at their own 
expense appointed a Commission, which together with members 
of the University requisitioned for the purpose, were to 
examine the privileges, records and other like documents, and 
to deliberate on their restoration if required. They then 
handed a Memorial to the Swedish Counsellor of State and 
Resident in this City, Alexander Erskine, to whose suggestion 
and assistance they were chiefly indebted in this matter, on the 
31st of August 1632. The chief points therein were, etc., etc. 

Page 312. The grandfather of Kant, the Philosopher, married 
a second time in 1698; and had, after an interval of seventeen 
years, another son in 1702. He died in 1 7 15 an< 3 was buried 
according to the entry in the Register of the " Erzpriester," 
"on the 22nd of March with all the bells, the whole school 
and a hymn before his door." (Sembritzki, Altpreuss. Monats- 
schrift, Band xxxviii. 3 and 4.) 

The name Schott or Schotte (Polish Scoda) occurs as early as 
1383 in Breslau. It is frequently met with in the XVth 
and XVIth Centuries, especially in the eastern parts of 
Prussia, where the Scottish immigration was particularly 
numerous. Care, however, must be exercised in tracing the 
name Schotte back to Scottish ancestors in every case, since 
the German word has various other meanings. There is also 


a small town called Schotten in Hesse. The name Scott occurs 
in Prussia. One Walter Scott is a landowner and Hauptmann 
(captain in the army). His ancestor emigrated towards the 
dose of the XVIth Century from near Edinburgh and settled 
in Pillau. There are now six representatives of the family in 
Eastern Prussia alone, four of them landowners. 

The Piersons, who are settled in Berlin and Karlsruhe, trace 
their origin to one James Pierson of Balmadies, who went to 
Riga towards the end of the XVIIIth Century. (See Familien 
Chronik der Piersons, privately printed.) 

The family von Mietzel in Brandenburg derive their name 
from Mitchel; the von Marshalls from the Earl Marschal. 
They settled in Konigsberg in the XVIIth Century. One 
Samuel Marschall, a Privy Counsellor and Domdechant at 
Havelberg, was ennobled in 1718. {M'drkisches Adels Lexicon?) 


Aarau, 180. 

Abbots of Ratisbon, 289. 

Aberdeen, 6, 8, 11, 13, 18, 21 f., 28, 229, 

243, 268. 
Abernethy, John of, 5 n. 
Achaius, King, 297 n. 1. 
Agnew, Sir A., 120. 
Agricola, J., 307. 
Aidie, A., 231 n. 
Aikenhead, P., 64. 
Alesius, 165 ff., 307. 
Anclam, 22. 
An crofts, 24. 
Anderson, G., 226 f., 274. 
Andrew, a ship, 24. 
Angus, Earl of, 16. 
Arbuthnot, Abbot, 149 f., 300. 
Armour, importation of, 9. 
Arnisseus, 229. 
Asloan, Prior, 160, 219. 
Assembly, General (1587), 187. 
Auchinvale, G., 228. 
Augsburg, 84, 107 n., 227. 


Bacharach, taking of, 83 n. 

Baillie, Abbot, 146, 219. 

Balon, A., 5. 

Baner, General, 87, 107. 

Bathory, St, 28. 72. 

Bavaria, William, Duke of, 298. 

Baysen ,11. 

Beer, importation of, 5, 11 f., 23. 

Belgrade, 119, 131. 

Belleken, 5. 

Berclay, D., 70. 

Bergschotten, die, 129. 

Bergen, 9 f. 

Bernadotte, 151. 

Bernhard, Duke of Weimar, 87, 93, 146, 

Berwick-on-Tweed, 6, 8. 
Bingen, taking of, 83 n. 
Birthbrieves of Aberdeen, 243 f. 

,, of Dundee, 247 f. 

„ 60. 

Bobbert, C. v., 19. 

Bohemia, King of, 75 f. 
Bonars, 58. 
Boucicault, 71 f. 
Braemar, 254. 
Brahe, Tycho, 222. 
Brandenburg, 50, 167. 

„ Elector of, 73, 181. 

,, Markgraf of, 36. 

„ Neu-, 79. 

Braunsberg (Silesia), 57, 298. 
Bremen, 7, 8, 20, 242. 
Breslau, 31 n., 36, 241. 
Brock ie, 219. 
Bromberg, 35, 264 
Brown, J., minister at Danzig, 18 

„ W.,63. 
Bruges, 3 n., 9, 14. 
Bucquoi, 77. 
Burnet, A., 89. 

Calvin, 169. 

Calvino-Lutheran Feud, 174 f. 

Campbell, T., the poet, 150. 

Carleton, 33. 

Carmichael in Krakau, 48. 

Carmichael, Sir Thomas Gibson, 274 n. 

Caroline, Queen of Denmark, 214. 

Cecil, Sir E., 72. 

Chamberlain, 33. 

Charies 1, 40. 

„ II, 40, 309 f. 

,, V, the Emperor, 75. 
Chaucer, 70. 

Christina, Queen of Sweden, 179. 
Clifford, 71. 
Cloch, B., 21. 
Cloth, Scottish, 1 5. 
Coal, early export of, 21. 
Cochlaeus, 166. 

Cochrane, Sir John, 47 f. , 202 f. 
Coleman, Col., 128 n. 
Collen, J., 13. 
Comenius, 179. 

Commerce with Scotland stopped, 13. 
Constance, 141, 144. 
Constitution of the Scottish merchants, 

39 f. 
Conway, General, 213. 
Cook, Abbot, 160. 


3 2 ° 


Cox, Dr, 170. 

Craig, J., 220. 

Cramers, Polish-Scottish, 23, 258. 

Craw, Francis, 33 n. 

,, letters of, 250 ff. 
Crawford, John, Earl of, 119 f. 

„ Lord James, 120 n., 278 f. 

Crichton, Lord W., 11. 

„ W., 227. 
Croffts, Lord, 204. 
Cromwell, 49, 180. 
Culross, Abbey of, 29 n. 
Cupar. 8. 

Curland, Duke of, 203. 
Cutlerguild of Krakow, 36. 


Dalgetty, Dugald, 75. 
Dalkeith, Lord, 16. 

Danzig (Danskin, Daniskin, etc.), 5 f., 
8f.,iof.,i7f., 19,23 f., 30^,48,53^, 
71, 187 f. 
Daun, Field-Marshal, 131. 
Davidson, bequest of, 64. 

,, P., Professor, 169 n. 

Denmark, King of, 17, 77. 
Dennis, A., rrinister at Tilsit, 193. 
Derby, Earl of, 70. 
Dettingen, battle of, 120. 
Dewitz, 226. 
Dillenburg, 10 1. 
Dirschau, 107. 
Dixon, 49. 
Donauworth, 84. 
Douglas, Earl, 16, 23. 

„ Sir G., 97. 

,, „ Robt., 112. 

„ Jas. , of Dalkeith, 72. 

„ Lord William, 70 f., 275 f. 

,, Graf, in Baden, 112 n. 

„ Field-Marshal, 1 12. 

„ G., a clergyman, 226. 
Drummond, Jac, 59. 

„ Col., 125, 128. 

,, Lord John, 118. 

Duff, Abbot Augustine, 161. 

„ Ths., 219. 
Dumfries, 23. 

Dundee, 8, 12, 19. 22 ff., 171, 247, 241. 
Durie, John, 174 ff. 
Dziaksen (Jackson), 196. 

Eastland Merchants, 18 f. 

Edinburgh, iof.,13, 16, 20, 165,238,241. 

Edward I, 8. 

Edward II, 8. 

Edmond, Col., 77. 

Eger, 113. 

Ehrenbreitstein, 97. 

Elbing, 8. 14, 18 n., 52 f., 175, 228. 

Emden, 18, 26, 28, 171. 

Emigration to Germany prohibited, 31. 

Erfurt, 153 f. 

,, Scottish Professors at, 218 f. 

,, Abbots of the Scottish Monastery 

at, 301. 
Erlichhausen, von, 12. 
Ermeland, Scots in, 57. 
Erskine, Alex., 201 f., 318, tomb of, 310. 
Etheridge, the dramatist, 290 n. 
Eugen, Prince, 118. 

Factors in Scotland, 9 
Famine in Scotland, 31. 
Faulconer, W., 5 n. 
Fergusson, 49. 
Fergusson-Tepper, 59. 
Fidelis, 167- 169. 
Finlayson, Captain, 90. 
Fleming, Abbot, 149 f. 
Flensburg, 28. 
Flour, importation of, 5, 10. 
Forbes, 54 f., 63, 
Forbes, Sir A., 89. 

Frankfurt-on-the-Main,8i n., 97 n., 169. 

Frankfurt-on-the-Oder, 79, 167, 169,229. 

,, ,, Scottish Students 

at, 3*3- 

Frasers, 59. 

Frederick the Great, 58, 121 ff., 206 f. 

271, 274, 288. 
Friesland, 18. 
Frisians, the, 5. 
Frith, 165. 
Fugger, 107 n., 227. 

Gaudy, Scottish officers in Prussia, li 
Geddes, Placidus, 163. 
Gellert, the poet, 209. 
Geneva, 169. 
Gibson, 58, 270 f. 

,, General, 129 n. 
Glasgow, 9 f. , 16, 23, 26 n. 
Glass, importation of, 29. 
Glenluce, 29 n. 
Gneisenau, General, 273. 
Godeman, 175 f. 
Gordon, Sir Charles, 133. 

,, Father Andr., 218. 

,, (Gorton), Gregoire de, 8. 



Gordon, Col. J. 113 

,, Marianus, 162. 

,, Nathaniel, 58. 

,, Patrick, 33, 255. 

,, Robert, 60. 

,, Steelhand, 118 n. 
Graham, Col., 118 n. 
Grain, importation of, 24 f. 
Gral, Hermann, 9. 
Grant, Bernhard, 249. 

„ Major, 128, 287. 
Greifswald, 8, 17, 18 n., 22. 

,, Scottish Students at, 313. 

Grey, Sir A., 77. 
Grotius, Hugo, 307. 
Gunn, Sir W., 112. 

„ Col. J., 316. 
Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, 

73 f., 82 f., 175. 
Gustavus Adolphus, letters of, 280 f. 


Haig, Brothers, 77. 

Haliburton, W., 13. 

Halyburton, A., 24 n. 

Halle, 79 ff. 

Hamburg, 3, 6, 8, 15, 17, 11, 28, 202 f. 

Hamilton, Sir A., 109 f. 

„ Sir Fred., 89. 

„ Sir J., 81. 

,, Marquis of, 85, 104, 108 f., 

,, Placidus, 159 f. 

„ Patrick, 163 f. 

,, Col., 118 n. 
Hanau, Count of, 93. 
„ Siege of, 93 f. 
Hansetowns, 11, 13. 
Harfleur, 5. 
Harris, Sir J., 208. 
Heidelberg, 87, 220, 311, 314. 
Helmstadt, Scottish students at, 313. 
Henry IV, 4. 
Henryson, 227. 
Hepburn, 75, 76 ff., 82 f. 
Hervie, D., 227. 

Hesse-Darmstadt, Landgraf of, 95. 
Hesse-Cassel, Landgraf of, 96. 

,, Landgravine of, 184. 

Highlanders, praise of the, 74, 129. 
Hirsch, Dr Theo. , 6 n., 10 n. 
Hoe von Hohenegg, 177. 
Hyndford, Lord, 205. 


Ian, Clan, 29. 

Ilmenau in Thuringia, 80 n. 

Independence, Scottish, lost, 30. 

Ingram, B. , 230. 

Intrigues, Jacobite, at Ratisbon, 149. 

Inverness, 8. 

Irish monks, 137 f. 

Jablonski, 179. 

Jackson (Dziaksen), 196. 

James I, 11. 

„ 11,7,11,229. 

„ IV, 17, 244. 

„ V, 22. 

„ VI, 27, 31, 33, 242. 
Jerichow, 226. 
Jerre, Claus, 11. 
Jews, 32, 35, 38 f., 55. 
Johnston, A., 230, 311. 

,, J., 222 f., 311 f. 
Jonas, the Grite, 27. 
Jiilich War, 73. 
Jungingen, von, 4. 
Jurski, P. A., 192. 


Kabruhn (Cockburn), 60 ff., 269. 
Kant, 12. 

,, Balzer, 231 f. 

,, Hans, 231, 312, 317. 

,, Immanuel, 231. 

,, Richard, 232. 
Kaunitz, Chancellor, 131. 
Keith, Earl Marshal, 120 f. 

,, Field-Marshal, 120 ff. 

,, the Pages, 127. 

,, Sir Robert Murray, 127, 211 f. 
Kerr, John, Captain, 90. 
Kilchberg, 107. 
Kilekanne, 6, 13, 239. 
King, General, 99. 
Kirkcaldy, 29. 
Knape, 21. 
Kneiphovia, 29. 
Knox, J., 169 ff. 
Kollin, battle of, 126. 
Konigsberg (Queenisbrig). 8, 19, 29, 31, 

188, 190, 192, 229 f., 261. 
Krakau, 31, 38, 49. 

,, Scots in, 256. 
Kramerguild, 36. 
Kreuznach, taking of, 83 n. 
Kriegsspiel, 127. 
Krone, Deutsch-, Scots in, 55. 
Krotska, battle of, 119. 
Kunersdorf, battle of. 131. 



Lamb de Aberton, 229. 

Lamboy, General, 94 f. 

Lamont, J., 234. 

Landsberg, 74. 

Lappenberg, 3. 

Laud, Archbishop, 178. 

Lauder, James, 12. 

Leach, A., 231 n. 

Lead, importation of, 29. 

Leipzig, battle of (1631), 79 f. 

,, Church Conference at, 177. 
Leith, 8, 13, 29, 31. 
Leith, Gallus, Father, 149. 
Leopold, Emperor, 116. 
Leslie, General A., 78, 96, 103 f. 

,, Boniface, 219. 

,, Bishop, 143. 

,, Counts in Austria, 116. 

,, Sir David, 118 n. 

,, Colonel Robert, 89. 

,, Walter, General, 113 f. 
Lesselyn, Walter and Norman de, 70. 
Letzke or Lentzke, 6. 
Levies in Scotland in 1626, 91. 
„ „ 1637,90. 

Liddell, D., 220 f. 
Lieger or Factors, 9. 
Liechtenstein, Princess of, 116. 
Liegnitz, 169. 
Lindsay, Col., 79. 
„ W., 59. 
Lint, importation of, 25 f. 
Lisle, Admiral, 23. 
Lithgow, W., 32. 
Loudon, General, 126, 130 f. 
Louis XIII, 88. 
Lublin, 32, 37. 
Liibeck, city of, 3, 7, 8, 15, 17, 19, 21, 

Ludwig I, King of Bavaria, 153. 
Luneburg, Hanse Diet of (1412), 13. 
Lumsden, Col., 77. 

„ The brothers, 112 n. 
„ Sir J., in. 
Luther, Martin, 137 n., 163 f. 
Ly-by-the-fire, ship, 24. 
Lyon, Archibald, 23. 


Macalpine, 167, 169. 
Macarius, Abbot, 159. 
Macdonnell, Father, 149. 
Mackay, Col., 74 f. 

,, see Lord Reay. 
Macleod, Lord John, 128. 
Mainz (Mayence), 82 f. 
Malmo, peace of, 18, 21. 

Mar, Earl of, J, 13. 

Marbach, 137 n. 

Marburg, 164, 305. 

March, Earl of, 7. 

March, Scotch, 80 n. 

Maria, Theresa, 211. 

Marianus Scotus, 139. 

Marienberg, capture of the, 81. 

Marischal College, 63 f. 

Marlborough, 118. 

Marshall, Gen., 126. 

Marschall, von, 318. 

Mary, Queen, of Scotland, 7, 19, 20 f. , 

242, 296. 
Maximillian, Emperor, 17. 
Maxwell, Gabriel, letter of, 250. 
Mayor, J., 58. 
Mecklenburg, 21, 50. 
Melanchthon, 168, 307. 
Melvin, Col., 118 n. 
Memel, town of, 51 f., 192, 231, 262. 
Memmingen, 140. 
Menzies, G., 24. 
Mercatores aulici, 49, 256 f. 
Middleton, General, 204. 
Mietzel, v., 318. 
Mitchell, Sir A., 206 fF. 
Monasteries, Scottish, in Germany, 140 fF. 
Montrose, 20, 26 n., 29. 
Montrose, Duke of, 205. 
Morison, G., 23. 
Motherby, George, 225. 
„ Robert, 225. 

,, William, 230. 

Munich, taken, 84 f. 
Munro, Col., 76, 83 f. 

,, Col Robert, at Ulm, 92, 283 f. 

,, Col. of Obstell, 89. 
Murray, A., 227. 
Muttray, 51. 


Napier, Admiral Sir A., 6, 13, 239. 
Napoleon, 151. 
Nassau, Graf von, 100. 
Neisse, fortress of, 287. 
Moah's Ark, ship, 19. 
Nordlingen, battle of, 93, 115, 178. 
Niirnberg, battle, 85. 
,, 114, 140. 

Officers, the principal Scottish, under 

Gustavus Adolfus, 282 f. 
Ogilvie, 51, 58, 192. 

,, Father, 81, 159 f. 

,, Skipper, 27. 
Ogilvies, Generals, 130, 316. 



Oldenburg, Countess of, 21. 

Oppenheim, siege of, 82. 

Orem, 49. 

Orkney, Earl of, 27, 119. 

Orkney, islands, 16, 20. 

Osnabriick, 106. 

Osten, Tideman v., 6. 

Ostrowski, 56. 

Oxenstierna, Chancellor, 94, 106, 176 f. 

Papistical goods, 28. 

Parma, Margaret of, 18. 

Pedlars, Scotch-Polish, 24, 31, 34. 

Peebles, 23. 

Perth, 8, 9. 

Peterwardein, fortress of, 119. 

Philippus, Abbot, 159. 

Pilgrims, Scottish, 37 n., 117, 241. 

Pirates, Frisian, 5. 

,, French, 10, 20, 22. 

„ Scottish, 4, 5 f. 
Plague, the, 18 f. 
Plau (in Mecklenburg), 50. 
Poland, 23, 30 ff., 223, etc. 
Polseyne, 16. 
Pomerania, 50. 

„ Dukes of, 22. 

Porteous in Krosna, 60. 
Posen, Scots in, 54 f. 
Prague, treaty of, 106. 
Primogeniture, 31. 
Prussia, 11 f., 14, 36 f., 51. 
Prussia, Frederick William HI, King of, 

Public Library, first in Scotland, 229. 
Putzig, Scots in, 56 f. 

,, Trial at, 195 f. 

Queenisbrig, see Konigsberg. 


Ramsay, Alex. Col., 83 n. 

,, Ch. A.,233, 

,, Sir James, 81, 90 ff., 285 f. 
Lady Isabella, 102 f. 
Ratisbon, Scottish Monastery at, 138 ff 
Reay, Lord, 76 f., 91, 108, 280 f. 
Reformation in Scotland, two Periods of 

the, 169. 
Reid, Th., 229. 
Rentoun, Capt., 28. 
Restrictions of trade, 14 f. 
Richelieu, Cardinal 89 n. 

Robertson, R., Father, 151 f. 
Rodan, Nic. , 9. 
Roe, Sir Ths., 176 f. 
Romana, General, 151 f. 
Ross, 12. 

,, Bishop, 185. 
Rostock, 5, 6, 8, 11, 229. 

,, Scottish students at, 313. 
Rousseau, 122 n. 
Rowe, General, 119. 
Royal Merchants in Krakau, 49. 
Rudolf II, Emperor of Germany, 296. 
Riigen, island of, 78. 
Ruthven, Sir P., 87, 92, 107. 
Rye, importation of, 12. 

St Andrews, 8, 10, 165, 223. 

St Cuthbert's geese, 16. 

St Martin, 20. 

St Ninian's Church, 24. 

Salt, importation of, 5. 

Scheele, 17. 

Schieffelbein, town of, 78 f. 

Schiller, 83, 113, 137 n. 

Schole, H. , 6. 

Schonau, 12. 

Schott, the name, in Germany, 317 f. 

Schottenstrassen, 3 a, 18 n. 

Schottland, Alt and Neu, 18 n. 

Scotch Benedictines at Ratisbon, 138 ff. 

,, Body Guard in France, 69. 

,, Church at Danzig, 189 f. 

,, ,, at Konigsberg, 190 f. 

,, Regiments under Marlborough, 

118 f. 
Scotland, trade of, with Germany 3-31. 
Scottish Debtors, 238 f. 
Scots, the, driven out of Danzig, 49. 
Scott, Michael, 217. 

,, Walter, 75. 
Scottendyk, 3. 
Scotus, Duns, 216. 
Scrymgeour, H., 227. 
Seaton, Sir John, 16. 

„ Col., 103. 
Shipping list of Dundee, 25 f. 
Sigismund, Augustus, King of Poland, 

Simpsons at Memel, 192. 
Skene, Sir J., 33. 

,, Baron v., 58. 
Skins exported, 6, 29. 
Smart, David, 28. 
Soap, importation of, 23. 
Spalding, 50, 315 f. 
Spence, Sir J., 91 n. 
Spielberg, the, 318. 
Stalker, Th., 27. 

3 2 4 


Stair, Earl of, 120 n. 

Stephen, King, 49. 

Stercovius, 255. 

Stettin, 106. 

Stirling, town of, 11. 

Stirling, D., 227. 

Stralsund (Trailsound), 4, 6, 8, 11, 14 f., 

22, 104 f. 
Stockings, exportation of, 29. 
Stuart, Maurus, 148 f. 

,, Sir Robt., 72, 98. 
Succession, Wars of, 118. 
Suhl, in Thuringia, no. 
Supplication of the Scots, 38, 265 f. 
Swedes, the, 17. 
Sweden, 48 f. 


Tanglunen, see Anclam. 

Taxes imposed on the Scots, 35, 47 f. 

Telchten, 10. 

Teutonic Order, the, 4, 4 n., 10, 14, 70. 

Thirty Years' War, 70 f. 

Thomson, J. W., 226. 

Thor, Adam, 9. 

Thorn, 39. 

Thuringian Forest, march through the, 

Tilsit, Reformed Church at, 193. 

,, School at, 226. 

,, 231, 262 f. 
Timber, importation of, 9. 
Todt, General, 90. 
Tolerantia ecclesiastica, 181. 
Toscana, Grand Duke of, 27. 
Tournaments, horses for, 22. 
Trailsound, see Stralsund. 
Trenck, Baron, 131. 
Terzka, 114 f. 
Tuke, 12. 
Turenne, 88. 
Turner, John, 60. 

,, Sir J., 76, no f. 
Tyndale, 114. 

Ulm, 112. 

Ulric Church at Halle, 80. 
Ulrich, Duke, 21. 
Ussher, Archbishop, 178. 

Valette, La, 88, 89 n. 
Vane, Sir Henry, 109. 
Vechnerus, 225. 
Veusan, Gercke, 10. 

Victuals, importation of, 6, 9, 24, 27. 
Vrese, 9. 


Wainscot, importation of, 10. 
Walde, von dem, n. 
Wallace, W., 3. 

Wallenstein, 113; death of, 114. 
Wallis, General, 130. 
Walmoden, General, 134 n. 
War, between England and Scotland, 4. 
,, ,, Hansetowns and Den- 

mark, 17. 
Warburg, 129. 
War-engines imported, 9. 
Warsaw, Scots in, 256 f. 
Waus, Sir P., 27. 
Wax, importation of, 6. 
Wedderburne, 24. 

,, John, 171 f. ; his hymns, 

Weimar, see Bernhard, Duke of. 
Wellington, 151. 
Werth, General von, 97. 
Westminster, Synod of, 180. 
Wheat, importation of, 10. 
White, Abbot, 146. 
Wied, H. von, 166 n. 
William the Lion, 7. 
Willock, J., 171. 

Winzet, Ninian, 143 f., 297 f. , 300. 
Winter, Major, 100. 
Wishart, 169. 
Wismar, 8, n, 21, 50. 
Witte, 5 n. 

Wittenberg, 164 ff., 305. 
Wittgenstein, Graf von, 102. 
Wittstock, 106. 
Wood, importation of, n, 23. 
Wool, Scottish, 6, 29 n. 
Worbosse, 17. 
Worms, 167. 
Wiirzburg, Scottish Monastery at,i 55 f. , 

,, list of Scottish Abbots at, 

,, list of Scottish Monks at, 

302 f. 

Young, A., 39. 

Zabern, 88 
Zegebad, n. 

Tnrnbull <5r» Spears, Printers, Edinburgh. 

University of